Intervention Review

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Music interventions for preoperative anxiety

  1. Joke Bradt1,*,
  2. Cheryl Dileo2,
  3. Minjung Shim1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Anaesthesia, Critical and Emergency Care Group

Published Online: 6 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 2 AUG 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006908.pub2

How to Cite

Bradt J, Dileo C, Shim M. Music interventions for preoperative anxiety. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD006908. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006908.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Department of Creative Arts Therapies, Philadelphia, PA, USA

  2. 2

    Boyer College of Music and Dance, Temple University, Department of Music Therapy and The Arts and Quality of Life Research Center, Philadelphia, USA

*Joke Bradt, Department of Creative Arts Therapies, College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, 1505 Race Street, rm 1041, Philadelphia, PA, 19102, USA.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 6 JUN 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Allen 2001 {published data only}
  • Allen K, Golden LH, Izzo JL, Ching MI,  Forrest A,  Niles R,  et al. Normalization of hypertensive responses during ambulatory surgical stress by perioperative music. Psychosomatic Medicine 2001;63(3):487-92. [PUBMED: 1138227]
Arslan 2008 {published data only}
  • Arslan S, Özer N, Özyurt F. Effect of music on preoperative anxiety in men undergoing urogenital surgery. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 2008;26(2):46-54. [dn: 198783205186632]
Augustin 1996 {published data only}
  • Augustin P, Hains A. Effect of music on ambulatory surgery patients' preoperative anxiety. Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses Journal 1996;63(4):750. [PUBMED: 8660020]
Bringman 2009 {published data only}
Cassidy 2003 {unpublished data only}
  • Cassidy L. The effect of self-selected music on elective surgical patients’ preoperative anxiety. Master’s thesis. Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville 2003.
Chang 1996 {published data only}
  • Chang Y, Hwang SL, Lee MB, Shiu ST, Liao WS. Effects of music therapy on preoperative stress in patients facing open heart surgery. Chinese Psychiatry 1996;10:28-37.
Cooke 2005 {published data only}
DeMarco 2012 {published data only}
  • DeMarco J, Alexander JL, Nehrenz G, Gallagher L. The benefit of music for the reduction of stress and anxiety in patients undergoing elective cosmetic surgery. Music and Medicine 2012;4(1):44-8. [DOI: 10.1177/1943862111424416]
Evans 1994 {published data only}
  • Evans MM, Rubio PA. Music: a diversionary therapy. Today's OR-Nurse 1994;16(4):17-22. [PUBMED: 8066587]
Gaberson 1995 {published data only}
  • Gaberson K. The effect of humorous and musical distraction of preoperative anxiety. Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses Journal 1995;62(5):784. [PUBMED: 8534077]
Ganidagli 2005 {published data only}
Guo 2005 {published data only}
  • Guo J, Wang J. Study on individual music intervention to reduce preoperative anxiety on patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Chinese Journal of Nursing 2005;40(7):485-8.
Hook 2008 {published data only}
  • Hook L, Sonwathana P, Petpichetchian W. Music therapy with female surgical patients: Effect on anxiety and pain. Thai Journal of Nursing Research 2008;12(4):259-71.
Kushnir 2012 {published data only}
Lee 2004 {published data only}
Lee 2011 {published data only}
  • Lee KC, Chao YH, Yiin JJ, Chiang PY, Chao YF. Effectiveness of different music-playing devices for reducing preoperative anxiety: A clinical control study. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2011;48(10):1180-7. [PUBMED: 21565344]
Lee 2012 {published data only}
  • Lee KC, Chao YH, Yiin JJ, Hsieh HY, Dai WJ, Chao YF. Evidence that music listening reduces preoperative patients' anxiety. Biological Research for Nursing 2012;14(1):78-84. [PUBMED: 21278165]
Li 2004 {published data only}
  • Li S. Applying Chinese classical music to treat preoperative anxiety of patients with gastric cancer. Chinese Nursing Research 2004;18(3B):471-2.
Lin 2011 {published data only}
