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Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents

  1. Donna Gillies1,*,
  2. Fiona Taylor2,
  3. Carl Gray3,
  4. Louise O'Brien4,
  5. Natalie D'Abrew5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group

Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 30 DEC 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006726.pub2


How to Cite

Gillies D, Taylor F, Gray C, O'Brien L, D'Abrew N. Psychological therapies for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD006726. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006726.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Western Sydney and Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health Districts - Mental Health, Parramatta, NSW, Australia

  2. 2

    Sydney West Area Mental Health Service, Prevention, Early Intervention and Recovery Service, Parramatta, NSW, Australia

  3. 3

    Western Sydney Local Health Network, New South Wales Health Service, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Westmead, NSW, Australia

  4. 4

    University of Newcastle and Greater Western Area Health Service, New South Wales Health Service, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Orange, NSW, Australia

  5. 5

    Sydney School of Nursing, University of Sydney and Sydney Cancer Centre, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Cancer Nursing Research Unit, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

*Donna Gillies, Western Sydney and Nepean Blue Mountains Local Health Districts - Mental Health, Cumberland Hospital, Locked Bag 7118, Parramatta, NSW, 2150, Australia. Donna_Gillies@wsahs.nsw.gov.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 12 DEC 2012

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ahmad 2007 {published data only}
Ahrens 2002 {published data only}
  • Ahrens J, Rexford L. Cognitive processing therapy for incarcerated adolescents with PTSD. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma 2002;6(1):201-16.
Catani 2009 {published data only}
Chemtob 2002a {published data only}
Cohen 2004 {published data only}
  • Cohen J A, Deblinger E, Mannarino AP, Steer RA. A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2004;43(4):393-402.
  • Cohen J, Mannarino A, Deblinger E, Steer R. A multisite treatment study for PTSD in sexually abused children. 19th Annual Meeting, International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, October 29 - November 1, Chicago, IL. 2003.
  • Deblinger E, Mannarino AP, Cohen JA, Steer RA. A follow-up study of a multisite, randomized, controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2006;45(12):1474-84.
Cohen 2011 {published data only}
  • Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Iyengar S. Community treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder for children exposed to intimate partner violence: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2011;165(1):16-21.
Ertl 2011 {published data only}
Gilboa-Schechtman 2010 {published data only}
  • Gilboa-Schechtman E, Foa EB, Shafran N, Aderka IM, Powers MB, Rachamim l, et al. Prolonged exposure versus dynamic therapy for adolescent PTSD: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2010;49(10):1034-42.
  • Wittmann L, Halpern J. Prolonged exposure and psychodynamic treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder [comment]. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2011;50(5):521-2 [author reply 522-1, 2011 May].
Gordon 2008 {published data only}
  • Gordon JS. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in Kosovar high school students using mind-body skills groups: a randomized controlled trial [NCT00136357]. ClinicalTrials.gov [www.clinicaltrials.gov] 2006.
  • Gordon JS, Staples JK, Blyta A, Bytyqi M, Wilson AT. Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in postwar Kosovar adolescents using mind-body skills groups: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2008;69(9):1469-76.
King 2000 {published data only}
  • King NJ, Tonge BJ, Mullen P, Myerson N, Heyne D, Rollings S, et al. Treating sexually abused children with posttraumatic stress symptoms: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 2000;39(11):1347-55.
Najavits 2006 {published data only}
  • Najavits LM Gallop RJ, Weiss RD. Seeking Safety therapy for adolescent girls with PTSD and substance use disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research 2006;33(4):453-63.
Ruf 2010 {published data only}
  • Ruf M, Schauer M, Neuner F, Catani C, Elbert T. Traumatized refugee children in Germany – prevalence and treatment. World Psychiatric Association, International Congress; 2006 July 12 - 16; Istanbul, Turkey. 2006:146.
