Intervention Review

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Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus current best practice (including inhaled steroid maintenance), for chronic asthma in adults and children

  1. Christopher J Cates1,*,
  2. Charlotta Karner2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Airways Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007313.pub3

How to Cite

Cates CJ, Karner C. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus current best practice (including inhaled steroid maintenance), for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD007313. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007313.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    St George's University of London, Population Health Sciences and Education, London, UK

  2. 2

    BMJ Group, BMJ Evidence Centre, London, UK

*Christopher J Cates, Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK. ccates@sgul.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
DE-SOLO {published and unpublished data}
  • AstraZeneca (D5890L00011). A comparison of Symbicort® single inhaler therapy (Symbicort® Turbuhaler® 160/4.5 mcg, 1 inhalation b.i.d. plus as-needed) and conventional best practice for the treatment of persistent asthma in adults - a 26-week, randomised, open-label, parallel-group, multicentre study. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/_mshost800325/content/clinical-trials/resources/pdf/D5890L00011 Accessed December 12th 2012. [: NCT00252863]
MONO {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca (D5890L00008). MONO: Symbicort single inhaler therapy and conventional best standard treatment for the treatment of persistent asthma in adolescents and adults. clinicaltrials.gov 2006:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00242411 [Accessed 12/04/2006].
PASSION {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A comparison of Symbicort single inhaler therapy (Symbicort Turbuhaler160/4.5 mg, 1 inhalation b.i.d. plus as needed) and conventional best practice for the treatment of persistent asthma in adults - a 26-week, randomised, open-label,parallel-group, multicentre study – PASSION Study [D5890L00016]. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/_mshost800325/content/clinical-trials/resources/pdf/8610707 Accessed July 2012. [: NCT00628758]
Riemersma (NCT00235911) {published and unpublished data}
  • AstraZeneca (BN-00S-0011). Symbicort single inhaler therapy for asthma in a general practice setting. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/_mshost800325/content/clinical-trials/resources/pdf/8610351 Accessed Jluy 2012. [: NCT00235911]
  • Riemersma RA, Postma D, van der Molen T. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy in primary care asthma management: effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma control. Primary Care Respiratory Journal 2012;21:50-6.
SALTO {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca (D5890L00009). SALTO - symbicort single inhaler therapy use in adolescent adults and adults with persistent asthma. www.clinicaltrials.gov 2006:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00290264 [Accessed 22/02/2008].
Scicchitano 2004 {published data only}
  • Scicchitano R, Aalbers R, Ukena D, Manjra A, Fouquert L, Centann S, et al. Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol single inhaler therapy versus a higher dose of budesonide in moderate to severe asthma. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2004;20(9):1403-18.
SOLO {published data only}
  • Sears MR, Boulet L-P, Laviolette M, FitzGerald JM, Bai R, SmiljanicGeorijev N, et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy for asthma compared to conventional best practice a randomised real life study. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):613s.
  • Sears MR, Boulet L-P, Laviolette M, FitzGerald JM, Bai TR, Kaplan A, et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy: impact on airway inflammation in asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2008:Epub: doi: 10.1183/09031936.00104007.
Sovani 2008 {published data only}
  • Sovani MP, Whale CI, Oborne J, Cooper S, Mortimer K, Ekström T, et al. Poor adherence with inhaled corticosteroids for asthma: can using a single inhaler containing budesonide and formoterol help?. British Journal of General Practice 2008;58(546):37-43.
SPAIN {published and unpublished data}
  • AstraZeneca. A comparison of Symbicort single inhaler therapy (Symbicort Turbuhaler160/4.5 mcg, 1 inhalation b.i.d. plus as needed) and conventional best practice for the treatment of persistent asthma in adults - a 26-week, randomised,open-label, parallel-group, multicentre study. Study SPAIN [D5890L00010]. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/_mshost800325/content/clinical-trials/resources/pdf/8610692 Accessed July 2012.
  • AstraZeneca. Symbicort single inhaler therapy vs conventional best practice for the treatment of persistent asthma in adults. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00385593?sect=X30125#evnt Accessed December 12th 2012. [: NCT00385593]
  • Quirce S, Barcina C, Plaza V, Calvo E, Munoz M, Ampudia R, et al. A comparison of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy versus conventional best practice in asthma management in Spain. Journal of Asthma 2011;48:839-47.