Miluk-Kolasa 1996 {published data only}
  • Miluk-Kolasa B, Matejek M, Stupnicki R. The effects of music listening on changes in selected physiological parameters in adult pre-surgical patients. Journal of Music Therapy 1996;33:208-18. [1997-07495-002]
Miluk-Kolasa 2002 {published data only}
  • Miluk-Kolasa B, Klodecka-Rozalska, Stupnicki R. The effect of music listening on perioperative anxiety levels in adult surgical patients. Polish Psychological Bulletin 2002;33:55-60. [2002-11422-007]
Ni 2011 {published data only}
Szeto 1999 {published data only}
  • Szeto C, Yung P. Introducing a music programme to reduce preoperative anxiety. British Journal of Theatre Nursing 1999;9(10):455. [PUBMED: 10646381]
Winter 1994 {published data only}
  • Winter MJ, Paskin S, Baker T. Music reduces stress and anxiety of patients in the surgical holding area. Journal of Post Anesthesia Nursing 1994;9(6):340-43. [PUBMED: 7707258]
Yung 2002 {published data only}
Yung 2003 {published data only}
  • Yung PMB, Kam SC, Lau BWK, Chan TMF. The effect of music in managing preoperative stress for Chinese surgical patients in the operating room holding area: a controlled trial. International Journal of Stress Management 2003;10:64-74. [2003-06067-007]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Aldrige 1993 {published data only}
  • Aldridge K. The use of music to relieve pre-operational anxiety in children attending day surgery. The Australian Journal of Music Therapy 1993;1:19-35.
Aragon 2002 {published data only}
  • Aragon D, Ferris C, Byers JF. The effects of harp music in vascular and thoracic surgical patients. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2002;8(5):52-60. [PUBMED: 1223380]
Arvelo Correa 1985 {published data only}
  • Arvelo Correa EJ, Daniel de Arvelo HE. Music hypnosis in children [Hipnosis musical em niños]. Revista de la Sociedad Médico-Quirúrgico del Hospital de Emergencia 1985;20(2):71-4.
Bansal 2010 {published data only}
  • Bansal P, Kharod U, Patel P, Sanwatsarkar S, Patel H, Kamat H. The effect of music therapy on sedative requirements and haemodynamic parameters in patients under spinal anaesthesia: A prospective study. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 2002;4(4):2782-9.
Beach 1991 {unpublished data only}
  • Beach E, Cross W. The effect of music on preoperative anxiety in children. Master's thesis. Barry University 1991.
Beddows 1997 {published data only}
  • Beddows J. Alleviating pre-operative anxiety in patients: A study. Nursing Standard 1997;11:35-8. [PUBMED: 9205339]
Behl 1972 {unpublished data only}
  • Behl VR. Effects of sedative music on pre-operative patients as measured by changes in their blood pressure, heart rate, respirations and maacl scores. Master's thesis. University of Washington 1972.
Brunges 2003 {published data only}
  • Brunges M, Avigne G. Clinical innovations. Music therapy for reducing surgical anxiety. Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses Journal 2003;78(5):816-8. [PUBMED: 14621954]
Chetta 1981 {published data only}
Chu 2004 {published data only}
  • Chu JJ. Interactive music therapy for preoperative anxiety. The American Journal of Nursing 2004;104(9):72B. [PUBMED: 15105197]
Cirina 1994 {published data only}
  • Cirina C. Effects of sedative music on patient preoperative anxiety. Today's OR Nurse 1994;16(3):15-8.
Cowan 1991 {published data only}
  • Cowan DS. Music therapy in the surgical arena. Music Therapy Perspectives 1991;9:42-5. [PUBMED: 8009576]
Curtis 1987 {published data only}
  • Curtis LD. Music: a method for anxiety reduction in the preoperative patient. Unpublished master's thesis. State University of New York at Buffalo 1987.
Dabu-Bondoc 2010 {published data only}
  • Dabu-Bondoc S, Vadivelu N, Benson J, Perret D, Kain ZN. Hemispheric synchronized sounds and perioperative analgesic requirements. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2010;110(1):208-10. [PUBMED: 19861358]
Daub 1988 {published data only}
  • Daub D, Kirschner-Hermanns R. A study comparing music, Thalamonal and no premedication [Verminderung der preoperative angst. Vergleichende studie zwischen music. Thalamonal und ohne pramedikation]. Der Anaesthesist 37;9:594-7. [PUBMED: 3056086]
Erickson 1989 {unpublished data only}