  • Ruf M, Schauer M, Neuner F, Catani C, Schauer E, Elbert T. Narrative exposure therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: a randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2010;23(4):437-45.
Schauer 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Schauer E. Trauma treatment for children in war: build-up of an evidence-based large-scale mental health intervention in north-eastern Sri Lanka. PhD thesis submitted to Konstanz University 2008.
Smith 2007 {published data only}
  • Smith P, Yule W, Perrin S, Tranah T, Dalgleish T, Clark DM. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for childhood posttraumatic stress disorder. 32nd Congress of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (jointly with the European Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies); 2004 September 7 - 11; Manchester. 2004:111.
  • Smith P, Yule W, Perrin S, Tranah T, Dalgleish T, Clark DM. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD in children and adolescents: a preliminary randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007;46(8):1051-61.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Berger 2007 {published data only}
Berger 2009 {published data only}
  • Berger R, Gelkopf M. School-based intervention for the treatment of tsunami-related distress in children: a quasi-randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2009;78(6):364-71.
Berkowitz 2011 {published data only}
Berliner 1996 {published data only}
  • Berliner L, Saunders BE. Treating fear and anxiety in sexually abused children: results of a controlled 2-year follow-up study. Child Maltreatment 1996;1(4):294-309.
Bolton 2007 {published data only}
  • Betancourt T, Bolton P, Bass J, Murray L, Verdeli H, Clougherty K, et al. Phase III: A randomized controlled trial of mental health interventions for Acholi war-affected youth in Gulu, Northern Uganda. 2006:114.
  • Bolton P, Bass J, Betancourt T, Speelman L, Onyango G, Clougherty KF, et al. Interventions for depression symptoms among adolescent survivors of war and displacement in northern Uganda: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2007;298(5):519-27.
Brown 2003 {published data only}
  • Brown EJ, Goodman RF, Cohen J, Mannarino A. A randomized controlled trial for children's traumatic grief. National Child Traumatic Stress Network Annual Meeting, December 11 - 13, San Diego, CA. 2003.
Celano 1996 {published data only}
  • Celano M, Hazzard A, Webb C, McCall C. Treatment of traumagenic beliefs among sexually abused girls and their mothers: an evaluation study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 1996;24(1):1-17.
Chapman 2001 {published data only}
  • Chapman L, Morabito D, Ladakakos C, Schreier H, Knudson MM. The effectiveness of art therapy interventions in reducing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in pediatric trauma patients. Art Therapy 2001;18(2):100-4.
Chemtob 2002 {published data only}
  • Chemtob CM, Nakashima JP, Hamada RS. Psychosocial intervention for post disaster trauma symptoms in elementary school children: a controlled community field study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2002;156(3):211-6.
Cohen 1997 {published data only}
  • Cohen J A, Mannarino A P. A treatment study for sexually abused preschool children: outcome during a one-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1997;36(9):1228-35.
  • Cohen J A, Mannarino A P. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1996;35(10):1402-10.
  • Cohen J A, Mannarino A P. Factors that mediate treatment outcome of sexually abused preschool children: six- and 12-month follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37(1):44-51.
  • Cohen JA, Mannarino AP. A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: initial findings [erratum appears in J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1996 Jun;35(6):835]. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1996;35(1):42-50.
Cohen 1998 {published data only}
  • Cohen JA, Mannarino AP. Interventions for sexually abused children: initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreatment 1998;3(1):17-26.
Cohen 2005 {published data only}
  • Cohen J A, Mannarino A P, Knudsen K. Treatment outcome for sexually abused children at one-year follow-up. 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, May 17-22, San Francisco CA. 2003, issue 107.
  • Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Knudsen K. Treating sexually abused children: 1 year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Child Abuse and Neglect 2005;29(2):135-45.
Cohen 2007 {published data only}
