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Opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16)

  • Review
  • Intervention

Authors


Abstract

Background

Youth gangs have long been studied in the United States and interest elsewhere is increasing. Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency. One theory of gang involvement, drawing on anomie and strain theories, proposes that the gang provides a means of fulfilling the economic needs of youth excluded from legitimate labour markets. Opportunities provision is a gang prevention strategy based on this theory and the principle that providing youth with educational and employment opportunities may reduce gang involvement. Common techniques within opportunities provision include tutoring, remedial education, job training, and job placement.

Objectives

To determine the effectiveness of opportunities provision for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people aged 7 to 16.

Search methods

Electronic searches were conducted of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Dissertations Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists.

Selection criteria

All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions that have opportunities provision as the majority component, delivered to children and youths aged 7 to 16 not involved in a gang, compared to any other or no intervention.

Data collection and analysis

Searches yielded 2,696 unduplicated citations. 2,676 were excluded based on title and abstract. Two were excluded based on personal communication with study authors. Full-text reports for 18 citations were retrieved. 16 were excluded because they were not evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, did not include gang-related outcomes, did not include opportunities provision intervention components, or presented preliminary findings for outcomes reported in another citation. The remaining two reports were at least partially relevant to opportunities provision for gang prevention, but methodological flaws excluded both from analysis.

Main results

No randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials were identified.

Authors' conclusions

No evidence from randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials currently exists regarding the effectiveness of opportunities provision for gang prevention. Only two studies addressed opportunities provision as a gang prevention strategy, a case study and a qualitative study, both of which had such substantial methodological limitations that even speculative conclusions as to the impact of opportunities provision were impossible. Rigorous primary evaluations of gang prevention strategies are crucial to develop this research field, justify funding of existing interventions, and guide future gang prevention programmes and policies.

摘要

背景

提供機會給7 – 16歲的孩童和年輕人以防止青年加入幫派

美國長期研究年輕幫派份子,其他國家對此議題也越來越有興趣.許多研究證實幫派份子和不良行為有確實和一致的關係性.一個來自社會反常狀態和壓力理論的參加幫派理論指出:幫派可以滿足不能在合法就業市場工作年輕人的經濟需要.根據此理論,提供機會可防止加入幫派.相信給青年教育和工作機會,可以減少幫派參與度.一般使用家教或補強教育,職業訓練和就業機會分發. 本系統性回顧發現沒有隨機對照試驗或半隨機對照試驗,評估是否提供機會以預防加入幫派是有效的.急需預防加入幫派策略的評估,以合理化現行介入的預算和指引未來防範加入幫派的計畫和政策.例如家教或職業訓練和就業機會,

目標

檢驗是否提供機會給7 – 16歲的孩童和年輕人,可以防止青年加入幫派.

搜尋策略

電子搜尋ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007.檢閱者聯絡相關機構,個人和服務機構,相關網頁和文獻清單.

選擇標準

所有隨機對照試驗或半隨機對照試驗,比較提供機會給7 – 16歲沒有加入幫派的孩童和年輕人,和其他介入或沒有介入相比.

資料收集與分析

搜尋2,696未發表的引用文獻,其中2,676個被排除,因為沒有試驗名稱或摘要.另外兩個被排除,因為沒有作者通訊資料.在剩下的18個文獻全文中,16個又被排除.因為:沒有評估,沒有說明預防加入幫派的計畫,沒有和幫派相關的結果評量,沒有提供機會介入或只有其他文獻中的前期結果.剩下兩個文獻與提供機會以預防加入幫派部份相關,但又被排除因為方法學上的缺失.

主要結論

沒有隨機對照試驗或半隨機對照試驗.

作者結論

目前沒有隨機對照試驗或半隨機對照試驗,評估是否提供機會,可以有效預防加入幫派.只有兩個試驗提到提供機會以預防加入幫派.較有關的一個個案研究和一個質性研究,都有潛在方法學限制,無法猜測提供機會的影響.急需預防加入幫派策略的評估,以合理化現行介入的預算和指引未來防範加入幫派的計畫和政策.

翻譯人

本摘要由成功大學附設醫院尹子真翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院 (National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan) 統籌。

總結

研究顯示加入幫派年輕人,比起非幫派份子或非幫派不當行為者,較容易有不當行為和犯罪,尤其是嚴重暴力攻擊.提供機會是常用的方式預防加入幫派,因為社會反常狀態和壓力理論,相信給青年教育和工作機會,例如家教,職業訓練和就業機會,可減少幫派參與度.本系統性回顧發現沒有隨機對照試驗或半隨機對照試驗,評估是否提供機會以預防加入幫派是有效的.急需預防加入幫派策略的評估,以合理化現行介入的預算和指引未來防範加入幫派的計畫和政策.

Plain language summary

Seeking to prevent gang involvement in young people by providing educational or work opportunities

Research has shown that youth who join gangs are more likely to be involved in delinquency and crime, particularly serious and violent offences, compared to non-gang youth and non-gang delinquent youth. Opportunities provision is a commonly used gang prevention strategy based on anomie and strain theories and the belief that giving youth educational and employment opportunities, such as tutoring or job training and placement, will reduce gang involvement. This systematic review found no randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of opportunities provision for gang prevention. There is an urgent need for rigorous primary evaluations of gang prevention and intervention programmes to justify current programme funding and guide future interventions.

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