Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common cause of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) in human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) serotype patients and it mostly affects patients of African descent. It rapidly progresses to ESKD if untreated. The goal of treatment is directed toward reducing HIV-1 replication and/or slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease. The following pharmacological agents have been used for the treatment of HIVAN: antiretroviral therapy, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), steroids and recently cyclosporin. Despite this, the effect of each intervention is yet to be evaluated.