  • Cohen JA, Mannarino AP, Perel JM, Staron V. A pilot randomized controlled trial of combined trauma-focused CBT and sertraline for childhood PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2007;46(7):811-9.
Cooley-Strickland 2011 {published data only}
  • Cooley-Strickland MR, Griffin RS, Darney D, Otte K, Ko J. Urban African American youth exposed to community violence: a school-based anxiety preventive intervention efficacy study. Journal of Prevention and Intervention in the Community 2011;39(2):149-66.
Cox 2010 {published data only}
  • Cox CM, Kenardy JA, Hendrikz JK. A randomized controlled trial of a web-based early intervention for children and their parents following unintentional injury. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2010;35(6):581-92.
Deblinger 1996 {published data only}
  • Deblinger E, Lippmann J, Steer R. Sexually abused children suffering posttraumatic stress symptoms: initial treatment outcome findings. Child Maltreatment 1996;1(4):310-21.
  • Deblinger E, Steer RA, Lippmann J. Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse and Neglect 1999;23(12):1371-8.
Deblinger 2001 {published data only}
  • Deblinger E, Stauffer LB, Steer RA. Comparative efficacies of supportive and cognitive behavioral group therapies for young children who have been sexually abused and their nonoffending mothers. Child Maltreatment 2001;6(4):332-43.
Deblinger 2011 {published data only}
Dominguez 2001 {published data only}
  • Dominguez RZ. Evaluation of cognitive-behavioral and supportive treatments for sexually abused children: Analyzing the process of change using individual growth curve analyses. Dissertation Abstracts International. University of Houston, 2001:5370.
Ehntholt 2005 {published data only}
  • Ehntholt K A, Smith P, Yule W. School-based CBT group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma. 31st Annual Conference of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies; 2003 July 16 - 19, York. 2003, issue 83.
  • Ehntholt KA, Smith PA, Yule W. School-based cognitive-behavioural therapy group intervention for refugee children who have experienced war-related trauma. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2005;10(2):235-50.
Ensink 2004 {published data only}
  • Ensink K, Normandin L, Kernberg PF. Efficacy of a Reflective Functioning Treatment (RFT) for young sexually abused children. Society for Psychotherapy Research 35th Annual General Meeting Book of Abstracts. Rome, Italy, June 16 to 19, 2004.
Farkas 2010 {published data only}
  • Farkas L. The effects of Motivation-Adaptive Skills-Trauma Resolution (MASTR) - Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) on traumatized adolescents with conduct problems. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering 2010; Vol. 71, issue 1-B:655.
Gelkopf 2009 {published data only}
Goenjian 1997 {published data only}
  • Goenjian AK, Karayan I, Pynoos RS, Minassian D, Najarian LM, Steinberg AM, et al. Outcome of psychotherapy among early adolescents after trauma. American Journal of Psychiatry 1997;154(4):536-42.
Jaberghaderi 2004 {published data only}
  • Jaberghaderi N, Greenwald R, Rubin A, Dalatabadi S, Zand SO. A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually-abused Iranian girls. Baltimore, MD, 2002.
  • Jaberghaderi N, Greenwald R, Rubin A, Zand Shahin O, Dolatabadi S. A comparison of CBT and EMDR for sexually-abused Iranian girls. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy 2004;11(5):358-68.
Jeffres 2004 {published data only}
  • Jeffres MJ. The efficacy of EMDR with traumatized children. Dissertation Abstracts International 2004:4042.
Jordans 2010 {published data only}
  • Jordans MJ, Komproe IH, Tol WA, Kohrt BA, Luitel NP, Macy RD, et al. Evaluation of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention in conflict-affected Nepal: a cluster randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN48004304]. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 2010;51(7):818-26.
Kassam-Adams 2011 {published data only}
Kataoka 2003 {published data only}
  • Kataoka SH, Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Wong M, Escudero P, Tu W, et al. A school-based mental health program for traumatized Latino immigrant children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003;42(3):311-8.
Kazak 2004 {published data only}
  • Kazak A, Alderfer M, Streisand R, Simms S, Rourke M, Barakat L, et al. Family treatment of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survival. 19th Annual Meeting, International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, October 29 - November 1, Chicago, IL. 2003.
  • Kazak AE, Alderfer MA, Streisand R, Simms S, Rourke MT, Barakat LP, et al. Treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer and their families: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Family Psychology 2004;18(3):493-504.