STAY - Adults {published and unpublished data}
  • Bateman ED, Palmqvist M, Juniper EF, Zhu Y, Ekstrom T. Single inhaler therapy with budesonide/formoterol has superior efficacy to fixed-dose budesonide/formoterol or a higher dose of budesonide alone. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference, May 21-26, 2004, Orlando. 2004.
  • Bruce SA, Scherer YK. Maintenance and symptom relief with budesonide plus formoterol reduced severe asthma exacerbations. Evidence-Based Nursing 2005;8(3):78.
  • Jönsson BG, Berggren FE, Svensson K, O'Byrne PM. Budesonide and formoterol in mild persistent asthma compared with doubling the dose of budesonide - a cost-effectiveness analysis. European Respiratory Journal. 2001; Vol. 18, issue Suppl 33:517s.
  • Jönsson BG, Berggren FE, Svensson K, O'Byrne PM. Economic results of adding formoterol to budesonide in mild persistent asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2001; Vol. 18, issue Suppl 33:331s.
  • O'Byrne PM. Acute asthma intervention: Insights from the STAY study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2007;119(6):1332-6.
  • O'Byrne PM, Bisgaard H, Godard PP, Pistolesi M, Palmqvist M, Zhu Y, et al. Budesonide/formoterol combination therapy as both maintenance and reliever medication in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;171(2):129-36.
  • O'Byrne PM, Godard P, Pistolesi M, Ekstrom T. Single inhaler therapy with budesonide/formoterol improves asthma control compared with fixed dosing with budesonide/formoterol or a higher dose of budesonide alone [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference, May 21-26, 2004, Orlando. 2004:Poster J93.
  • SD-039-673. Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort) Turbuhaler® as single therapy in patients with mild-moderate asthma. Comparison with Symbicort Turbuhaler and Pulmicort® Turbuhaler as maintenance therapy, both complemented with Bricanyl® Turbuhaler (STAY). http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com 2006.
STAY - Children {published and unpublished data}
  • Bisgaard H, Hultquist C. Budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and as needed - a new approach to asthma management in children [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):Abstract No. 1060.
  • Bisgaard H, Le Roux P, Bjamer D, Dymek A, Vermeulen JH, Hultquist C. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance plus reliever therapy - a new strategy in pediatric asthma. Chest 2006;130(6):1733-43.
  • O'Byrne PM. Acute asthma intervention: Insights from the STAY study. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2007;119(6):1332-6.
  • O'Byrne PM, Bisgaard H, Godard PP, Pistolesi M, Palmqvist M, Zhu Y, et al. Budesonide/formoterol combination therapy as both maintenance and reliever medication in asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2005;171(2):129-36.
  • SD-039-673. Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort) Turbuhaler® as single therapy in patients with mild-moderate asthma. Comparison with Symbicort Turbuhaler and Pulmicort® Turbuhaler as maintenance therapy, both complemented with Bricanyl® Turbuhaler (STAY). http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com 2006.
STEAM {published data only}
  • Astrazenca (SD-039-0667). Efficacy and safety of Symbicort® Turbuhaler® as single therapy in patients with mild to moderate asthma - STEAM (SD-039-0667). Astrazeneca Clinical Trials Register 2005:http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com (accessed 20th February 2008).
  • Rabe KF, Pizzichini E, Stallberg B, Romero S, Balanzat AM, Atienza T, et al. Budisonide/formoterol in a single inhaler for maintenance and relief in mild-to-moderate asthma: A randomized, double-blind trial. Chest 2006;129:245-56.
STYLE {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. STYLE - A Comparison of Symbicort SMART (Symbicort Turbuhaler160/4,5 mcg, 1 inhalation b.i.d. plus as needed) and conventional best practice for the treatment of persistent asthma in adolescents and adults – a 26-week, open-labelled, parallel-group, multicentre study. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/_mshost800325/content/clinical-trials/resources/pdf/8610702 Accessed July 2012. [: NCT00252824]
  • AstraZeneca (D5890L00014). STYLE - symbicort single inhaler therapy vs. conventional therapy in treatment of persistent asthma. www.clinicaltrials.gov 2005:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00252824 [Accessed 22/02/2008].
SYMPHONIE {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A comparison of Symbicort single inhaler therapy (Symbicort Turbuhaler 200/6 μg, 1 inhalation b.i.d. plus as needed) and conventional best practice for the treatment of persistent asthma in adolescents and adults – a 26-week, randomised, open, parallel group multicentre study. [D5890L00005]. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/_mshost800325/content/clinical-trials/resources/pdf/8610675 Accessed July 2012. [: NCT00259792]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Balanzat 2004 {published data only}
  • Balanzat A, Centanni S, Palmqvist M, Rabe K. Budesonide/formoterol single inhaler therapy reduces over reliance on rapid acting reliever medication [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):344s.
