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Intervention Review

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Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

  1. Joseph U Okebe1,
  2. Dafna Yahav2,
  3. Rana Shbita2,
  4. Mical Paul3,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 5 OCT 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 29 JUN 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006589.pub3


How to Cite

Okebe JU, Yahav D, Shbita R, Paul M. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD006589. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006589.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Medical Research Council Unit, Banjul, Gambia

  2. 2

    Beilinson Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Department of Medicine E, Petah Tikva, Israel

  3. 3

    Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Infectious Diseases Unit, Tel Aviv, Israel

*Mical Paul, Infectious Diseases Unit, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 49100, Israel. paulm@post.tau.ac.il. mica@zahav.net.il; MichalP2@clalit.org.il; paulm@post.tau.ac.il.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 5 OCT 2011

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (27 FEB 2016)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Adam 1997 (C) {unpublished data only}
  • Adam C. Iron supplementation and malaria. A randomized placebo-controlled field trial in rural Ethiopia. PhD thesis, London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, London, UK.
Agarwal 2003 {published data only}
  • Agarwal KN, Gomber S, Bisht H, Som M. Anemia prophylaxis in adolescent school girls by weekly or daily iron-folate supplementation. Indian Pediatrics 2003;40(4):296-301.
Aggarwal 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Aggarwal D, Sachdev HPS, Mallika V, Singh T. Iron supplementation in breast fed, full term, low birth weight infants. Cited in: Gera 2002 (Gera T, Sachdev HP. Effect of iron supplementation on incidence of infectious illness in children: systematic review. BMJ 2002;325(7373):1142) 1999. [Gera 2002 (Additional references)]
  • Aggarwal D, Sachdev HPS, Nagpal J, Singh T, Mallika V. Hematological effect of iron supplementation in breast-fed term low birth weight infants. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2005;90(1):26-9.
Aguayo 2000 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Aguayo VM. School-administered weekly iron supplementation - effect on the growth and hemoglobin status of non-anemic Bolivian school-age children. A randomized placebo-controlled trial. European Journal of Nutrition 2000;39(6):263-9.
Akenzua 1985 {published data only}
  • Akenzua GI, Ihongbe JC, Imasuen IW. Haemopoietic response of Nigerian village children to iron, folate supplementation and malaria prophylaxis. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1985;31(1):59-62.
Angeles 1993 {published data only}
  • Angeles IT, Schultink WJ, Matulessi P, Gross R, Sastroamidjojo S. Decreased rate of stunting among anemic Indonesian preschool children through iron supplementation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;58(3):339-42.
Ayoya 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ayoya MA, Spiekermann-Brouwer GM, Traoré AK, Stoltzfus RJ, Habicht JP, Garza C. Multiple micronutrients including iron are not more effective than iron alone for improving hemoglobin and iron status of Malian school children. The Journal of Nutrition 2009;139(10):1972-9.
Baqui 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Baqui AH, Walker CL, Zaman K, El Arifeen S, Chowdhury HR, Wahed MA, et al. Weekly iron supplementation does not block increases in serum zinc due to weekly zinc supplementation in Bangladeshi infants. The Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(9):2187-91.
  • Baqui AH, Zaman K, Persson LA, El Arifeen S, Yunus M, Begum N, et al. Simultaneous weekly supplementation of iron and zinc is associated with lower morbidity due to diarrhea and acute lower respiratory infection in Bangladeshi infants. The Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(12):4150-7.
  • Black MM, Baqui AH, Zaman K, Ake Persson L, El Arifeen S, Le K, et al. Iron and zinc supplementation promote motor development and exploratory behavior among Bangladeshi infants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(4):903-10.
  • Fischer Walker CL, Baqui AH, Ahmed S, Zaman K, El Arifeen S, Begum N, et al. Low-dose weekly supplementation of iron and/or zinc does not affect growth among Bangladeshi infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(1):87-92.
Berger 1997 {published data only}
  • Berger J, Aguayo VM, Tellez W, Lujan C, Traissac P, San Miguel JL. Weekly iron supplementation is as effective as 5 day per week iron supplementation in Bolivian school children living at high altitude. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;51(6):381-6.
Berger 2000 {published data only}
  • Berger J, Dyck JL, Galan P, Aplogan A, Schneider D, Traissac P, et al. Effect of daily iron supplementation on iron status, cell-mediated immunity, and incidence of infections in 6-36 month old Togolese children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;54(1):29-35.
  • Chippaux JP, Schneider D, Aplogan A, Dyck JL, Berger J. Effects of iron supplementation on malaria infection [Effets de la supplementation en fer sur l'infection palustre]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1991;84(1):54-62.
  • Schneider D, Chippaux JP, Aplogan A, Dyck JL, Berger J. Evaluation of the impact of iron treatment. Interference of malaria [Evaluation de l'impact d'un traitement martial. Interference du paludisme.]. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique et de ses Filiales 1995;88(5):260-4.
Berger 2006 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Berger J, Ninh NX, Khan NC, Nhien NV, Lien DK, Trung NQ, et al. Efficacy of combined iron and zinc supplementation on micronutrient status and growth in Vietnamese infants. European Journal of Clincal Nutrition 2006;60(4):443-54.
Bhatia 1993 (C) {published data only}
  • Bhatia D, Seshadri S. Growth performance in anemia and following iron supplementation. Indian Pediatrics 1993;30(2):195-200.
Charoenlarp 1973 {published data only}
  • Charoenlarp P. Effect of iron and folate supplementation on haematocrit levels of school children in a rural area of Central Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1973;4(4):588-92.
Chwang 1988 {published data only}
  • Chwang LC, Soemantri AG, Pollitt E. Iron supplementation and physical growth of rural Indonesian children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;47(3):496-501.
  • Soemantri AG, Pollitt E, Kim I. Iron deficiency anemia and educational achievement. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1985;42(6):1221-8.
de Silva 2003 {published data only}
  • Atukorala S, de Silva A, Ahluwalia N. Evaluation of the iron status of children in the presence of infections: effects of iron supplementation on iron status infection and morbidity. International Nutritional Anaemia Consultative Group Symposium. Hanoi, Vietnam 2001.
  • de Silva A, Atukorala S, Weerasinghe I, Ahluwalia N. Iron supplementation improves iron status and reduces morbidity in children with or without upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled study in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77(1):234-41.
Desai 2003 {published data only}
  • Desai MR, Mei JV, Kariuki SK, Wannemuehler KA, Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen BL, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of daily iron supplementation and intermittent sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for the treatment of mild childhood anemia in western Kenya. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2003;187(4):658-66.
  • Terlouw DJ, Desai MR, Wannemuehler KA, Kariuki SK, Pfeiffer CM, Kager PA, et al. Relation between the response to iron supplementation and sickle cell hemoglobin phenotype in preschool children in western Kenya. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;79(3):466-72.