Kemp 2010 {published data only}
  • Kemp M, Drummond P, McDermott B. A wait-list controlled pilot study of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from motor vehicle accidents. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2010;15(1):5-25.
Layne 2008 {published data only}
  • Layne CM, Saltzman WR, Poppleton L, Burlingame GM, Pasalic A, Durakovic E, et al. Effectiveness of a school-based group psychotherapy program for war-exposed adolescents: a randomized controlled trial [NCT00480480]. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2008;47(9):1048-62.
Lesmana 2009 {published data only}
  • Lesmana CBJ, Suryani LK, Jensen GD, Tiliopoulos N. A spiritual-hypnosis assisted treatment of children with PTSD after the 2002 Bali terrorist attack. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis 2009;52(1):23-34.
Lieberman 2005 {published data only}
  • Lieberman AF, Van Horn P, Ippen CG. Toward evidence-based treatment: child-parent psychotherapy with preschoolers exposed to marital violence. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2005;44(12):1241-8.
Lyshak-Stelzer 2007 {published data only}
  • Lyshak-Stelzer F, Singer P, St John P, Chemtob C M. Art therapy for adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study. Art Therapy 2007;24(4):163-9.
March 1998 {published data only}
  • March JS, Amaya-Jackson L, Murray MC, Schulte A. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a single-incident stressor. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 1998;37(6):585-93.
McWhirter 2011 {published data only}
  • McWhirter PT. Differential therapeutic outcomes of community-based group interventions for women and children exposed to intimate partner violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2011;26(12):2457-82.
Pfeffer 2002 {published data only}
  • Pfeffer CR, Jiang H, Kakuma T, Hwang J, Metsch M. Group intervention for children bereaved by the suicide of a relative. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2002;41(5):505-13.
Raider 2008 {published data only}
  • Raider MC, Steele W, Delillo-Storey M, Jacobs J, Kuban C. Structured sensory therapy (SITCAP-ART) for traumatized adjudicated adolescents in residential treatment. Residential Treatment for Children and Youth 2008;25(2):167-85.
Salloum 2008 {published data only}
Schaal 2010 {published data only}
  • Schaal S, Elbert T, Neuner F. Narrative exposure therapy versus interpersonal psychotherapy: a pilot randomized controlled trial with Rwandan genocide orphans. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 2009;78(5):298-306.
Scheeringa 2011 {published data only}
  • Scheeringa MS, Weems CF, Cohen JA, Amaya-Jackson L, Guthrie D. Trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in three-through six year-old children: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 2011;52(8):853-60.
Shechtman 2010 {published data only}
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  • Shelby JS. Crisis intervention with children following Hurricane Andrew: a comparison of two treatment approaches. Dissertation Abstracts International 1995:1121.
Shooshtary 2008 {published data only}
Stallard 2006 {published data only}
  • Stallard P. A randomised controlled trial to determine whether mental health problems and significant psychological distress in children involved in everyday road traffic accidents can be prevented. National Research Register 2003.
  • Stallard P, Velleman R, Salter E, Howse I, Yule W, Taylor G. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an early psychological intervention with children involved in road traffic accidents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines 2006;47(2):127-34.
  • Stallard P, Velleman R, Salter E, Howse I, Yule W, Taylor G, et al. A randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of an early intervention with child trauma victims. 31st Annual Conference of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies; 2003 July 16 - 19, York. 2003:83.
  • Stallard P, Velleman R, Salter W, Howse I, Yule W, Taylor G, et al. Does early intervention prevent psychological distress in children involved in road traffic accidents? The results of a randomised controlled trial. 32nd Congress of the British Association for Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapies (jointly with the European Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies); 2004 September 7 - 11; Manchester. 2004:111.
Stein 2003 {published data only}
  • Stein BD, Jaycox LH, Kataoka SH, Wong M, Tu W, Elliott MN, et al. A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(5):603-11.
