Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Antiviral prophylaxis for the prevention of chronic hepatitis C virus in patients undergoing liver transplantation

  1. Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy1,*,
  2. Emmanuel Tsochatzis2,
  3. Clare D Toon3,
  4. Brian R Davidson1,
  5. Andrew K Burroughs4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group

Published Online: 2 DEC 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006573.pub3


How to Cite

Gurusamy KS, Tsochatzis E, Toon CD, Davidson BR, Burroughs AK. Antiviral prophylaxis for the prevention of chronic hepatitis C virus in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006573. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006573.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Department of Surgery, London, UK

  2. 2

    Royal Free Hampstead NHS Foundation Trust and UCL Institute of Liver and Digestive Health, Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, London, UK

  3. 3

    West Sussex County Council, Public Health, Chichester, West Sussex, UK

  4. 4

    Royal Free Hampstead NHS Foundation Trust, Sheila Sherlock Liver Centre, London, UK

*Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Department of Surgery, Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital,, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK. kurinchi2k@hotmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 2 DEC 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Belli 2001 {published data only}
  • Belli LS, Alberti AB, Rondinara GF, de Carlis L, Corti A, Mazza E, et al. Early ribavirin treatment and avoidance of corticosteroids in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive liver transplant recipients: interim report of a prospective randomized trial. Transplantation Proceedings 2001; Vol. 33, issue 1-2:1353-4.
Chalasani 2005 {published data only}
  • Alpert E, Levy GA, Marotta P, Deschenes M, Yoshida E, Peck-Radosavljevic M, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a for hepatitis C after liver transplantation: two randomized, controlled trials (vol 41, pg 289, 2004). Hepatology 2005;42(2):506.
  • Chalasani N, Manzarbeitia C, Ferenci P, Vogel W, Fontana RJ, Voigt M, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a for hepatitis C after liver transplantation: two randomized, controlled trials. Hepatology 2005;41(2):289-98.
  • Manzarbeitia C, Tepermann L, Chalasani N, Sheiner P, Wiesner R, Marks IM, et al. 40 KDA peginterferon alfa-2a (PEGASYS) as a prophylaxis against hepatitis C infection recurrence after liver transplantation (LT): preliminary results of a randomized multicenter trial (abstract). Hepatology 2001;34(4 Pt 2):406A.
  • Vogel W, Ferenci P, Fontana R, Arbor A, Saab S, LaBrecque D, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2A (40 kd) (PEGASYS) in liver transplant recipients with established recurrent hepatitis C: interim results of an ongoing randomized multicenter trial [abstract]. Hepatology 2002;36(4 Pt 2):312A.
Charlton 2007 {published data only}
  • Bzowej N, Nelson DR, Terrault NA, Everson GT, Teng LL, Prabhakar A, et al. PHOENIX: a randomized controlled trial of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin as a prophylactic treatment after liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus. Liver Transplantation 2011;17(5):528-38.
  • Bzowej N, Nelson DR, Terrault NA, Everson GT, Teng LL, Prabhakar A, et al. Phoenix: a randomized controlled trial of peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin prophylactic treatment after liver transplant for hepatitis C. Liver Transplantation 2010;16(Suppl 1):S118.
  • Bzowej NH, Nelson D, Terrault N, Everson GT, Teng LL, Prabhakar A, et al. A randomized controlled trial of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of prophylactic treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatitis C: The PHOENIX Study. Hepatology 2009;50(4 Suppl):547a.
  • Bzowej NH, Nelson D, Thommes JA, Hamzeh FM, Charlton M. A randomized controlled trial of prophylactically administered peginterferon alfa-2A plus ribavirin vs no prophylaxis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatitis C: a report of initial safety and tolerability. Hepatology 2006; Vol. 44, issue 4 Suppl 1:188A.