Devaki 2007 {published data only}
  • Devaki PB, Chandra RK, Geisser P. Effect of oral supplementation with iron(III)-hydroxide polymaltose complex on the immunological profile of adolescents with varying iron status. Arzneimittel-Forschung (Drug Research) 2007;57(6A):417–25.
Dossa 2001a {published data only}
  • Dossa RA, Ategbo EA, de Koning FL, van Raaij JM, Hautvast JG. Impact of iron supplementation and deworming on growth performance in preschool Beninese children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;55(4):223-8.
Dossa 2001b {published data only}
  • Dossa RA, Ategbo EA, Van Raaij JM, de Graaf C, Hautvast JG. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children. The Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(11):2874-9.
Fahmida 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Fahmida U, Rumawas JS, Utomo B, Patmonodewo S, Schultink W. Zinc-iron, but not zinc-alone supplementation, increased linear growth of stunted infants with low haemoglobin. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;16(2):301-9.
Gara 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Gara SN, Madaki AJK, Thacher TD. A comparison of iron and folate with folate alone in hematologic recovery of children treated for acute malaria. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2010;83(4):843-7.
Gebresellassie 1996 {unpublished data only}
  • Gebreselassie H. Iron supplementation and malaria infection: results of a randomized controlled field trial. PhD dissertation. McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 1996.
Gopaldas 1983 {published data only}
  • Gopaldas T, Raghavan R, Kanani S. Nutritional impact of anti-parasitic drugs, prophylactic vitamin A and iron-folic acid on underprivileged school girls in India. Nutrition Research 1983;3:831-44.
Gopaldas 1985 {published data only}
  • Gopaldas T, Kale M. Prophylactic iron supplementation for underprivileged school boys. I. Two levels of dosing and efficacy of teacher-distributions. Indian Pediatrics 1985;22(10):731-6.
  • Gopaldas T, Kale M, Bhardwaj P. Prophylactic iron supplementation for underprivileged school boys. III. Impact on submaximal work capacity. Indian Pediatrics 1985;22(10):745-52.
  • Gopaldas T, Kale T, Bhardwaj P. Prophylactic iron supplementation for underprivileged school boys. II. Impact on selected tests of cognitive function. Indian Pediatrics 1985;22(10):737-43.
Greisen 1986 (C) {published and unpublished data}
Hall 2002 (C) {published and unpublished data}
  • Hall A, Roschnik N, Ouattara F, Touré I, Maiga F, Sacko M, et al. A randomised trial in Mali of the effectiveness of weekly iron supplements given by teachers on the haemoglobin concentrations of schoolchildren. Public Health Nutrition 2002;5(3):413-8.
Harvey 1989 {published data only}
  • Harvey PW, Heywood PF, Nesheim MC, Galme K, Zegans M, Habicht JP, et al. The effect of iron therapy on malarial infection in Papua New Guinean schoolchildren. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1989;40(1):12-8.
Hess 2002 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hess SY, Zimmermann MB, Adou P, Torresani T, Hurrell RF. Treatment of iron deficiency in goitrous children improves the efficacy of iodized salt in Cote d'Ivoire. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75(4):743-8.
Hettiarachchi 2008 (C) {published and unpublished data}
  • Hettiarachchi M, Liyanage C, Wickremasinghe R, Hilmers DC, Abrams SA. The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;62(7):856-65.
Idjradinata 1993 {published data only}
Kapur 2003 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kapur D, Agarwal KN, Sharma S, Kela K, Kaur I. Iron status of children aged 9-36 months in an urban slum integrated child development services project in Delhi. Indian Pediatrics 2002;39(2):136-44.
  • Kapur D, Sharma S, Agarwal KN. Dietary intake and growth pattern of children 9-36 months of age in an urban slum in Delhi. Indian Pediatrics 2005;42(4):351-6.
  • Kapur D, Sharma S, Agarwal KN. Effectiveness of nutrition education, iron supplementation or both on iron status in children. Indian Pediatrics 2003;40(12):1131-44.
Kashyap 1987 {published data only}
  • Kashyap P, Gopaldas T. Hematinic supplementation and hematological status of underprivileged school girls (8-15 years of age). Nutrition Research 1987;7(11):1127-38.
  • Seshadri S, Gopaldas T. Impact of iron supplementation on cognitive functions in preschool and school-aged children: the Indian experience. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50 Suppl 3:675-86.
Kianfar 1999 {published data only}
  • Kianfar H, Kimiagar M, Ghaffarpour M. Effect of daily and intermittent iron supplementation on iron status of high school girls. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 2000;70(4):172-7.
Latham 1990 {published and unpublished data}
  • Latham MC, Stephenson LS, Kinoti SN, Zaman MS, Kurz KM. Improvements in growth following iron supplementation in young Kenyan school children. Nutrition 1990;6(2):159-65.
Lawless 1994 {published data only}
  • Lawless JW, Latham MC, Stephenson LS, Kinoti SN, Pertet AM. Iron supplementation improves appetite and growth in anemic Kenyan primary school children. The Journal of Nutrition 1994;124(5):645-54.
Leenstra 2009 {published data only}
  • Leenstra T, Kariuki SK, Kurtis JD, Oloo AJ, Kager PA, Ter Kuile FO. The effect of weekly iron and vitamin A supplementation on hemoglobin levels and  iron status in adolescent schoolgirls in western Kenya. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(2):173-82.
Lind 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lind T, Lonnerdal B, Stenlund H, Gamayanti IL, Ismail D, Seswandhana R, et al. A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: effects on growth and development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(3):729-36.
  • Lind T, Lönnerdal B, Stenlund H, Ismail D, Seswandhana R, Ekström EC, et al. A community-based randomized controlled trial of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants: interactions between iron and zinc. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;77(4):883-90.
  • Lind T, Seswandhana R, Persson LA, Lonnerdal B. Iron supplementation of iron-replete Indonesian infants is associated with reduced weight-for-age. Acta Paediatrica 2008;97(6):770-5.
Majumdar 2003 {published data only}
Massaga 2003 {published data only}
  • Massaga JJ, Kitua AY, Lemnge MM, Akida JA, Malle LN, Rønn AM, et al. Effect of intermittent treatment with amodiaquine on anaemia and malarial fevers in infants in Tanzania: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361(9372):1853-60.
Mebrahtu 2004 (C) {published data only}
  • Mebrahtu T, Stoltzfus RJ, Chwaya HM, Jape JK, Savioli L, Montresor A, et al. Low-dose daily iron supplementation for 12 months does not increase the prevalence of malarial infection or density of parasites in young Zanzibari children. The Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(11):3037-41.
