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Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes

  1. A Dhanya Mackeen1,*,
  2. Jolene Seibel-Seamon2,
  3. Jacqueline Muhammad3,
  4. Jason K Baxter1,
  5. Vincenzo Berghella1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 27 FEB 2014

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007062.pub3


How to Cite

Mackeen AD, Seibel-Seamon J, Muhammad J, Baxter JK, Berghella V. Tocolytics for preterm premature rupture of membranes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD007062. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007062.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

  2. 2

    Virtua West Jersey Hospital, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Voorhees, New Jersey, USA

  3. 3

    Aurora Health Center, Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA

*A Dhanya Mackeen, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, 834 Chestnut Street, Suite 400, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, PA 19107, USA. dhanya80@hotmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 27 FEB 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Christensen 1980 {published data only}
  • Christensen K, Ingemarsson I, Leideman T, Solum H, Svenningesen N. Effect of ritodrine on labor after premature rupture of membranes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1980;55(2):187-90.
Dunlop 1986 {published data only}
Ehansipoor 2010 {published data only}
  • Ehsanipoor RM, Shrivastava VK, Lee RM, Chan K, Galyean AM, Garite TJ, et al. A randomized, double-masked trial of prophylactic indomethacin tocolysis versus placebo in women with premature rupture of membranes. American Journal of Perinatology 2010 Dec 17 [Epub ahead of print]. [PUBMED: 21170827]
Garite 1987 {published data only}
  • Garite T, Keegan K, Freeman R, Nageotte M. A randomised trial of ritodrine tocolysis versus expectant management in patients with premature rupture of membranes at 25 to 30 weeks of gestation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1987;157(2):388-93.
Laohapojanart 2007 {published data only}
  • Laohapojanart N, Soorapan S, Wacharaprechanont T, Ratanajamit C. Safety and efficacy of oral nifedipine versus terbutaline injection in preterm labor. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2007;90:2461-9.
Levy 1985 {published data only}
Matsuda 1993 {published data only}
  • Matsuda Y, Ikenoue K, Ibara S, Sameshima H, Kuraya K, Hokanishi H. The efficacy of prophylactic antibiotic and tocolytic therapy for premature rupture of the membranes - a prospective randomized study. Acta Obstetrica et Gynaecologica Japonica 1993;45:1109-14.
  • Matsuda Y, Ikenoue T, Hokanishi H. Premature rupture of the membranes-aggressive vs conservative approach: effect of tocolytic and antibiotic therapy. Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation 1993;36:102-7.
  • Matsuda Y, Nakamura Y, Asano H, Hirano T, Sameshima H, Ibara S, et al. Premature rupture of the membranes and infectious outcome. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 1991;19(Suppl 2):248.
Weiner 1988 {published data only}
  • Weiner C, Renk K, Klugman M. The therapeutic efficacy and cost-effectiveness of aggressive tocolysis for premature labor associated with premature rupture of membranes. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1988;159:216-22.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Bisits 2004 {published data only}
  • Bisits A, Madsen M, Knox A, Gill A, Smith R, Yeo G, et al. The randomised nitric oxide tocolysis trial (RNOTT) for the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004;191:683-90.
Briery 2009 {published data only}
  • Briery C, Veillon E, Klauser CK, Martin R, Chauhan S, Magann EF, et al. Women with prolonged premature rupture of the membrane do not benefit from weekly progesterone: a randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2009;201(6 Suppl 1):S189.
Caritis 1982 {published data only}
  • Caritis S, Carson D, Greebon D, McCormick M, Edelstone D, Mueller-Heubach E. A comparison of terbutaline and ethanol in the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1982;142:183-90.
Caritis 1984 {published data only}
  • Caritis S, Toig G, Heddinger L, Ashmead G. A double-blind study comparing ritodrine and terbutaline in the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1984;150:7-14.
Cotton 1984 {published data only}
  • Cotton DB, Strassner HT, Hill LM, Schifrin BS, Paul RH. Comparison of magnesium sulfate, terbutaline and a placebo for inhibition of preterm labor. A randomised study. Journal of Reproductive Medicine 1984;29:92-7.
Decavalas 1995 {published data only}