  • Charlton MR, Bzowej N, Rossi S, Nelson DR. Prophylactic peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin vs no prophylaxis following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatitis C: 24-week virologic and safety responses. Hepatology 2007;46(4 Suppl 1):244a.
Chung 2013 {published data only}
Davis 2005 {published data only}
Mazzaferro 2003 {published data only}
  • Mazzaferro V, Schiavo M, Caccamo L, Tagger A, Morabito A, Lavezzo B, et al. Prospective randomized trial on early treatment of HCV infection after liver transplantation in HCV-RNA positive patients. Liver Transplantation 2003;9(6):C36.
Reddy 2002 {published data only}
  • Reddy R, Fried M, Dickson R, Martin P, Schiff E, Torres M, et al. Interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin vs. placebo as early treatment in patients transplanted for hepatitis C end-stage liver disease: results of a multicenter, randomized trial. Gastroenterology 2002;122(4 Suppl 1):A632.
Schiano 2006 {published data only}
Sheiner 1998 {published data only}
  • Sheiner PA, Boros P, Klion FM, Thung SN, Schluger LK, Lau JYN, et al. The efficacy of prophylactic interferon alfa-2b in preventing recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Hepatology 1998;28(3):831-8.
  • Sheiner PA, Boros P, Thung SN, Klion FM, Emre S, Guy SR, et al. Prophylactic interferon-alpha2b reduces the incidence of recurrent hepatitis after liver transplantation for hepatitis C. 16th Annual Meeting of American Society of Transplant Physicians (ASTP). 1997:262.
Shergill 2005 {published data only}
  • Shergill AK, Khalili M, Straley S, Bollinger K, Roberts JP, Ascher NA, et al. Applicability, tolerability and efficacy of preemptive antiviral therapy in hepatitis C-infected patients undergoing liver transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation 2005;5(1):118-24.
  • Terrault NA, Khalili M, Straley S, Bollinger K, Bass N, Roberts JP, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of preemptive interferon (IFN) versus IFN plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected liver transplant recipients [AASLD abstract]. Hepatology 2003;38(4 Suppl 1):158a-9a.
Singh 1998 {published data only}
  • Singh N, Gayowski T, Wannstedt CF, Shakil AO, Wagener MM, Fung JJ, et al. Interferon-alpha for prophylaxis of recurrent viral hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Transplantation 1998; Vol. 65, issue 1:82-6.
Willems 2002 {published data only}
  • Willems B, Ede M, Marotta P, Wall W, Greig P, Lilly L, et al. Anti-HCV human immunoglobulins for the prevention of graft infection in HCV-related liver transplantation, a pilot study [abstract]. Journal of Hepatology 2002;36(Suppl 1):32.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Beckebaum 2003 {published data only}
  • Beckebaum S, Cicinnati VR, Karliova M, Dirsch O, Erim Y, Frilling A, et al. Daily interferon alpha-2B and ribavirin combination therapy for liver transplant patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. Transplantation Proceedings 2003;35(6):2080-1.
Boillot 1995 {published data only}
  • Boillot O, Berger F, Rasolofo E, Mion F, Chevallier P, Gille D, et al. Effects of early interferon alfa therapy for hepatitis C virus infection recurrence after liver transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 1995; Vol. 27, issue 4:2501.
Casanovas 2004 {published data only}
  • Casanovas TT, Casais ALA, Samuel D, Bizollon T, Trepo C. Chronic hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a randomized study (5) (multiple letters). Gastroenterology 2004;126(1):373-4.
Castedal 2003 {published data only}
  • Castedal M, Siewert DA, Olausson M, Friman S. Combination therapy of interferon alpha-2B and ribavirin for recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings 2003;35(2):820-1.
Catalano 2003 {published data only}
  • Catalano G, Urbani L, Oliveri F, Iaria G, Biancofiore G, Mosca F, et al. Recurrence of hepatitis C in liver transplants from elderly donors aged more than 75 years. Transplantation Proceedings 2003;35(3):1034.
Ceccherini 2003 {published data only}
  • Ceccherini NL, Giannotti A, Malizia T, Ciccorossi P, Olivieri F, Vanni M, et al. Recurrence of HCV infection in liver transplant patients: evaluation of IgM anti-HCV and IgM anti-CMV. Transplantation Proceedings 2003;35(3):1030-1.
Charlton 2002 {published data only}