  • Rice AL, Stoltzfus RJ, Tielsch JM, Savioli L, Montresor A, Albonico M, et al. Iron supplementation and mebendazole treatment do not affect respiratory or diarrhoeal morbidity incidence rates in Tanzanian preschoolers. Cited in: Gera 2002 (Gera T, Sachdev HP. Effect of iron supplementation on incidence of infectious illness in children: systematic review. BMJ 2002;325(7373):1142) 1999. [Gera 2002 (additional references)]
  • Stoltzfus RJ, Chway HM, Montresor A, Tielsch JM, Jape JK, Albonico M, et al. Low dose daily iron supplementation improves iron status and appetite but not anemia, whereas quarterly anthelminthic treatment improves growth, appetite and anemia in Zanzibari preschool children. The Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(2):348-56.
  • Stoltzfus RJ, Kvalsvig JD, Chwaya HM, Montresor A, Albonico M, Tielsch JM, et al. Effects of iron supplementation and anthelmintic treatment on motor and language development of preschool children in Zanzibar: double blind, placebo controlled study. BMJ 2001;323(7326):1389-93.
Mejia 1988 {published data only}
  • Mejia LA, Chew F. Hematological effect of supplementing anemic children with vitamin A alone and in combination with iron. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988;48(3):595-600.
Menendez 1997 {published data only}
  • Beck HP, Felger I, Vounatsou P, Hirt R, Tanner M, Alonso P, et al. Effect of iron supplementation and malaria prophylaxis in infants on Plasmodium falciparum genotypes and multiplicity of infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1999;93 Suppl 1:41-5.
  • Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Hirt R, Vounatsou P, Aponte JJ, Font F, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants. Lancet 1997;350(9081):844-50.
  • Menendez C, Schellenberg D, Quinto L, Kahigwa E, Alvarez L, Aponte JJ, et al. The effects of short-term iron supplementation on iron status in infants in malaria-endemic areas. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2004;71(4):434-40.
  • Menendez C, Sunyer J, Ventura PJ, Aponte JJ, Acosta CJ, Schellenberg D, et al. Malaria infection does not appear to modify the risk of bronchiolitis early in life. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2002;21(3):249-54.
Mwanri 2000 {published data only}
  • Mwanri L, Worsley A, Ryan P, Masika J. Supplemental vitamin A improves anemia and growth in anemic school children in Tanzania. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130(11):2691-6.
Nagpal 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Nagpal J, Sachdev HP, Singh T, Mallika V. A randomized placebo controlled trial of iron supplementation in breast fed young infants initiated on complementary feeding. Effects of haematological status. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition 2004;22(2):203-11.
  • Nagpal J, Sachdev HPS, Mallika V, Singh T. Iron supplementation with complementary feeding in predominantly breastfed infants. Cited in: Gera 2002 (Gera T, Sachdev HP. Effect of iron supplementation on incidence of infectious illness in children: systematic review. BMJ 2002;325(7373):1142) 2000. [Gera 2002 (Additional references)]
Nwanyanwu 1996 {published data only}
  • Kazembe PN, Nwanyanwu OC, Ziba C, Gamadzi D, Redd SC. Does iron therapy enhance hematologic recovery in children treated for malaria with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;53 Suppl 2:91.
  • Nwanyanwu OC, Ziba C, Kazembe PN, Gamadzi G, Gandwe J, Redd SC. The effect of oral iron therapy during treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine on Malawian children under 5 years of age. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1996;90(6):589-95.
Olsen 2006 {published data only}
  • Olsen A, Nawiri J, Magnussen P, Krarup H, Friis H. Failure of twice-weekly iron supplementation to increase blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations: results of a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2006;100(3):251-63.
Palupi 1997 {published data only}
  • Palupi L, Schultink W, Achadi E, Gross R. Effective community intervention to improve hemoglobin status in preschoolers receiving once-weekly iron supplementation. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65(4):1057-61.
Powers 1983 {published and unpublished data}
  • Powers HJ, Bates CJ, Prentice AM, Lamb WH, Jepson M, Bowman H. The relative effectiveness of iron and iron with riboflavin in correcting a microcytic anaemia in men and children in rural Gambia. Human Nutrition. Clinical Nutrition 1983;37(6):413-25.
Richard 2006 {published data only}
  • Richard SA, Zavaleta N, Caulfield LE, Black RE, Witzig RS, Shankar AH. Zinc and iron supplementation and malaria, diarrhea, and respiratory infections in children in the Peruvian Amazon. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006;75(1):126-32.
Rosado 1997 {published data only}
  • Allen LH, Rosado JL, Casterline JE, López P, Muñoz E, Garcia OP, et al. Lack of hemoglobin response to iron supplementation in anemic Mexican preschoolers with multiple micronutrient deficiencies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71(6):1485-94.
  • Rosado JL, Lopez P, Munoz E, Martinez H, Allen LH. Zinc supplementation reduced morbidity, but neither zinc nor iron supplementation affected growth or body composition of Mexican preschoolers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65(1):13-9.
Roschnik 2003 (C) {unpublished data only}
  • Roschnik N, Phiri V, Mukaka M. The impact of weekly school-based iron supplementation, Mangochi district, Malawi. Save the Children USA February 2003.
Roschnik 2004 (C) {published and unpublished data}
Sarma 1977 (C) {published and unpublished data}
  •  Sarma KV, Damodaran M, Naidu AN. The Balwadi as an outlet for anaemia prophylaxis programme. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1977;65(6):839-44.
Sazawal 2006 (C)a {published data only}
  • Olney DK, Pollitt E, Kariger PK, Khalfan SS, Ali NS, Tielsch JM, et al. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old. The Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(9):2427-34.
  • Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, Chwaya HM, Stoltzfus RJ, Dutta A, et al. Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367(9505):133-43.
Sazawal 2006 (C)b {published and unpublished data}
  • Olney DK, Pollitt E, Kariger PK, Khalfan SS, Ali NS, Tielsch JM, et al. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old. The Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(9):2427-34.
  • Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, Chwaya HM, Stoltzfus RJ, Dutta A, et al. Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367(9505):133-43.
Seshadri 1982b {published data only}
  • Seshadri S, Hirode K, Naik P, Malhotra S. Behavior responses of young anemic Indian children to iron-folic supplements. British Journal of Nutrition 1982;48(2):233-40.
  • Seshadri S, Malhotra S. The effect of hematinics on the physical work capacity in anemics. Indian Pediatrics 1984;21(7):529-33.
Seshadri 1984a {published data only}
  • Seshadri S, Hirode K, Naik P, Shah A, Gupta N. An effective intervention to reduce the prevalence of anaemia in children. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1984;80:164-73.
Seshadri 1984b (C) {published data only}
  • Seshadri S, Hirode K, Naik P, Shah A, Gupta N. An effective intervention to reduce the prevalence of anaemia in children. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1984;80:164-73.