Taussig 2010 {published data only}
  • Taussig HN, Culhane SE. Impact of a mentoring and skills group program on mental health outcomes for maltreated children in foster care [NCT00809315]. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2010;164(8):739-46.
Thabet 2005 {published data only}
Tol 2010 {published data only}
  • Tol W A, Komproe I H, Susanty D, Jordans M J, Macy R D, De Jong J T. School-based mental health intervention for children affected by political violence in Indonesia: a cluster randomized trial. JAMA 2008;300(6):655-62.
  • Tol WA, Komproe IH, Jordans MJ, Gross AL, Susanty D, Macy RD, et al. Mediators and moderators of a psychosocial intervention for children affected by political violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2010;78(6):818-28.
Trowell 2002 {published data only}
  • McCrone P, Weeramanthri T, Knapp M, Rushton A, Trowell J, Miles G, et al. Cost- effectiveness of individual versus group psychotherapy for sexually abused girls. Child and Adolescent Mental Health 2005;10(1):26-31.
  • Trowell J, Kolvin I. Lessons from a psychotherapy outcome study with sexually abused girls. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1999;4(1):79-89.
  • Trowell J, Kolvin I, Weeramanthri T, Sadowski H, Berelowitz M, Glasser D, et al. Psychotherapy for sexually abused girls: psychopathological outcome findings and patterns of change. British Journal of Psychiatry 2002;180:234-47.
  • Trowell JA, Berelowitz M, Kolvin I. In: Aveline M, Shapiro DA editor(s). Design and Methodological Issues In Setting Up A Psychotherapy Outcome Study With Girls Who Have Been Sexually Abused. Chichester: John Wiley, 1995.
Wang 2011 {published data only}
  • Wang Z-Y, Yang F, Wang Y-Y, Gao J, Qian M-Y. Effects of group intervention on depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms among junior middle school students in earthquake area. Chinese Mental Health Journal 2011;25(4):284-8.
Wolmer 2011a {published data only}
  • Wolmer L, Hamiel D, Laor N. Preventing children's posttraumatic stress after disaster with teacher-based intervention: a controlled study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2011;50(4):340-8.
Wolmer 2011b {published data only}
Zehnder 2010 {published data only}
  • Zehnder D, Meuli M, Landolt M A. Effectiveness of a single-session early psychological intervention for children after road traffic accidents: a randomised controlled trial [NCT00296842]. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2010;4:7.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Bryant 2011 {unpublished data only}
  • Bryant R. Randomised controlled trial of cognitive behavior therapy and supportive counselling for reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Acehnese children [ACTRN12611000080921]. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www.anzctr.org.au) 2011.
Chemtob 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Chemtob CM, Luthra R. Creating a collaborative field research organization [NCT00614068]. ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) 2008.
Foa 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • Foa EB. Treating adolescents with CSA related PTSD [NCT00417300]. ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) 2009.
Goldbeck 2011 {unpublished data only}
  • Goldbeck L. Effectiveness of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) for children with post-traumatic stress disorder [NCT01516827]. ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) 2012.
Kenardy 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Kenardy J. Comparison of cognitive-behavioural treatments for children with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following an accidental injury: a multicentre randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN79049138]. Controlled-Trials.com (www.controlled-trials.com/isrctn) 2012.
  • Kenardy J, Cobham V, Nixon RD, McDermott B, March, S. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury (corrected). BMC Psychiatry 2011;11:15.
  • Kenardy J, Cobham V, Nixon RDV, McDermott B, March S. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial of risk screening and early intervention comparing child- and family-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy for PTSD in children following accidental injury (original). BMC Psychiatry 2010;10:92.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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Yule 2001

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Gillies 2007
  • Gillies D, O'Brien L, Rogers P, Meekings C. Psychological therapies for the prevention and treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006726]