Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by partial or complete upper airway obstruction during sleep. Approximately 1% to 4% of children are affected by OSA, with adenotonsillar hypertrophy the most common underlying risk factor. Surgical removal of enlarged tonsils and adenoids is the most commonly used treatment for OSA. Given the perioperative risk of the intervention and an estimated recurrence rate of up to 20%, there has recently been an increased interest in non-surgical treatment modalities. As the enlarged adenoids and tonsils consist of hypertrophied lymphoid tissue, anti-inflammatory agents have been proposed as a useful non-invasive treatment option in children with OSA.