Shah 2002 {published and unpublished data}
Smith 1989 (C) {published data only}
  • Smith AW, Hendrickse RG, Harrison C, Hayes RJ, Greenwood BM. Iron-deficiency anaemia and its response to oral iron: report of a study in rural Gambian children treated at home by their mothers. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1989;9(1):6-16.
  • Smith AW, Hendrickse RG, Harrison C, Hayes RJ, Greenwood BM. The effects on malaria of treatment of iron-deficiency anaemia with oral iron in Gambian children. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 1989;9(1):17-23.
Smuts 2005 {published data only}
  • Hop le T, Berger J. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves anemia, micronutrient nutrient status, and growth of Vietnamese infants: double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(3):660S-5S.
  • Smuts CM, Lombard CJ, Benadé AJ, Dhansay MA, Berger J, Hop le T, et al. Efficacy of a foodlet-based multiple micronutrient supplement for preventing growth faltering, anemia, and micronutrient deficiency of infants: the four country IRIS trial pooled data analysis. Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;135(3):631S-8S.
  • Untoro J, Karyadi E, Wibowo L, Erhardt MW, Gross R. Multiple micronutrient supplements improve micronutrient status and anemia but not growth and morbidity of Indonesian infants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(3):639S-45S.
  • Wijaya-Erhardt M, Erhardt JG, Untoro J, Karyadi E, Wibowo L, Gross R. Effect of daily or weekly multiple-micronutrient and iron foodlike tablets on body iron stores of Indonesian infants aged 6-12 mo: a double-blind, randomized,  placebo-controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86(6):1680-6.
Soekarjo 2004 (C) {published data only}
  • Soekarjo DD, Pee Sd S, Kusin JA, Schreurs WH, Schultink W, Muhilal, et al. Effectiveness of weekly vitamin A (10,000 IU) and iron (60 mg) supplementation for adolescent boys and girls through schools in rural and urban East Java, Indonesia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;58(6):927-37.
Soemantri 1989 {published data only}
  • Soemantri AG. Preliminary findings on iron supplementation and learning achievement of rural Indonesian children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50(3 Suppl):698-701.
Soewondo 1989 {published data only}
  • Soewondo S, Husaini M, Pollitt E. Effects of iron deficiency on attention and learning processes in preschool children: Bandung, Indonesia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50(3 Suppl):667-73.
Taylor 2001 {published data only}
  • Taylor M, Jinabhai CC, Couper I, Kleinschmidt I, Jogessar VB. The effect of different anthelmintic treatment regimens combined with iron supplementation on the nutritional status of schoolchildren in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a randomized controlled trial. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2001;95(2):211-6.
van den Hombergh 1996 {published data only}
  • van den Hombergh J, Dalderop E, Smit Y. Does iron therapy benefit children with severe malaria-associated anaemia? A clinical trial with 12 weeks supplementation of oral iron in young children from the Turiani Division, Tanzania. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1996;42(4):220-7.
van Hensbroek 1995 {published data only}
  • van Hensbroek MB, Morris-Jones, Meisner S, Jaffar S, Bayo L, Dackour R, et al. Iron, but not folic acid, combined with effective antimalarial therapy promotes haematological recovery in African children after acute falciparum malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1995;89(6):672-6.
Verhoef 2002 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Verhoef H, West CE, Kraaijenhagen R, Nzyuko SM, King R, Mbandi MM, et al. Malarial anemia leads to adequately increased erythropoiesis in asymptomatic Kenyan children. Blood 2002;100(10):3489-94.
  • Verhoef H, West CE, Nzyuko SM, de Vogel S, van der Valk R, Wanga MA, et al. Intermittent administration of iron and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to control anaemia in Kenyan children: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360(9337):908-14.
Wasantwisut 2006 {published and unpublished data}
  • Wasantwisut E, Winichagoon P, Chitchumroonchokchai C, Yamborisut U, Boonpraderm A, Pongcharoen T, et al. Iron and zinc supplementation improved iron and zinc status, but not physical growth, of apparently healthy, breast-fed infants in rural communities of  Northeast Thailand. The Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(9):2405-11.
Zavaleta 2000 {published data only}
  • Zavaleta N. Efficacy of an intermittent iron dose compared to daily iron supplementation in adolescent girls. 16th International Congress of Nutrition. Canada, 1997:PW5, 62.
  • Zavaleta N, Respicio G, Garcia T. Efficacy and acceptability of two iron supplementation schedules in adolescent school girls in Lima, Peru. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130 Suppl 2S:462S-4S.
Zlotkin 2003 {published data only}
  • Zlotkin S, Antwi KY, Schauer C, Yeung G. Use of microencapsulated iron(II) fumarate sprinkles to prevent recurrence of anaemia in infants and young children at high risk. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003;81(2):108-15.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abdelrazik 2007 {published data only}
  • Abdelrazik N, Al-Haggar M, Al-Marsafawy H, Abdel-Hadi H, Al-Baz R, Mostafa AH. Impact of long-term oral iron supplementation in breast-fed infants. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2007;74(8):739-45.
Adu-Afarwuah 2008 {published data only}
  • Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Brown KH, Zlotkin S, Briend A, Dewey KG. Home fortification of complementary foods with micronutrient supplements is well  accepted and has positive effects on infant iron status in Ghana. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;87(4):929-38.
Ahmed 2001 {published data only}
  • Ahmed F, Khan MR, Jackson AA. Concomitant supplemental vitamin A enhances the response to weekly supplemental iron and folic acid in anemic teenagers in urban Bangladesh. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74(1):108-15.
Anand 2007 {published data only}
  • Anand K, Lakshmy R, Janakarajan VN, Ritvik A, Misra P, Pandey RM, et al. Effect of consumption of micronutrient fortified candies on the iron and vitamin A status of children aged 3-6 years in rural Haryana. Indian Pediatrics 2007;44(11):823-9.
Angeles-Agdeppa 1997 {published data only}
  • Angeles-Agdeppa I, Schultink W, Sastroamidjojo S, Gross R, Karyadi D. Weekly micronutrient supplementation to build iron stores in female Indonesian adolescents. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;66(1):177-83.
Anonymous 2006 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Iron supplementation: unexpected results of a clinical trial. Prescrire International 2006;15(86):233.
Arcanjo 2008 {published data only}
  • Arcanjo FP, Pinto VP, Coelho MR, Amancio OM, Magalhaes SM. Anemia reduction in preschool children with the addition of low doses of iron to school meals. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 2008;54(4):243-7.
Asibey-Berko 2007 {published data only}
  • Asibey-Berko E, Zlotkin SH, Yeung GS, Nti-Nimako W, Ahunu B, Kyei-Faried S, et al. Dual fortification of salt with iron and iodine in women and children in rural Ghana. East African Medical Journal 2007;84(10):473-80.