  • Decavalas G, Mastrogiannis D, Papadopoulos V, Tzingounis V. Short-term versus long-term prophylactic tocolysis in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes. European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1995;59:143-7.
  • Decavalas G, Papadopoulos V, Tsapanos V, Tzingounis V. Tocolysis inpatients with preterm premature rupture of membranes has any effect on pregnancy outcome?. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1994;46:26.
El-Sayed 1999 {published data only}
  • El-Sayed YY, Riley ET, Holbrook RH Jr, Cohen SE, Chitkara U, Druzin ML. Randomized comparison of intravenous nitroglycerin and magnesium sulfate for treatment of preterm labor. Obstetrics & Gyneoclogy 1999;93:79-83.
Essed 1978 {published data only}
  • Essed GGM, Eskes TKAB, Jongsma HW. A randomised trial of two beta-mimetic drugs for the treatment of threatening early labor. Clinical results in a prospective comparative study with ritodrine and fenoterol European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology;148:341-8.
Ferguson 1984 {published data only}
  • Ferguson JE II, Holbrook H, Stevenson DK, Hensleigh PA, Kredenster D. Adjuntive magnesium sulfate infusion does not alter metabolic changes associated with ritodrine tocolysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1987;156:103-7.
  • Ferguson JE, Hensleigh PA, Kredenster D. Adjunctive use of magnesium sulfate with ritodrine for preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1984;148:166-71.
Ferguson 1989 {published data only}
  • Ferguson JE II, Dyson DC, Holbrook H, Schutz T, Stevenson DK. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects associated with nifedipine and ritodrine tocolysis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1989;161:788-95.
  • Ferguson JE, Dyson DC, Schultz T, Stevenson DK. A comparison of tocolysis with nifedipine or ritodrine: analysis of efficacy and maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1990;163:105-11.
  • Ferguson JE, Schultz TE, Stevenson DK. Neonatal bilirubin production after pre-term labor tocolysis with nifedipine. Developmental Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1989;12:113-7.
Freeman 2008 {published data only}
Gamissans 1982 {published data only}
  • Gamissans O, Balasch J. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors in the treatment of preterm labor. Preterm Birth: Causes, Prevention and Management. New York: Macmillan, 1984:223-48.
  • Gamissans O, Cararach V, Serra J. The role of prostaglandin-inhibitors, beta-adrenergic drugs and glucocorticoids in the management of threatened preterm labor. Beta-mimetic drugs in obstetrics and perinatology. 3rd Symposium on beta-mimetic drugs; November 1980. Aachen. Stuttgard: Georg Thieme, 1982:71-84.
Gill 2006 {published data only}
  • Gill A, Madsen G, Knox M, Bisits A, Giles W, Tudehope D, et al. Neonatal neurodevelopmental outcomes following tocolysis with glycerol trinitrate patches. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2006;195(2):484-7.
  • Gill A, Madsen G, Knox M, Bisits A, Giles W, Tudehope D, et al. Neonatal neurodevelopmental outcomes following tocolysis with glycerol trinitrate patches and IV beta 2 agonist therapy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;187:S117.
Holleboom 1996 {published data only}
Houtzager 2006 {published data only}
  • Houtzager BA, Hogendoorn S, Samson JF, Papatsonis D, Van Wassenaer AG. Nine years' follow up of children born from mothers who participated in a RCT of nifedipine versus ritodrine for threatened preterm labor. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2005 May 14-17; Washington DC, USA. Pediatric Academic Society, 2005:Abstract no: 2100.
  • Houtzager BA, Hogendoorn SM, Papatsonis DN, Samsom JF, Van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, et al. Long-term follow-up of children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine for the management of preterm labour. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2006;113:324-31.
How 1998 {published data only}
  • How H, Cook C, Cook V, Miles D, Spinnato J. Preterm premature rupture of membranes aggressive tocolysis versus expectant management. Journal of Maternal-Fetal Medicine 1998;7:8-12.
  • How H, Cook C, Cook V, Spinnato J. Preterm premature rupture of membranes: aggressive tocolysis versus expectant management. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174:306.
Husslein 2007 {published data only}
  • Husslein P, Roura L, Dudenhausen J, Helmer H, Frydman R, Rizzo N, et al. Atosiban versus usual care for the management of preterm labor. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 2007;35:305-13.
Ingemarsson 1976 {published data only}