Bousquet 2007 {unpublished data only}
  • Astrazeneca (D5890C00002). Efficacy and safety of Symbicort®Turbuhaler®160/4.5 mcg/inhalation, two inhalations twice daily plus as-needed compared with Seretide™ Diskus™ 50/500 mcg/inhalation, one inhalation twice daily plus terbutaline Turbuhaler 0.4 mg/inhalation as-needed - a 6-month, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, active controlled, multinational phase IIIB study in adult and adolescent patients with persistent asthma. AstraZeneca Clinical Trials Register 2006, issue www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com (accessed 21/02/2008).
  • Bousquet J, Boulet L-P, Peters MJ, Magnussen H, Quiralte J, Martinez-Aguilar NE, et al. Budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and relief in uncontrolled asthma vs. high-dose salmeterol/fluticasone. Respiratory Medicine 2007;101(12):2437-46.
COMPASS {published and unpublished data}
  • AstraZeneca. SYM/050/DEC2007. Data on File.
  • Bleecker ER, Postma DS, Lawrance R, Meyers DA, Ambrose H, Goldman M. Effect of polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene (ADRB2) on response to long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) therapy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2007;119(2):523.
  • Buhl R, Vogelmeier C. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy: a new treatment approach for adult patients with asthma. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2007;23(8):1867-78.
  • Kuna P, Peters MJ, Buhl R. Budesonide/formoterol as maintenance and reliever therapy reduces asthma exacerbations a higher maintenance dose of budesonide/versus formoterol or salmeterol/fluticasone. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):205s.
  • Kuna P, Peters MJ, Manjra AI, Jorup C, Naya IP, Martinez-Jimenez NE, et al. Effect of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy on asthma exacerbations. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2007;61(5):725-36.
  • Price D, Wiren A, Kuna P. Budesonide/formoterol (B/F) as maintenance and relief for asthma improves efficacy and is cost saving versus higher maintenance dose of B/F or salmeterol/fluticasone (S/F) [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suupl 50):214s.
  • Price D, Wiren A, Kuna P. Cost-effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and reliever asthma therapy. Allergy 2007;62(10):1189-98.
COSMOS {published data only}
  • Buhl R, Vogelmeier C. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy: a new treatment approach for adult patients with asthma. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2007;23(8):1867-78.
  • D'Urzo A, Vogeimeier C, Jaspal M, Merino JM, Boulet S. Symbicort (budesonide/formoterol) for both maintenance and relief reduces the exacerbation burden compared with titration of seretide (salmeterol/fluticasone) in patients with asthma, a real life study. American Thoracic Society International Conference; May 20-25; San Diego, California. 2005:Poster G24.
  • Johansson G, Andreasson EB, Larsson PE, Vogelmeier CF. Cost effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy versus salmeterol/fluticasone plus salbutamol in the treatment of asthma. Pharmacoeconomics 2006;24(7):695-708.
  • Vogelmeier C, D'Urzo A. Maintenance plus as-needed budesonide/formoterol vs salmeterol/fluticasone in a real-life setting. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):Abstract No. 2770.
  • Vogelmeier C, D'Urzo A, Jaspal M, Merino JM, Johansson G, Boulet S. Symbicort for both maintenance and relief reduces exacerbations compared with a titration of Seretide (Advair) in patients with asthma: a real life study. American Thoracic Society 2005 International Conference; May 20-25; San Diego, California. 2005:Poster F67.
  • Vogelmeier C, D'Urzo A, Pauwels R, Merino JM, Jaspal M, Boutet S, et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy: An effective asthma treatment option?. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(5):819-28.
D5890C00003 {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca (D5890C00003). A comparison of the control of asthma inflammation provided by Symbicort Turbuhaler 160/4.5 mcg/inhalation bid plus as-needed versus symbicort turbuhaler 320/9 mcg/inhalation bid plus Pulmicort Turbuhaler 400mcg/dose bid plus terbutaline turbuhaler 0.4mg/inhalation as-needed. www.clinicaltrials.gov 2006:http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00244608 [Accessed22/02/2008].
Ind 2002 {published data only}
  • Ind PW, Villasante C, Shiner RJ, Pietinalho A, Boszormenyi NG, Soliman S, et al. Safety of formoterol by Turbuhaler as reliever medication compared with terbutaline in moderate asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2002;20(4):859-66.