  • Erickson WR. The anxiolytic effects of music in the preoperative environment. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio 1989.
Gillen 2008 {published data only}
  • Gillen E, Biley F, Allen D. Effects of music listening on adult patients’ pre-procedural state anxiety in hospital. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare 2008;6(1):24-49. [2008-02471-003]
Haun 2001 {published data only}
Jarred 2003 {published data only}
  • Jarred J. The effect of live music on anxiety levels of persons waiting in a surgical waiting room as measured by self-report. Unpublished master's thesis, Florida State University 2003.
Johnson 2012 {published data only}
Kaempf 1989 {published data only}
Kain 2006 {published data only}
  • Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA, Krivutza DM, Weinberg ME, Gaal D, Wabg SM, et al. Interactive music therapy as a treatment for preoperative anxiety in children: A randomized controlled trial. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2006;98:1260-6. [PUBMED: 15105197]
Kamin 1982 {published data only}
  • Kamin A, Kamin H, Spintge R, Droh R. Endocrine effect of anxiolytic music and psychological counseling before surgery. In: Droh R, Spintge R editor(s). Angst, schmerz, music in der anasthesie. Basel: Editiones Roche, 1982:163-6.
Kamin 1987 {published data only}
  • Kamin A, Kamin H, Spintge R, Droh R. Musik als Beitrag zur Reduzierung pra- und postoperativer Angste in der Anasthesie. In: Spintge R, Droh R editor(s). Musik in der Medizin. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987.
Koch 1998 {published data only}
Leardi 2007 {published data only}
Lee 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Lee J. The effect of music therapy on levels of preoperative anxiety and ease of anesthesia induction in children undergoing surgery. Master's thesis. Temple University 2002.
Madson 2010 {published data only}
  • Madson AT, Silverman MJ. The effect of music therapy on relaxation, anxiety, pain perception, and nausea in adult solid organ transplant patients. Journal of Music Therapy 2010;47(3):220-32. [PUBMED: 21275333]
Miluk-Kolasa 1994 {published data only}
  • Miluk-Kolasa B, Obminskil A, Stupnicki R, Golec L. Effects of music treatment on salivary cortisol in patients exposed to pre-surgical stress. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology 1994;102:118-20. [PUBMED: 8056055]
Mok 2003 {published data only}
  • Mok E, Wong KY. Effects of music on patient anxiety. AORN Journal 2003;52:396-410. [PUBMED: 12619853]
Moss 1987 {published data only}
  • Moss V. The effect of music on anxiety in the surgical patient. Perioperative Nursing Quarterly 1987;3(1):9-16. [PUBMED: 3645659]
Murphree 1988 {unpublished data only}
  • Murphree JL. The effect of music therapy on anxiety in preoperative patients. Master’s thesis. Memphis State University 1988.
Nilsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Nilsson U. The effect of music intervention in stress response to cardiac surgery in a randomized clinical trial. Heart and Lung: Journal of Acute and Critical Care 2009;38(3):201-20. [PUBMED: 19486788]
Nix 1963 {published data only}
  • Nix PJ. Effects of music therapy and personal interaction on the preoperative patient. Unpublished master’s thesis, Loma Linda University 1963.
Oyama 1987 {published data only}
  • Oyama T, Sato Y, Kudo T, Spintge R, Droh R. Effect of anxiolytic music on endocrine function in surgical patients. In: Spintge R. Droh R editor(s). Musik in der medizine/Music in Medicine. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1987:169-174.
Padmanabhan 2005 {published data only}
Paradise 2001 {published data only}
  • Paradise CJ. An exploratory study of the effects of music as a preoperative nonpharmacologic anxiolytic in the surgical patient. Unpublished master's thesis, Mount Mary College Yankton, SD.
Park 2000 {published data only}
  • Park SH, Park KS. The effects of music therapy on the preoperative anxiety of surgical patients. Journal of Korean Academy of Adult Nursing 2000;12(4):654-5.
Peristein 1994 {published data only}
  • Peristein RM. The effect of listening to music on preoperative anxiety in the patient admitted for same day surgery with general anesthesia. Unpublished master’s thesis, Albany Medical Center 1994.