  • Ingemarsson I. Effect of terbutaline on premature labor. A double-blind placebo controlled study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1976;125:520-4.
Kashanian 2005 {published data only}
Katz 1983 {published data only}
  • Katz J, Lancet M, Yemini M, Mogilner BM, Feigl A, Ben-Hur H. Treatment of premature labor contractions with combined ritodrine and indomethacin. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1983;21:337-42.
Koks 1998 {published data only}
Leake 1983 {published data only}
  • Leake RD, Hobel CJ, Oh W, Thibeault DW, Okada DM, Williams PR. A controlled, prospective study of the effect of ritodrine hydrochloride for premature labor. Clinical Research 1980;28:90A.
  • Leake RD, Hobel CJ, Oh W, Thibeault DW, Okada DM, Williams PR. A controlled, prospective study of the effect of ritodrine hydrochloride for premature labor. Pediatric Research 1980;14:603.
  • Leake RD, Hobel CJ, Okada DM, Ross MG, Williams PR. Neonatal metabolic effects of oral ritodrine hydrochloride administration. Pediatric Pharmocology 1983;3:101-6.
Lyell 2007 {published data only}
  • Lyell D, Pullen K, Campbell L, Ching S, Burrs D, Chitkara U, et al. Magnesium sulfate versus nifedipine for acute tocolysis of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2005;193:s18.
  • Lyell D, Pullen K, Campbell L, Ching S, Druzin M, Chikara U, et al. Magnesium sulfate compared with nifedipine for acute tocolysis of preterm labor. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;1:61-7.
Mittendorf 1997 {published data only}
  • Mittendorf R, Bentz L, Borg M, Roizen N. Does exposure to antenatal magnesium sulfate prevent cerebral palsy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;182:S20.
  • Mittendorf R, Covert R, Boman J, Khoshnood B, Lee KS, Siegler M. Is tocolytic magnesium sulphate associated with increased paediatric mortality. Lancet 1997;350:1517-8.
  • Mittendorf R, Covert R, Elin R, Pryde P, Khoshnood B, Lee KS. Umbilical cord serum ionized magnesium level and total paediatric mortality. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2001;98:75-8.
  • Mittendorf R, Dambrosia J, Khoshnood B, Lee KS, Pryde P, Yousefzadeh D. Association between magnesium and intraventricular haemorrhage. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;184:S188.
  • Mittendorf R, Dambrosia J, Khoshnood B, Lee KS, Pryde P, Yousefzadeh D. Magnesium sulfate is no more efficacious than other tocolytic agents. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;184(1):S188.
  • Mittendorf R, Dambrosia J, Pryde PG, Lee KS, Gianpoulos JG, Besinger RE, et al. Association between use of antenatal magnesium sulfate in preterm labor and adverse health outcomes in infants. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2002;186:1111-8.
  • Mittendorf R, Fambrosia J, Dammann O, Pryde PG, Lee KS, Ben-Ami TE, et al. Association between maternal serum ionized magnesium levels at delivery and neonatal intraventricular haemorrhage. Journal of Pediatrics 2002;140:540-6.
  • Mittendorf R, Janeczek S, Macmillan W, Gianopoulos J, Besinger R, Karlman R, et al. Mechanisms of mortality in the magnesium and neurologic endpoints trial: fetal inflammatory response syndrome. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2001;185:S151.
  • Mittendorf R, Kuban K, Pryde PG, Gianopoulos JG, Yousefzadeh D. Antenatal risk factors associated with the development of lenticulostriate vasculopathy in neonates. Journal of Perinatology 2005;25:101-7.
  • Mittendorf R, Pryde P, Khoshnood B, Lee KS. If tocolytic magnesium sulfate is associated with excess total paediatric mortality, what is its impact?. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1998;92:308-11.
  • Mitterndorf R, Bentz L, Kohn J, Covert R. Use of antenatal magnesium sulfate does not seem to prevent intraventricular haemorrhage. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;182:S34.
Moutquin 1992 {published data only}
  • Sauve RS. Outcomes of ritodrine exposed infants. Pediatric Research 1991;29:264A.
  • The Canadian Preterm Labor Investigator Group. Treatment of preterm labor with the beta-adrenergic agonist ritodrine. The New England Journal of Medicine 1992;327:308-12.
Nelson 1985 {published data only}
  • Nelson L, Meis P, Hatjis C, Ernest J, Dillard R, Schey H. Premature rupture of membranes: a prospective, randomised evaluation of steroids, latent phase and expectant management. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1985;66:55-8.
Papatsonis 1997 {published data only}
  • Papatsonis D, Kok J, Van Geijn H, Bleker O, Ader H, Dekker G. Neonatal effects of nifedipine and ritodrine for preterm labor. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;95:477-481.