Everson 2013 {published data only}
  • Everson GT, Terrault N, Lok AS, Brown RS, Saab S, Shiffman ML, et al. Interim analysis of a controlled trial of pre-transplant peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin (PEG/RBV) to prevent recurrent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection after liver transplantation (LT) in the adult-to-adult liver transplantation (A2ALL) Study. Hepatology 2009;50(4 Suppl):302a.
  • Everson GT,  Terrault NA,  Lok AS,  Rodrigo del R,  Brown RS Jr,  Saab S,  et al. A randomized controlled trial of pretransplant antiviral therapy to prevent recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Hepatology 2013;57(5):1752-62.
Garcia-Retortillo 2004 {published data only}
Mazzaferro 1997 {published data only}
  • Mazzaferro V, Regalia E, Pulvirenti A, Tagger A, Andreola S, Pasquali M, et al. Prophylaxis against HCV recurrence after liver transplantation: effect of interferon and ribavirin combination. Transplantation Proceedings 1997;29(1-2):519-21.
Roche 2011 {published data only}
Samuel 2004a {published data only}
Samuel 2004b {published data only}
  • Samuel D, Bizollon T, Trepo C. Chronic hepatitis C after liver transplantation: a randomized study - reply. Gastroenterology 2004; Vol. 126, issue 1:373-4.
Taltavull 2004 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Afdhal 2004
  • Afdhal NH, Dieterich DT, Pockros PJ, Schiff ER, Shiffman ML, Sulkowski MS, et al. Epoetin alfa maintains ribavirin dose in HCV-infected patients: a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Gastroenterology 2004;126(5):1302-11.
Berenguer 2003
Bombuy 2004
  • Bombuy E, Fondevila C, Rodriguez-Laiz G, Ferrer J, Amador A, Valentini M, et al. Ischemic preconditioning in adult living donor liver transplantation, a pilot study [EASL abstract]. Journal of Hepatology 2004;40(Suppl 1):39.
Brok 2008
  • Brok J, Thorlund K, Gluud C, Wetterslev J. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2008;61:763-9.
Brok 2009
  • Brok J, Thorlund K, Wetterslev J, Gluud C. Apparently conclusive meta-analyses may be inconclusive - Trial sequential analysis adjustment of random error risk due to repetitive testing of accumulating data in apparently conclusive neonatal meta-analyses. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;38(1):287-98.
Brok 2010
Cameron 2006
  • Cameron AM, Ghobrial RM, Hiatt JR, Carmody IC, Gordon SA, Farmer DG, et al. Effect of nonviral factors on hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation. Annals of Surgery 2006;244(4):563-71.
Cescon 2006
Corno 2006
CTU 2011
  • Copenhagen Trial Unit. TSA - Trial Sequential Analysis, 2011. ctu.dk/tsa/ (accessed 25 November 2013).
DeMets 1987
DerSimonian 1986
Dieterich 2003
  • Dieterich DT, Wasserman R, Brau N, Hassanein TI, Bini EJ, Bowers PJ, et al. Once-weekly epoetin alfa improves anemia and facilitates maintenance of ribavirin dosing in hepatitis C virus-infected patients receiving ribavirin plus interferon alfa. American Journal of Gastroenterology 2003;98(11):2491-9.
Eason 2001
Egger 1997
Forman 2002
  • Forman LM, Lewis JD, Berlin JA, Feldman HI, Lucey MR. The association between hepatitis C infection and survival after orthotopic liver transplantation. Gastroenterology 2002;122(4):889-96.
Ghobrial 1999
  • Ghobrial RM, Farmer DG, Baquerizo A, Colquhoun S, Rosen HR, Yersiz H, et al. Orthotopic liver transplantation for hepatitis C: outcome, effect of immunosuppression, and causes of retransplantation during an 8-year single-center experience. Annals of Surgery 1999;229(6):824-31; discussion 831-3.
Gluud 2007
Gluud 2013
  • Gluud C, Nikolova D, Klingenberg SL, Alexakis N, Als-Nielsen B, Colli A, et al. Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group. About The Cochrane Collaboration (Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs)). 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: LIVER.
Gurusamy 2009
Gurusamy 2013
  • Gurusamy KS, Wilson E, Koretz RL, Allen VB, Davidson BR, Burroughs AK, et al. Is sustained virological response a marker of treatment efficacy in patients with chronic hepatitis C viral infection with no response or relapse to previous antiviral intervention?. PLoS One 2013;in press.
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
ICH-GCP 1997