Jenkins 2007 {published data only}
  • Jenkins CR, Marks GB, Gibson PG, Wark PAB, Thien FC, Belousova EG, et al. A randomised controlled trial of two algorithms for maintaining asthma control on long-acting bronchodilators (LABA) and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand Annual Scientific Meeting, 25-28 March 2007, Auckland. 2007:Abstract TP044.
Jonkers 2006 {published data only}
  • Jonkers RE, Bantje TA, Aalbers R. Onset of relief of dyspnoea with budesonide/formoterol or salbutamol following methacholine-induced severe bronchoconstriction in adults with asthma: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Respiratory Research 2006;7:141.
Loukides 2005 {published data only}
  • Loukides S, Papageorgiou M, Karokis A, Zervas E, Christodoulopoulou A, Papageorgiou N, et al. Single inhaler therapy (SiT) with budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FUM) is effective in asthma control. European Respiratory Journal. 2005; Vol. 26(Suppl 49):124S.
Lundborg 2006 {published data only}
  • Astrazeneca (LD-039-0003). An open, randomized, parallel-group, multicentre, phase IIIB study to evaluate the efficacy of Symbicort® Turbuhaler® single inhaler therapy (SiT), given as a low maintenance dose once or twice daily plus as needed, compared to a higher maintenance dose of Symbicort Turbuhaler given twice daily plus Oxis® Turbuhaler® as needed during 24 weeks in asthmatic patients (LD-039-0003). AstraZeneca Clinical Trials Register 2006, issue http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/ncmprint.aspx?type=article&param=516829 (accessed 21st February 2008).
  • Lundborg M, Wille S, Bjermer L, Tilling B, Lundgren M, Telg G, et al. Maintenance plus reliever budesonide/formoterol compared with a higher maintenance dose of budesonide/formoterol plus formoterol as reliever in asthma: An efficacy and cost-effectiveness study. Current Medical Research and Opinion 2006;22(5):809-21.
NCT00463866 {published data only}
  • Aubier M, Buhl R, Ekstrom T, Ostinelli J, Van Schayck CP, Selroos O, et al. Comparison of two twice-daily doses of budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy. European Respiratory Journal 2010; Vol. 36, issue 3:524-30.
Richter 2007 {published data only}
  • Richter K, Hartmann U, Metzenauer P, Magnussen H. Randomised trial comparing as-needed versus regular treatment with formoterol in patients with persistent asthma. Respiratory Medicine 2007;101(3):467-75.
SMILE {published and unpublished data}
  • Rabe F, Atienza T, Magyar P, Larsoon P, Jorup C, Lalloo G. A new combination therapeutic approach challenging the current dogma of using inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance only to control asthma. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):666s.
  • Rabe KF, Atienza T, Magyar P, Larsson P, Jorup C, Lalloo UG. Effect of budesonide in combination with formoterol for reliever therapy in asthma exacerbations: a randomised controlled, double-blind study. Lancet 2006;938(9537):744-53.
SOMA {published and unpublished data}
  • Haahtela T, Tamminen K, Malmberg LP, Zetterstrom O, Karjalainen J, Yla-Outinen H, et al. Formoterol as needed with or without budesonide in patients with intermittent asthma and raised NO levels in exhaled air: A SOMA study. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(4):748-55.
  • Haahtela T, Tamminen K, Malmberg P, Karjalainen J, Yia-Outinen H, Zetterstrom O, et al. As-needed treatment with a b2-agonist/ corticosteroid combination in mild intermittent asthma (SOMA). European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 45):Abstract No. 1722.
Tattersfield 2001 {published data only}
  • Berggren F, Ekström T. A cost-effectiveness study comparing the as-needed use of formoterol (Oxis) and terbutaline (Bricanyl) in patients with moderate to severe asthma. Respiratory Medicine 2001;98(9):753-8.
  • Tattersfield AE, Löfdahl CG, Postma DS, Eivindson A, Schreurs AGM, Rasidakis A, et al. Comparison of formoterol and terbutaline for as-needed treatment of asthma: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001;357(9252):257-61.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Adams 2008
  • Adams NP, Bestall JC, Lasserson TJ, Jones PW, Cates CJ. Fluticasone versus placebo for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003135.pub4]
Barnes 2007
  • Barnes PJ. Using a combination inhaler (budesonide plus formoterol) as rescue therapy improves asthma control. BMJ 2007; Vol. 335, issue 7618:513.