Assunçăo 2007 {published data only}
  • Assunção MC, Santos IS, Barros AJ, Gigante DP, Victora CG. Effect of iron fortification of flour on anemia in preschool children in Pelotas, Brazil [Efeito da fortificaçăo de farinhas com ferro sobre anemia em pré-escolares, Pelotas, RS]. Revista de Saúde Pública 2007;41(4):539-48.
Aukett 1986 {published data only}
Baird 1997 {published data only}
Barclay 1991 {published data only}
Bates 1987 {published data only}
  • Bates CJ, Powers HJ, Lamb WH, Gelman W, Webb E. Effect of supplementary vitamins and iron on malaria indices in rural Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1987;81(2):286-91.
Bates 1994 {published data only}
  • Bates CJ, Evans PH, Allison G, Sonko BJ, Hoare S, Goodrich S, et al. Biochemical indices and neuromuscular function tests in rural Gambian schoolchildren given a riboflavin, or multivitamin plus iron, supplement. The British Journal of Nutrition 1994;72(4):601-10. [PUBMED: 7986790]
Beasley 2000 {published data only}
Bender-Götze 1980 {published data only}
  • Bender-Götze C. Therapy of juvenile iron deficiency with bivalent iron dragees (Fe2-fumarate, succinate, sulfate). Controlled double-blind study [Therapie des Eisen-Mangels bei Kindern mit 2wertigen Eisensalz-Dragees (Fe2+-Fumarat, -Succinat, -Sulfat), kontrollierte Doppelblind-Studie]. Fortschritte Der Medizin 1980;98(15):590-3.
Berger 1992 {published data only}
  • Berger J, Schneider D, Dyck JL, Joseph A, Aplogan A, Galan P, et al. Iron deficiency, cell-mediated immunity and infection among 6-36 month old children living in rural Togo. Nutrition Research 1992;12(1):39-49.
Boivin 1993 {published data only}
  • Boivin MJ, Giordani B. Improvements in cognitive performance for schoolchildren in Zaire, Africa, following an iron supplement and treatment for intestinal parasites. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 1993;18(2):249-64.
Bojang 1997 {published data only}
  • Bojang KA, Palmer A, Boele van Hensbroek M, Banya WA, Greenwood BM. Management of severe malarial anaemia in Gambian children. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1997;91(5):557-61.
Bradfield 1968 {published data only}
  • Bradfield RB, Jensen MV, Gonzales L, Garrayar C. Effect of low-level iron and vitamin supplementation on a tropical anemia. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1968;21(1):57-67.
  • Bradfield RB, Jensen MV, Quiroz A, Gonzales L, Garrayar C, Hernandez V. Effects of low levels of iron and trace elements on hematological values of parasitized school children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1968;21(1):68-77.
Bruner 1996 {published data only}
Brunser 1993 {published data only}
  • Brunser O, Espinoza J, Araya M, Pacheco I, Cruchet S. Chronic iron intake and diarrhoeal disease in infants. A field study in a less-developed country. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993;47(5):317-26.
Carter 2005 {published data only}
  • Carter JY, Loolpapit MP, Lema OE, Tome JL, Nagelkerke NJ, Watkins WM. Reduction of the efficacy of antifolate antimalarial therapy by folic acid supplementation. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2005;73(1):166-70.
Chandramohan 2005 {published data only}
  • Chandramohan D, Owusu-Agyei S, Carneiro I, Awine T, Amponsa-Achiano K, Mensah N, et al. Cluster randomised trial of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants in area of high, seasonal transmission in Ghana. BMJ 2005;331(7519):727-33.
CIGNIS 2010 {published data only}
  • Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection (CIGNIS) Study Team. Micronutrient fortification to improve growth and health of maternally HIV-unexposed and exposed Zambian infants: a randomised controlled trial. PLoS One 2010 Jun 17;5(6):e11165.
Cusick 2005 {published data only}
  • Cusick SE, Tielsch JM, Ramsan M, Jape JK, Sazawal S, Black RE, et al. Short-term effects of vitamin A and antimalarial treatment on erythropoiesis in severely anemic Zanzibari preschool children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(2):406-12.
Deinard 1986 {published data only}
Desai 2004 {published data only}
  • Desai MR, Dhar R, Rosen DH, Kariuki SK, Shi YP, Kager PA, et al. Daily iron supplementation is more efficacious than twice weekly iron supplementation for the treatment of childhood anemia in western Kenya. The Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(5):1167-74.
Dewey 2002 {published data only}
  • Dewey KG, Domellöf M, Cohen RJ, Landa Rivera L, Hernell O, Lönnerdal B. Iron supplementation affects growth and morbidity of breast-fed infants: results of a randomized trial in Sweden and Honduras. The Journal of Nutrition 2002;132(11):3249-55.
Dijkhuizen 2001 {published data only}
  • Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT, West CE, Martuti S, Muhilal. Effects of iron and zinc supplementation in Indonesian infants on micronutrient status and growth. The Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(11):2860-5.
Diouf 2002 {published data only}
  • Diouf S, Diagne I, Moreira C, Signate SY, Faye O, Ndiaye O, et al. Integrated treatment of iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency and intestinal parasitic diseases: impact on Senegalese children's growth  [Traitement integre de la carence en fer, de l'avitaminose A et des parasitoses intestinales: impact sur la croissance des enfants senegalais]. Archives of Pediatrics 2002;9(1):102-3.
Domelloff 2001 {published data only}
  • Domellöf M, Cohen RJ, Dewey KG, Hernell O, Rivera LL, Lönnerdal B. Iron supplementation of breast-fed Honduran and Swedish infants from 4 to 9 months of age. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;138(5):679-87.
Ekvall 2000 {published data only}
Engstrom 2008 {published data only}
  • Engstrom EM, de Castro IR, Portela M, Cardoso LO, Monteiro CA. Effectiveness of daily and weekly iron supplementation in the prevention of anemia in infants. Revista Saude Publica 2008;42(5):786-95.
Fuerth 1972 {published data only}
Giovannini 2006 {published data only}
  • Giovannini M, Sala D, Usuelli M, Livio L, Francescato G, Braga M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing effects of supplementation with two different combinations of micronutrients delivered as sprinkles on growth, anemia, and iron deficiency in Cambodian infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2006;42(3):306-12.
Gomber 1998 {published data only}
  • Gomber S, Kumar S, Rusia U, Gupta P, Agarwal KN, Sharma S. Prevalence & etiology of nutritional anaemias in early childhood in an urban slum. Indian Journal of Medical Research 1998;107:269-73.
Greisen 1986 {published data only}
Hathirat 1992 {published data only}
  • Hathirat P, Valyasevi A, Kotchabhakdi NJ, Rojroongwasinkul N, Pollitt E. Effects of an iron supplementation trial on the Fe status of Thai schoolchildren. British Journal of Nutrition 1992;68(1):245-52.