Phillips 1997 {published data only}
  • Phillips JR. Effect of preoperative music on anxiety in adult pre-surgical patients. Master's thesis. University of Kansas 1997.
Robb 1995 {published data only}
  • Robb SO, Nichols RJ, Rutan RL, Bishop BL. The effects of music assisted relaxation on preoperative anxiety. Journal of Music Therapy 1995;32:2-21. [1995-38255-001]
Sanderson 1986 {published data only}
  • Sanderson SK. The effect of music on reducing preoperative anxiety and postoperative pain and anxiety in the recovery room. Unpublished master’s thesis, Florida Sate University.
Scheve 2002 {unpublished data only}
  • Scheve AM. The effect of music therapy intervention on pre-operative anxiety of pediatric patients as measured by self-report. Master’s thesis. Florida State University 2002.
Spintge 1982 {published data only}
  • Spintge R, Droh R. The pre-operative condition of 1910 patients exposed to anxiolytic music and Rohypnol (flurazepam) before receiving an epidural anesthetic. In: Droh R, Spintge R editor(s). Angst, schmerz, music in der anasthesie. Basel: Editiones Roche, 1982:77-88.
Staples 1993 {unpublished data only}
  • Staples SE. The effect of music listening on blood pressure, pulse rate, respiration rate, and anxiety state of patients in the preoperative room. Master's thesis. Florida State University 1993.
Tusek 1999 {published data only}
  • Tusek DL, Cwynar R,  Cosgrove DM. Effect of guided imagery on length of stay, pain and anxiety in cardiac surgery patients. Journal of Cardiovascular Management 1999;10(2):22-8. [PUBMED: 10557909]
Updike 1987 {published data only}
  • Updike P, Charles D. Music Rx: Physiological and emotional responses to taped music programs of preoperative patients awaiting plastic surgery. Annals of Plastic Surgery 1987;19:29-33. [PUBMED: 3307595]
Walters 1996 {published data only}
  • Walters CL. The psychological and physiological effects of vibrotactile stimulation, via a Somatron, on patients awaiting scheduled gynecological surgery. Journal of Music Therapy 1996;33(4):261-87. [1997-03112-003]
Wang 2002 {published data only}
  • Wang S, Kulkarni L, Doley J, Kain Z. Music and preoperative anxiety: A randomized controlled study. Ambulatory Anesthesia 2002;94:1489-94. [PUBMED: 12032013]
Zhan 2008 {published data only}
  • Zhan H, Yang N, He X. Influence of branchiplex anesthesia on analgesia effect by adopting music therapy. Chinese Nursing Research 2008;22(1B):108-9.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Berbel 2007 {published data only}
  • Berbel P, Moix J,  Quintana S. Music versus diazepam to reduce preoperative anxiety: a randomized controlled clinical trial [Estudio comparativo de la eficacia de la musica frente al diazepam para disminuir la ansiedad prequiruirgica: un ensayo clinico controlado y aleatorizado]. Revista Espanola de Anestesiologia y Reanimacion 2007;54(6):355-8.
Dwita 2002 {published data only}
  • Dwita A, Natalia J. Effect of music on anxiety in patients undergoing cataract surgery [Pengaruh Musik Terhadap Kecemasan Penderita Katark Menjelang Operasi ]. ANIMA Indonesian Psychological Journal 2002;17(2):179-95.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Agarwal 2005
Beccaloni 2011
Bolwerk 1990
  • Bolwerk C. Effects of relaxing music on state anxiety in myocardial infarction patients. Critical Nurse Quarterly 1990;13:63-72. [MEDLINE: 2383784]
Bradt 2009
Bradt 2010
Bradt 2011
Bradt 2012
Cepeda 2006
Chlan 1998
Cohen 1988
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Dileo 1999
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Dileo 2005
  • Dileo CD, Bradt J. Medical music therapy: A meta-analysis & agenda for future research. Jeffrey Books, 2005.
Dileo 2007
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Dileo 2008
Frank 1985
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Friedman 2007
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Lai 2006
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Lee 2005
Leroy 2003
Maranets 1999
McAuley 2000
Mitchell 2003
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Ozalp 2003
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Pittman 2011
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