  • Papatsonis D, Van Geijn V, Ader H, Lange F, Bleker O, Dekker G. Nifedipine and ritodrine in the management of preterm labor: a randomised multicenter trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1997;90(2):230-4.
  • Papatsonis DN, Van Geign HP, Dekker GA. Nifedipine as a safe and effective tocolytic agent in the treatment of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2000;183:513-4.
  • Papatsonis DN, Van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Hemodynamic and metabolic effects after nifedipine and ritodrine tocolysis. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2003;82:513-4.
  • Papatsonis DNM, Hogedoorn SM, Houtzager BA, Van Wassenaer AG, Samsom JF. Long-term follow-up of children exposed in utero to nifedipine or ritodrine in the management of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004;191(6 Suppl 1):S106.
  • Papatsonis DNM, Kok JH, Samsom JF, Lange FM, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Neonatal morbidity after randomized trial comparing nifedipine with ritodrine in the management of preterm labor. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1997;176(1 Pt 2):S117.
  • Papatsonis DNM, Van Geijn HP, Bleker OP, Lange FM, Ader HJ, Dekker GA. Tocolytic efficacy of nifedipine versus ritodrine; results of a randomized trial. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996;174:306.
Parsons 1988 {published data only}
  • Parsons MT, Sobel D, Cummiskey K, Constantine L, Roitman J. Steroid, antibiotic and tocolytic vs. no steroid, antibiotic and tocolytic management in patients with preterm PPROM at 25-32 weeks. Proceedings of 8th Annual Meeting of the Society of Perinatal Obstetricians; 1988 Feb 3-6; Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. 1988:44.
Renzo 2003 {published data only}
  • Renzo DGC, Mignosa MM, Rosati A, Burnelli L, Epicoco G, Luzi G. Can we effectively arrest premature labour in women with multiple gestations or other high-risk factors?. 4th World Congress on Controversies in Obstetrics, Gynecology & Infertility; 2003 April 24-7; Berlin, Germany. 2003:286-90.
Sims 1978 {published data only}
Spearing 1979 {published data only}
  • Spearing G. Alcohol, indomethacin and salbutamol. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1979;2:171-4.
Spellacy 1979 {published data only}
  • Spellacy W, Cruz A, Birk S, Buhi W. Treatment of premature labor with ritodrine: a randomised controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1979;54:220-3.
Tchilinguirian 1984 {published data only}
  • Tchilinguirian NG, Najem R, Sullivan GB, Craparo FJ. The use of ritodrine and magnesium sulfate in the arrest of premature labor. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 1984;22:117-23.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
El-Sayed 2010 {published data only}
  • El-Sayed YY. Progesterone for the management of preterm, premature rupture of the membranes: a randomized controlled trial. ClinicalTrials.gov (accessed 21 May 2013) 2010.
Mol 2012 {published data only}
  • Mol B. Assessment of Perinatal Outcome by uSe of Tocolysis in Early Labour: Nifedipine versus placebo in the treatment of preterm premature rupture of membranes. Netherlands Trials Register (http://www.trialregister.nl) (accessed 3 November 2012) 2012.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
ACOG 2007
  • Mercer B, for the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Premature rupture of membranes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;109:1007-19.
Anotayanonth 2004
Crowther 2002
  • Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001060]
Crowther 2007
Harding 2001
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Kaltreider 1980
  • Kaltreider DF, Kohl S. Epidemiology of preterm delivery. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 1980;23(1):17-31.
Kenyon 2001
  • Kenyon SL, Taylor DJ, Tarnow-Mordi W, for the ORACLE Collaborative Group. Broad-spectrum antibiotics for preterm, prelabour rupture of fetal membranes: the ORACLE 1 randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357:979-88.
Kenyon 2003
King 2000
  • King J, Flenady V. Prophylactic antibiotics for inhibiting preterm labour with intact membranes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000246]
King 2003
  • King JF, Flenady V, Papatsonis D, Dekker G, Carbonne B. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002255]
King 2005
Mercer 1995
Ohlsson 2009
Papatsonis 2005
Parry 1998
RevMan 2011 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Roberts 2006
Shatrov 2010
  • Shatrov JG, Birch SC, Lam LT, Quinlivan JA, McIntyre S, Mendz GL. Chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy: a meta-analysis. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2010;116(2 Pt 1):387-92.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Mackeen 2011