  • International Conference on Harmonisation Expert Working Group. International conference on harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use. ICH harmonised tripartite guideline. Guideline for good clinical practice CFR & ICH Guidelines. Vol. 1, PA 19063-2043, USA: Barnett International/PAREXEL, 1997.
Jain 2002
Kamath 2001
Kjaergard 2001
Koneru 2005
Lim 2006
  • Lim SG, Wai CT, Da Costa M, Sutedja DS, Lee YM, Lee KH, et al. Referral patterns and waiting times for liver transplantation in Singapore. Singapore Medical Journal 2006;47(7):599-603.
Lundh 2012
Macaskill 2001
Moher 1998
  • Moher D, Pham B, Jones A, Cook DJ, Jadad AR, Moher M, et al. Does quality of reports of randomised trials affect estimates of intervention efficacy reported in meta-analyses?. Lancet 1998;352(9128):609-13.
Newell 1992
NHS UK Transplant
  • NHS UK Transplant - activity report 2011-2012. www.organdonation.nhs.uk/statistics/transplant_activity_report/current_activity_reports/ukt/liver_activity.pdf (accessed 25 November 2013).
OPTN/SRTR 2005
  • The Organ Procurement and Transplant Network/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients 2009 annual report. www.ustransplant.org/annual_reports/current/905_li.pdf (accessed 25 November 2013).
Parmar 1998
RevMan 2012 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.2. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2012.
Royle 2003
  • Royle P, Milne R. Literature searching for randomized controlled trials used in Cochrane reviews: rapid versus exhaustive searches. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 2003;19(4):591-603.
Savovic 2012
  • Savovic J, Jones HE, Altman DG, Harris RJ, Jüni P, Pildal J, et al. Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized, controlled trials. Health Technology Assessment 2012;16(35):1-82.
Savovic 2012a
  • Savovic J, Jones HE, Altman DG, Harris RJ, Jüni P, Pildal J, et al. Influence of reported study design characteristics on intervention effect estimates from randomized, controlled trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2012;157(6):429-38.
Schulz 1995
  • Schulz KF, Chalmers I, Hayes RJ, Altman DG. Empirical evidence of bias. Dimensions of methodological quality associated with estimates of treatment effects in controlled trials. JAMA 1995;273(5):408-12.
Sharvadze 2006
  • Sharvadze L, Tsertsvadze T, Gochitashvili N, Kakabadze T, Dolmazashvili E. IFN/RBV treatment induced anemia and its correction with epoetin alpha in patients with hepatitis C. Georgian Medical News 2006;137:62-5.
Sharvadze 2007
  • Sharvadze L, Gochitashvili N, Tophuria A, Bolokadze N, Tsertsvadze T. IFN/RBV treatment induced neutropenia and its correction with neupogen in patients with hepatitis C. Georgian Medical News 2007;147:52-5.
Shiffman 2006
Sugo 2003
  • Sugo H, Balderson GA, Crawford DH, Fawcett J, Lynch SV, Strong RW, et al. The influence of viral genotypes and rejection episodes on the recurrence of hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Surgery Today 2003;33(6):421-5.
Thorlund 2009
  • Thorlund K, Devereaux PJ, Wetterslev J, Guyatt G, Ioannidis JP, Thabane L, et al. Can trial sequential monitoring boundaries reduce spurious inferences from meta-analyses. International Journal of Epidemiology 2009;38(1):276-86.
Thorlund 2010
  • Thorlund K, Anema A, Mills E. Interpreting meta-analysis according to the adequacy of sample size. An example using isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis in purified protein derivative negative HIV-infected individuals. Clinical Epidemiology 2010;2:57-66.
Thorlund 2011
  • Thorlund K, Engstrøm J, Wetterslev J, Brok J, Imberger G, Gluud C. User manual for Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA), 2011. ctu.dk/tsa/files/tsa_manual.pdf (accessed 25 November 2013).
Wetterslev 2008
  • Wetterslev J, Thorlund K, Brok J, Gluud C. Trial sequential analysis may establish when firm evidence is reached in cumulative meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2008;61(1):64-75.
Wetterslev 2009
Wood 2008
  • Wood L, Egger M, Gluud LL, Schulz KF, Jüni P, Altman GD, et al. Empirical evidence of bias in treatment effect estimates in controlled trials with different interventions and outcomes: meta-epidemiological study. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.) 2008;336:601-5.
Yilmaz 2007

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Gurusamy 2010