  • Pollitt E, Hathirat P, Kotchabhakdi, NJ, Missell L, Valyasevi A. Iron deficiency and educational achievement in Thailand. International Conference on Iron Deficiency and Behavioral Development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50(3 Suppl):687-97.
Heywood 1989 {published data only}
  • Heywood A, Oppenheimer S, Heywood P, Jolley D. Behavioral effects of iron supplementation in infants in Madang, Papua New Guinea. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50(3 Suppl):630-7.
Hirve 2007 {published data only}
  • Hirve S, Bhave S, Bavdekar A, Naik S, Pandit A, Schauer C, et al. Low dose sprinkles - an innovative approach to treat iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Indian Pediatrics 2007;44(2):91-100.
Honig 1978 {published data only}
  • Honig AS, Oski FA. Developmental scores of iron deficient infants and the effects of therapy. Infant Behavior and Development Journal 1978;1:168.
Hussen 1985 {published data only}
  • Hussen MA, Hassen MA, Salem S, Scrimshaw N, Keresche G, Pollit E. Field work on the effects of iron supplementation. XIII International Congress of Nutrition. Brigntom: England, Abstract Book P129. 1985.
Hyder 2007 {published data only}
  • Hyder SM, Haseen F, Khan M, Schaetzel T, Jalal CS, Rahman M, et al. A multiple-micronutrient-fortified beverage affects hemoglobin, iron, and vitamin A status and growth in adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh. The Journal of Nutrition 2007;137(9):2147-53.
Ip 2009 {published data only}
  • Ip H, Hyder SM, Haseen F, Rahman M, Zlotkin SH. Improved adherence and anaemia cure rates with flexible administration of micronutrient Sprinkles: a new public health approach to anaemia control. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(2):165-72.
Isager 1974 {published data only}
  • Isager H. Iron deficiency, growth, and stimulated erythropoiesis. Scandinavian Journal of Haematology. Supplementum 1974;21:1-176.
ISRCTN21782274 {unpublished data only}
  • ISRCTN21782274. Iron fortification and parasite control to reduce anaemia among school children in Cote d'Ivoire. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN21782274.
ISRCTN85737357 {unpublished data only}
  • ISRCTN85737357. Intermittent malaria treatment and iron supplementation for control of malaria and anaemia in infants in the forest belt of rural Ghana: a double-blind randomised controlled trial. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN85737357 (accessed 25 August 2011).
ISRCTN88523834 {unpublished data only}
  • Browne E, Bam V, Agyei-baffour P, Boateng S, Sawyerr P, Mensah C, et al. Intermittent malaria treatment and iron supplementation for control of malaria and anaemia in infants in forest belt of Ghana: a randomised trial. 4th MIM Malaria Conference; Yaounde, Cameroon. 2005.
  • ISRCTN88523834. The prevention of malaria and anaemia in infants through iron supplementation and intermittent malaria treatment administered through the expanded programme on immunization scheme (Tanzania). http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN88523834.
Jacobi 1972 {published data only}
  • Jacobi H, Witt I. On the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in childhood [Zur Behandlung der Eisenmangelanämie im Kindesalter]. Die Medizinische Welt 1972;23(7):228-31.
Kanani 2000 {published data only}
  • Kanani SJ, Poojara RH. Supplementation with iron and folic acid enhances growth in adolescent Indian girls. The Journal of Nutrition 2000;130 2S Suppl:452S-5S.
Kleinschmidt 1965 {published data only}
  • Kleinschmidt H. On the therapy of anemia due to infection in children [Uber die Therapie der Infektanamie des Kindesalters]. Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift 1985;107(38):1835-8.
Kurz 1985 {unpublished data only}
  • Kurz KM. Hookworm infection and anaemia: a study of metrifonate treatment and of iron intakes in Kenyan children. MSc thesis, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 1985.
le Cessie 2002 {published data only}
  • le Cessie S, Verhoeff FH, Mengistie G, Kazembe P, Broadhead R, Brabin BJ. Changes in haemoglobin levels in infants in Malawi: effect of low birth weight and fetal anaemia. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 2002;86(3):F182-7.
Le Huong 2007 {published data only}
  • Le Huong T, Brouwer ID, Nguyen KC, Burema J, Kok FJ. The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese school children. British Journal of Nutrition 2007;97(5):955-62.
Lima 2006 {published data only}
  • Lima AC, Lima MC, Guerra MQ, Romani SA, Eickmann SH, Lira PI. Impact of weekly treatment with ferrous sulfate on hemoglobin level, morbidity and nutritional status of anemic infants. Jornal de Pediatria 2006;82(6):452-7.
Liu 1995 {published data only}
  • Liu XN, Kang J, Zhao L, Viteri FE. Intermittent iron supplementation in Chinese preschool children is efficient and safe. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 1995;16(2):139-46.
Liu 1996 {published data only}
  • Liu XN, Liu PY. The effectiveness of weekly iron supplementation regimen in improving the iron status of Chinese children and pregnant women. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES 1996;9(2-3):341-7.
Lozoff 1982 {published data only}
  • Lozoff B, Brittenham GM, Viteri FE, Wolf AW, Urrutia JJ. The effects of short term oral iron therapy on developmental deficits in iron-deficient anemic infants. Journal of Pediatrics 1982;100(3):351-7.
  • Lozoff B, Brittenham GM, Wolf AW, McClish DK, Kuhnert PM, Jimenez E, et al. Iron deficiency anemia and iron therapy effects on infant developmental test performance. Pediatrics 1987;79(6):981-95.
Lozoff 1996 {published data only}
Lozoff 2003 {published data only}
  • Lozoff B, De Andraca I, Castillo M, Smith JB, Walter T, Pino P. Behavioral and developmental effects of preventing iron-deficiency anemia in healthy full-term infants. Pediatrics 2003;112(4):846-54.
Lutter 2008 {published data only}
  • Lutter CK, Rodriguez A, Fuenmayor G, Avila L, Sempertegui F, Escobar J. Growth and micronutrient status in children receiving a fortified complementary food. The Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(2):379-88.
Maldonado 2007 {published data only}
  • Maldonado Lozano J, Baro L, Ramirez-Tortosa MC, Gil F, Linde J, Lopez-Huertas E, et al. Intake of an iron-supplemented milk formula as a preventive measure to avoid low iron status in 1-3 year-olds. Anales de Pediatría (Barcelona, Spain: 2003) 2007;66(6):591-6.
Mamiro 2001 {published data only}
  • Mamiro PR, Van Camp J, Roberfroid D, Kolsteren P, Huyghebaert A. Nutritional problems of infants in Kilosa district, rural Tanzania, and appropriate interventions. Mededelingen (Rijksuniversiteit Te Gent. Fakulteit Van De Landbouwkundige En Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen) 2001;66(4):291-4.
Migasena 1972 {published data only}
  • Migasena P, Thurnham DI, Jintakanon K, Pongpaew P. Anaemia in Thai children: the effect of iron supplement on haemoglobin and growth. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1972;3(2):255-61.
