Intervention Review

Perineal techniques during the second stage of labour for reducing perineal trauma

  1. Vigdis Aasheim1,*,
  2. Anne Britt Vika Nilsen1,
  3. Mirjam Lukasse2,
  4. Liv Merete Reinar3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 7 DEC 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 31 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006672.pub2

How to Cite

Aasheim V, Nilsen ABV, Lukasse M, Reinar LM. Perineal techniques during the second stage of labour for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006672. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006672.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Bergen University College, Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Bergen, Norway

  2. 2

    Oslo University Hospital, Women and Children's Division, Oslo, Norway

  3. 3

    Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Unit for Primary Care, Oslo, Norway

*Vigdis Aasheim, Centre for Evidence-Based Practice, Bergen University College, Møllendalsveien 6, PO Box7030, Bergen, 5020, Norway.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 7 DEC 2011


Cited in:


This article has been cited by:

  1. 1
    Miranda Davies-Tuck, Mary-Anne Biro, Joanne Mockler, Lynne Stewart, Euan M Wallace, Christine East, Maternal Asian ethnicity and the risk of anal sphincter injury, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 2015, 94, 3
  2. 2
    Allison LaCross, Meredith Groff, Arlene Smaldone, Obstetric Anal Sphincter Injury and Anal Incontinence Following Vaginal Birth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 2015, 60, 1
  3. 3
    Yvonne L. Hauck, Lucy Lewis, Elizabeth A. Nathan, Christine White, Dorota A. Doherty, Risk factors for severe perineal trauma during vaginal childbirth: A Western Australian retrospective cohort study, Women and Birth, 2015, 28, 1, 16


  4. 4
    Haiying Wang, Rasika Jayasekara, Jane Warland, The effect of “hands on” techniques on obstetric perineal laceration: A structured review of the literature, Women and Birth, 2015,


  5. 5
    Rozita Rezaei, Sussan Saatsaz, Yiong Huak Chan, Hamid Sharif Nia, A Comparison of the “Hands-Off” and “Hands-On” Methods to Reduce Perineal Lacerations: A Randomised Clinical Trial, The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India, 2014, 64, 6, 425


  6. 6
    Carmen Terré-Rull, Juan Vicente Beneit-Montesinos, Roser Gol-Gómez, Neus Garriga-Comas, Alicia Ferrer-Comalat, Isabel Salgado-Poveda, Aplicación de termoterapia en el periné durante el parto para reducir las lesiones que precisan sutura posparto, Enfermería Clínica, 2014, 24, 4, 241


  7. 7
    Ommolbanin Zare, Hajar Pasha, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Effect of perineal massage on the incidence of episiotomy and perineal laceration, Health, 2014, 06, 01, 10


  8. You have free access to this content8
    Tekoa L. King, Whitney Pinger, Evidence-Based Practice for Intrapartum Care: The Pearls of Midwifery, Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 2014, 59, 6
  9. 9
    Thomas Schmitz, Corinne Alberti, Béatrice Andriss, Constance Moutafoff, Jean-François Oury, Olivier Sibony, Identification of women at high risk for severe perineal lacerations, European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 2014, 182, 11


  10. 10
    Cecily M. Begley, Intervention or interference? The need for expectant care throughout normal labour, Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare, 2014, 5, 4, 160


  11. 11
    Mary J Renfrew, Alison McFadden, Maria Helena Bastos, James Campbell, Andrew Amos Channon, Ngai Fen Cheung, Deborah Rachel Audebert Delage Silva, Soo Downe, Holly Powell Kennedy, Address Malata, Felicia McCormick, Laura Wick, Eugene Declercq, Midwifery and quality care: findings from a new evidence-informed framework for maternal and newborn care, The Lancet, 2014, 384, 9948, 1129


  12. 12
    Abigail Ford Winkel, Veronica Lerner, Sondra R. Zabar, Demian Szyld, A Simple Framework for Assessing Technical Skills in a Resident Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): Vaginal Laceration Repair, Journal of Surgical Education, 2013, 70, 1, 10


  13. 13
    Lesley A Smith, Natalia Price, Vanessa Simonite, Ethel E Burns, Incidence of and risk factors for perineal trauma: a prospective observational study, BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 2013, 13, 1, 59


  14. 14
    Jan E. Dickinson, Obstetric perineal trauma, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2013, 53, 1
  15. 15
    Yaeko Kataoka, Hiromi Eto, Mariko Iida, Outcomes of independent midwifery attended births in birth centres and home births: A retrospective cohort study in Japan, Midwifery, 2013, 29, 8, 965


  16. 16
    R Knobel, MLS Takemoto, RH Jones, MMR Amorim, Avoiding episiotomy is the best strategy to prevent OASIS: response to the article ‘Episiotomy characteristics and risks for obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a case–control study’, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 2012, 119, 9
  17. 17
    Fan Zhou, Xiao Dong Wang, Jing Li, Gui Qiong Huang, Bing Xin Gao, Hyaluronidase for reducing perineal trauma, The Cochrane Library,
  18. 18
    Christine E East, Lisa Begg, Naomi E Henshall, Paul R Marchant, Karen Wallace, Local cooling for relieving pain from perineal trauma sustained during childbirth, The Cochrane Library,
  19. 19
    Francesca Wuytack, Valerie Smith, Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period, The Cochrane Library,
  20. 20
    G Justus Hofmeyr, Natalia Novikova, Perineal dilators for facilitating the second stage of labour, The Cochrane Library,
  21. 21
    Lisa Kane Low, Rebeca Barroso, Supporting a Physiologic Approach to Labor and Birth,