Bisgaard 2003
  • Bisgaard H. Effect of long-acting Beta2 agonists on exacerbation rates of asthma in children. Pediatric Pulmonology 2003; Vol. 36, issue 5:391-8. [: 1099-0496]
Cates 2008
  • Cates CJ, Cates MJ. Regular treatment with salmeterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006363.pub2]
Cates 2009a
  • Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ, Jaeschke R. Regular treatment with salmeterol and inhaled steroids for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006922.pub2]
Cates 2009b
  • Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ, Jaeschke R. Regular treatment with formoterol and inhaled steroids for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006924.pub2]
Cates 2010a
  • Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ. Regular treatment with formoterol and an inhaled corticosteroid versus regular treatment with salmeterol and an inhaled corticosteroid for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007694.pub2; : CD007694]
Cates 2011
  • Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ. Combination formoterol and inhaled steroid as maintenance and reliever therapy versus higher dose combination inhaler maintenance for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009019]
Cates 2012a
  • Cates CJ, Cates MJ. Regular treatment with formoterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006923.pub3]
Cates 2012b
  • Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ. Regular treatment with formoterol versus regular treatment with salmeterol for chronic asthma: serious adverse events. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007695.pub3]
Delea 2008
  • Delea TE, Hagiwara M, Stanford RH, Stempel DA. Effects of fluticasone propionate/salmeterol combination on asthma-related health care resource utilization and costs and adherence in children and adults with asthma. Clinical Therapeutics 2008; Vol. 30, issue 3:560-71.
Demoly 2009
  • Demoly P, Louis R, Soes-Petersen U, Naya I, Carlsheimer A, Worth H, et al. Budesonide/formoterol maintenance and reliever therapy versus conventional best practice. Respiratory Medicine 2009;103(11):1623-32.
Ducharme 2010
  • Ducharme FM, Ni Chroinin M, Greenstone I, Lasserson TJ. Addition of long-acting beta2-agonists to inhaled steroids versus higher dose inhaled steroids in adults and children with persistent asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005533.pub2; : ]
Ducharme 2011
FitzGerald 2004
  • FitzGerald JM, Becker A, Sears MR, Mink S, Chung K, Lee J. Doubling the dose of budesonide versus maintenance treatment in asthma exacerbations. Thorax 2004; Vol. 59, issue 7:550-6.
GINA 2006
  • From the Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention, Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2006. http://www.ginasthma.org (accessed 2006).
Harrison 2004
  • Harrison T, Oborne J, Newton S, Tattersfield A. Doubling the dose of inhaled corticosteroid to prevent asthma exacerbations: randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004; Vol. 363, issue 9405:271-5.
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2008
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.0 [updated February 2008] Available from: www.cochrane-handbook.org. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
Lasserson 2008
Lipworth 2008
  • Lipworth BJ, Jackson C. A SMART choice for primary care asthma therapy?. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/eletters/335/7618/513#178078 13 October 2007.
Ni Chroinin 2005
  • Ni Chroinin M, Greenstone IR, Danish A, Magdolinos H, Masse V, Zhang X, et al. Long-acting beta2-agonists versus placebo in addition to inhaled corticosteroids in children and adults with chronic asthma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005535]
Ni Chroinin 2009
  • Ni Chroinin M, Lasserson TJ, Greenstone I, Ducharme FM. Addition of long-acting beta-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids for chronic asthma in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2009, issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007949]
Palmqvist 2001
  • Palmqvist M, Arvidsson P, Beckman O, Peterson S, Lotvall J. Onset of bronchodilation of budesonide/formoterol vs. salmeterol/fluticasone in single inhalers. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2001;14(1):29-34.
SIGN/BTS 2012
  • Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network/British Thoracic Society. British guideline on the management of asthma: a national clinical guideline. Edinburgh: Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, 2008 (revised 2012).
Tattersfield 1999
  • Tattersfield AE, Postma DS, Barnes PJ, Svensson K, Bauer CA, O'Byrne PM, et al. Exacerbations of asthma: a descriptive study of 425 severe exacerbations. The FACET International Study Group. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1999;160(2):594-9.
Visual Rx
  • Visual Rx. www.nntonline.net/visualrx/ Accessed June 2012.
Walters 2007

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
  4. References to other published versions of this review
Cates 2009
  • Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ. Combination formoterol and budesonide as maintenance and reliever therapy versus inhaled steroid maintenance for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007313.pub2]