Mitra 1997 {published data only}
  • Mitra AK, Akramuzzaman SM, Fuchs GJ, Rahman MM, Mahalanabis D. Long-term oral supplementation with iron is not harmful for young children in a poor community of Bangladesh. The Journal of Nutrition 1997;127(8):1451-5.
Morales 2008 {published data only}
Morley 1999 {published data only}
  • Morley R, Abbott R, Fairweather-Tait S, MacFadyen U, Stephenson T, Lucas A. Iron fortified follow on formula from 9 to 18 months improves iron status but not development or growth: a randomised trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1999;81(3):247-52.
Mozaffari-Khosravi 2010 {published data only}
  • Mozaffari-Khosravi H, Noori-Shadkam M, Fatehi F, Naghiaee Y. Once weekly low-dose iron supplementation effectively improved iron status in adolescent girls. Biological trace element research 2010;135(1-3):22-30. [PUBMED: 19652922]
Murray 1978 {published data only}
Muñoz 2000 {published data only}
  • Muñoz EC, Rosado JL, López P, Furr HC, Allen LH. Iron and zinc supplementation improves indicators of vitamin A status of Mexican preschoolers. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71(3):789-94.
Mwanakasale 2009 {published data only}
  • Mwanakasale V, Siziya S, Mwansa J, Koukounari A, Fenwick A. Impact of iron supplementation on schistosomiasis control in Zambian school children in a highly endemic area. Malawi Medical Journal 2009;21(1):12-8. [PUBMED: 19780472]
Naghii 2007 {published data only}
Nchito 2004 {published data only}
  • Nchito M, Geissler PW, Mubila L, Friis H, Olsen A. Effects of iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on geophagy: a two-by-two factorial study among Zambian schoolchildren in Lusaka. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2004;98(4):218-27. [PUBMED: 15049460]
NCT00213161 {published data only}
  • NCT00213161. Using iron supplementation to decrease iron deficiency anaemia in infants and young children in India. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00213161.
NCT00301054 {unpublished data only}
  • NCT00301054. Preventing anaemia in children (6 months-30 months) in a malaria endemic rural area in Ghana - a randomised double blind study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00301054 (accessed 25 August 2011).
Nguyen 2002 {published data only}
  • Nguyen XN, Berger J, Dao TQ, Nguyen CK, Traissac P, Ha HK. Efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation for the control of iron deficiency anaemia in infants in rural Vietnam. Santé (Montrouge, France) 2002;12(1):31–7.
Oppenheimer 1986 {published data only}
  • Oppenheimer SJ, Gibson FD, Macfarlane SB, Moody JB, Harrison C, Spencer A, et al. Iron supplementation increases prevalence and effects of malaria: report on clinical studies in Papua New Guinea. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1986;80(4):603-12.
  • Oppenheimer SJ, Gibson FD, Macfarlane SB, Moody JB, Hendrickse RG. Iron supplementation and malaria. Lancet 1984;1(8373):389-90.
  • Oppenheimer SJ, Hill AV, Gibson FD, Macfarlane SB, Moody JB, Pringle J. The interaction of alpha thalassaemia with malaria. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1987;81(2):322-6.
  • Oppenheimer SJ, Macfarlane SB, Moody JB, Bunari O, Hendrickse RG. Effect of iron prophylaxis on morbidity due to infectious disease: report on clinical studies in Papua New Guinea. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1986;80(4):596-602.
Oski 1978 {published data only}
Oski 1983 {published data only}
  • Oski FA, Honig AS, Helu B, Howanitz P. Effect of iron therapy on behavior performance in nonanemic, iron-deficient infants. Pediatrics 1983;71(6):877-80.
Ouedraogo 2010 {published data only}
  • Ouedraogo HZ, Traore T, Zeba AN, Dramaix-Wilmet M, Hennart P, Donnen P. Effect of an improved local ingredient-based complementary food fortified or not with iron and selected multiple micronutrients on Hb concentration. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(11):1923-30. [PUBMED: 20529401]
Parks 1989 {published data only}
Pereira 1978 {published data only}
Perrone 1999 {published data only}
  • Perrone L, Salerno M, Gialanella G, Feng SL, Moro R, Di Lascio R, et al. Long-term zinc and iron supplementation in children of short stature: effect of growth and on trace element content in tissues. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 1999;13(1-2):51-6.
Rahimy 2007 {published data only}
Rahman 1999 {published data only}
  • Rahman MM, Akramuzzaman SM, Mitra AK, Fuchs GJ, Mahalanabis D. Long-term supplementation with iron does not enhance growth in malnourished Bangladeshi children. The Journal of Nutrition 1999;129(7):1319-22.
Rico 2006 {published data only}
  • Kordas K, Stoltzfus RJ, López P, Rico JA, Rosado JL. Iron and zinc supplementation does not improve parent or teacher ratings of behavior in first grade Mexican children exposed to lead. Journal of Pediatrics 2005;147(5):632-9.
  • Rico JA, Kordas K, López P, Rosado JL, Vargas GG, Ronquillo D, et al. Efficacy of iron and/or zinc supplementation on cognitive performance of lead-exposed Mexican schoolchildren: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2006;117(3):e518-27.
Rohner 2010 {published data only}
  • Rohner F, Zimmermann MB, Amon RJ, Vounatsou P, Tschannen AB, N'goran EK, et al. In a randomized controlled trial of iron fortification, anthelmintic treatment, and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria for anemia control in Ivorian children, only anthelmintic treatment shows modest benefit. The Journal of Nutrition 2010;140(3):635-41. [PUBMED: 20107144]
  • Zimmermann MB, Chassard C, Rohner F, N'goran EK, Nindjin C, Dostal A, et al. The effects of iron fortification on the gut microbiota in African children: a randomized controlled trial in Cote d'Ivoire. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;92(6):1406-15. [PUBMED: 20962160]
Salinas-Pielago 1998 {published data only}
  • Salinas-Pielago JE, Vega-Dienstmaier JM, Rojas-Oblitas M. Effect of biscuits fortified with haem iron on the intellectual status of pre-school children [Efecto de las galletas fortificadas con hierro heme sobre el estado intelectual en preescolares.]. Revista de Neurologia 1998;27(157):400-4. [PUBMED: 9774808]
Sankar 2009 {published data only}
Sarker 2008 {published data only}
  • Sarker SA, Mahmud H, Davidsson L, Alam NH, Ahmed T, Alam N, et al. Causal relationship of Helicobacter pylori with iron-deficiency anemia or failure of iron supplementation in children. Gastroenterology 2008;135(5):1534-42. [PUBMED: 18775429]
Sarma 2006 {published data only}
  • Sarma KV, Udaykumar P, Balakrishna N, Vijayaraghavan K, Sivakumar B. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on health and nutritional status of schoolchildren: growth and morbidity. Nutrition 2006;22(1 Suppl):S8-14.
