Intervention Review

Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16)

  1. Herrick Fisher,
  2. Frances Gardner,
  3. Paul Montgomery*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 23 APR 2008

Assessed as up-to-date: 1 APR 2007

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007008.pub2


How to Cite

Fisher H, Gardner F, Montgomery P. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD007008. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007008.pub2.

Author Information

  1. University of Oxford, The Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, Oxford, UK

*Paul Montgomery, The Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, University of Oxford, Barnett House, 32 Wellington Square, Oxford, OX1 2ER, UK. paul.montgomery@socres.ox.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 23 APR 2008

SEARCH

 

Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Background

Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency, with gang members disproportionately involved in crime compared to non-gang peers. Research also indicates that both delinquent youth and youth who join gangs often show a wide range of deficient or distorted social-cognitive processes compared to non-delinquent peers. Cognitive-behavioural interventions are designed to address cognitive deficits in order to reduce maladaptive or dysfunctional behaviour, and studies have documented their positive impact on a number of behavioural and psychological disorders among children and youth.

Objectives

To determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (ages 7-16).

Search methods

Electronic searches of Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Dissertations Abstracts A, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals, and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists.

Selection criteria

All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions with a cognitive-behavioural intervention as the majority component, delivered to youth and children aged 7-16 not involved in a gang.

Data collection and analysis

Searching yielded 2,284 unduplicated citations, 2,271 of which were excluded as irrelevant based on title and abstract. One was excluded following personal communication with investigators. One citation, of a large randomised prevention trial, awaits assessment; personal communication with study authors yielded unpublished reports addressing gang outcomes, but insufficient detail precluded determining inclusion status. Seven remaining reports were excluded as irrelevant because they were narrative reviews or descriptions of programs without evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, or did not address a gang prevention program that included a cognitive-behavioural intervention. The remaining four full-text reports excluded because of study design, leading to 0 included studies.

Main results

No randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials were identified.

Authors' conclusions

No evidence from randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials exists regarding the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for gang prevention. Four evaluations of Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) have been conducted, two of which were part of a US national evaluation, but all were excluded based on study design. Reviewers conclude there is an urgent need for rigorous primary evaluations of cognitive-behavioural interventions for gang prevention to develop this research field and guide future gang prevention programmes and policies.

 

Plain language summary

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing gang involvement in children and young people

Research indicates that youth who join gangs are more likely to be involved in delinquency and crime, particularly serious and violent offences, compared to non-gang youth and non-gang delinquent youth. Research also has found that both delinquent youth and youth who join gangs often show a range of negative thoughts, feelings and beliefs compared to non-delinquent peers. Cognitive-behavioural interventions, designed to address these deficits, have had a positive impact on a variety of behavioural and psychological disorders among children and youth. This systematic review was designed to assess the effectiveness of such cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement. A three-part search strategy found no randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for gang prevention; four excluded studies examining the impact of Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) were of too poor a quality to be included in analysis. The only possible conclusions from this review, therefore, are the urgent need for additional primary evaluations of cognitive-behavioural interventions for gang prevention and the importance of high standards required of the research conducted to provide meaningful findings that can guide future programmes and policies.

 

摘要

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. Plain language summary
  4. 摘要

背景

用於預防孩童及7 – 16歲年輕人參與少年幫派的認知行為治療

許多研究都指出,參加幫派和犯罪率上升有強烈而一致的關係,和非幫派同儕相比,幫派成員和犯罪有不成比例的相關。和非行為偏差的同輩相比,行為偏差和加入幫派的青少年通常在社會認知過程上都有大幅的缺陷及扭曲。而且已有研究指出,對孩童及青少年的行為及心理疾患有正面的影響。

目標

評估認知行為治療用於預防孩童及7 – 16歲年輕人參與少年幫派的有效性。

搜尋策略

我們搜尋了2007年4月之前的ASSIA、CINAHL、CJA、Cochrane Library、Dissertations Abstracts A、EMBASE、ERIC、IBSS, LILACs、LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE、NCJR Service Abstracts Database、PsycINFO及Sociological Abstracts等電子資源。評論作者也聯絡了相關的組織、個人、郵遞論壇程式、研究相關的網站及參考資料。

選擇標準

所有針對未加入幫派的孩童及7 – 16歲的年輕人,以認知行為治療為主體的隨機或半隨機對照試驗。

資料收集與分析

我們搜尋到2284篇不重複的引文,其中2271篇因無關的標題及摘要被排除。有1篇引文在和作者連絡後被排除。1篇大型隨機預防試驗仍待評估;親自和研究作者溝通後,得到了幾篇關於幫派結果的未發表報告,但詳細資料不足,無法判斷是否能夠收錄。剩下的7篇報告也因無關而被排除,因為它們是敘述性的評論或未經評估的計劃闡述,並沒有討論幫派預防計劃,或沒有討論到包含認知行為治療的幫派預防計劃。最後4篇有全文的報告因實驗設計被排除,導致最後沒有收錄任何研究。

主要結論

並未找到隨機控制試驗或是半隨機控制試驗。

作者結論

沒有任何關於認知行為治療用於幫派預防的隨機或半隨機對照試驗證據。有4個Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) 的評估,其中2個是美國國家評估的一部份,但所有都因實驗設計被排除。評論作者認為目前急需嚴格、關於認知行為治療用於幫派預防的主要評估,以拓展這個研究領域,並為未來幫派預防計劃及政策提供一些準則。

翻譯人

本摘要由朱奕蓁翻譯。

此翻譯計畫由臺灣國家衛生研究院 (National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan) 統籌。

總結

研究示了加入幫派的年輕人,比起未加入幫派的年輕人和未加入幫派但有偏差行為的年輕人,更容易有偏差行為及犯罪,特別是嚴重且暴力的行為。研究也發現,有偏差行為的年輕人和加入幫派的年輕人,比起沒有偏差行為的同儕來說,有更多負面思想、感覺及信念。認知行為治療是被設計來處理這些障礙,其對行為或心理異常的孩童及青少年有正面的影響。這個系統性評論是評估以認知行為治療預防年輕人參與幫派的療效。三部份的搜尋策略發現並無評估認知行為治療用於幫派預防有效性上的隨機或半隨機對照試驗。四個排除的研究,檢視Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT) ,因品質不良而被排除。因此,對此評論唯一可能的結論是,目前急需額外針對認知行為治療用於幫派預防的主要評估,以及在研究中所需要的高標準的重要性,如此才可提供有意義的發現來引導未來的計畫及政策。