Schellenberg 2001 {published data only}
  • Schellenberg D, Menendez C, Kahigwa E, Aponte J, Vidal J, Tanner M, et al. Intermittent treatment for malaria and anaemia control at time of routine vaccinations in Tanzanian infants: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357(9267):1471-7.
Schellenberg 2004 {published data only}
  • Schellenberg D, Kahigwa E, Sanz S, Aponte JJ, Mshinda H, Alonso P, et al . A randomized comparison of two anemia treatment regimens in Tanzanian children. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2004;71(4):428-33.
Schultink 1995 {published data only}
  • Schultink W, Gross R, Gliwitzki M, Karyadi D, Matulessi P. Effect of daily vs twice weekly iron supplementation in Indonesian preschool children with low iron status. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995;61(1):111-5.
Schumann 2009 {published data only}
  • Schumann K, Longfils P, Monchy D, von Xylander S, Weinheimer H, Solomons NW. Efficacy and safety of twice-weekly administration of three RDAs of iron and folic acid with and without complement of 14 essential micronutrients at one or two RDAs: a placebo-controlled intervention trial in anemic Cambodian infants 6 to 24 months of age. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(3):355-68.
Schumann 2009a {published data only}
  • Schumann K, Longfils P, Monchy D, von Xylander S, Weinheimer H, Solomons NW. Efficacy and safety of twice-weekly administration of three RDAs of iron and folic acid with and without complement of 14 essential micronutrients at one or two RDAs: a placebo-controlled intervention trial in anemic Cambodian infants 6 to 24 months of age. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(3):355-68. [PUBMED: 17971827]
Seshadri 1982a {published data only}
Sharma 2000 {published data only}
  • Sharma A, Prasad K, Rao KV. Identification of an appropriate strategy to control anemia in adolescent girls of poor communities. Indian Pediatrics 2000;37(3):261-7.
Singla 1982 {published data only}
  • Singla PN, Gupta HP, Ahuja C, Agarwal KN. Deficiency anaemias in preschool children - estimation of prevalence based on response to haematinic supplementation. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1982;28(2):77-80.
Sungthong 2002 {published data only}
  • Sungthong R, Mo-Suwan L, Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater AF. Once weekly is superior to daily iron supplementation on height gain but not on hematological improvement among schoolchildren in Thailand. The Journal of Nutrition 2002;132(3):418-22.
Tee 1999 {published data only}
  • Tee ES, Kandiah M, Awin N, Chong SM, Satgunasingam N, Kamarudin L, et al. School-administered weekly iron-folate supplements improve hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations in Malaysian adolescent girls. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(6):1249-56.
Thibault 1993 {published data only}
  • Thibault H, Galan P, Selz F, Preziosi P, Olivier C, Badoual J, et al. The immune response in iron-deficient young children: effect of iron supplementation on cell-mediated immunity. European Journal of Pediatrics 1993;152(2):120-4.
Thu 1999 {published data only}
  • Thu BD, Schultink W, Dillon D, Gross R, Leswara ND, Khoi HH. Effect of daily and weekly micronutrient supplementation on micronutrient deficiencies and growth in young Vietnamese children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(1):80-6.
Tielsch 2006 {published data only}
  • Siegel E. Anemia, motor development, and cognition: a randomized trial of iron-folic acid and/or zinc supplementation in young Nepali children. PhD thesis, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins University 2004.
  • Tielsch JM, Khatry SK, Stoltzfus RJ, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Adhikari R, et al. Effect of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on preschool child mortality in southern Nepal: community-based, cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367(9505):144-52.
Tomashek 2001 {published data only}
  • Tomashek KM, Woodruff BA, Gotway CA, Bloland P, Mbaruku G. Randomized intervention study comparing several regimens for the treatment of moderate anemia among refugee children in Kigoma Region, Tanzania. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2001;64(3-4):164-71.
Troesch 2011 {published data only}
  • Troesch B, van Stuijvenberg ME, Smuts CM, Kruger HS, Biebinger R, Hurrell RF, et al. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children. The Journal of Nutrition 2011;141(2):237-42.
van Stuijvenberg 2008 {published data only}
  • van Stuijvenberg ME, Smuts CM, Lombard CJ, Dansay MA. Fortifying brown bread with sodium iron EDTA, ferrous fumarate, or electrolytic iron does not affect iron status in South African schoolchildren. The Journal of Nutrition 2008;138(4):782-6.
Vaughan 1977 {published data only}
  • Vaughan JP, Menu JP, Kihama F, Brooke D, Kiwia A, Mohamed SA. Anaemia treatment trials in a rural population of Tanzania. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 1977;29(4):369-73.
Walter 1986 {published data only}
  • Walter T. Infancy: mental and motor development. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1989;50(3 Suppl):655-61; discussion 661-6.
  • Walter T, Arredondo S, Arévalo M, Stekel A. Effect of iron therapy on phagocytosis and bactericidal activity in neutrophils of iron-deficient infants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1986;44(6):877-82.
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Wegmüller 2006 {published data only}
  • Wegmüller R, Camara F, Zimmermann MB, Adou P, Hurrell RF. Salt dual-fortified with iodine and micronized ground ferric pyrophosphate affects iron status but not hemoglobin in children in Cote d'Ivoire. The Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(7):1814-20.
Williams 1999 {published data only}
  • Williams J, Wolff A, Daly A, MacDonald A, Aukett A, Booth IW. Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants from inner city areas: randomised study. BMJ 1999;318(7185):693-7.
Yalcin 2000 {published data only}
Yang 2004 {published data only}
  • Yang Q, Yin S, Zhao X, An J. Effect of daily or once weekly iron supplementation on growth and iron status of preschool children. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu (Journal of Hygiene Research) 2004;33(2):205-7.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Arcanjo 2011 {published data only}
  • Arcanjo FP, Arcanjo CC, Amancio OM, Braga JA, Leite AJ. Weekly iron supplementation for the prevention of anemia in pre-school children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics Feb 1 2011 [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1093/tropej/fmq119.
Februhartanty 2002 {published data only}
Sazawal 2006 (C)c {published data only}
  • Olney DK, Pollitt E, Kariger PK, Khalfan SS, Ali NS, Tielsch JM, et al. Combined iron and folic acid supplementation with or without zinc reduces time to walking unassisted among Zanzibari infants 5- to 11-mo old. The Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(9):2427-34.
  • Sazawal S, Black RE, Ramsan M, Chwaya HM, Stoltzfus RJ, Dutta A, et al. Effects of routine prophylactic supplementation with iron and folic acid on admission to hospital and mortality in preschool children in a high malaria transmission setting: community-based, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2006;367(9505):133-43.

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
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