Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

  1. Tasanee Braithwaite1,*,
  2. Afshan A Nanji2,
  3. Kristina Lindsley3,
  4. Paul B Greenberg4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group

Published Online: 1 MAY 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 29 OCT 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007325.pub3


How to Cite

Braithwaite T, Nanji AA, Lindsley K, Greenberg PB. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD007325. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007325.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

  2. 2

    Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miami, Florida, USA

  3. 3

    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

  4. 4

    Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Division of Ophthalmology, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

*Tasanee Braithwaite, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 162 City Road, London, EC1V 2PD, UK. tasaneebraithwaite@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (conclusions changed)
  2. Published Online: 1 MAY 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Copernicus 2012 {published data only}
  • Boyer D, Heier J, Brown DM, Clark WL, Berliner AJ, Groetzbach G, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor Trap-Eye for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: six-month results of the phase 3 COPERNICUS study. Ophthalmology 2012;119(5):1024-32.
  • Brown DM, Heier JS, Clark WL, Boyer DS, Vitti R, Berliner AJ, et al. Intravitreal aflibercept injection for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: 1-year results from the phase 3 COPERNICUS study. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2013;155(3):429-37.
CRUISE 2010 {published data only}
  • Bhisitkul RB, Campochiaro PA, Shapiro H, Rubio RG. Predictive value in retinal vein occlusions of early versus late or incomplete ranibizumab response defined by optical coherence tomography. Ophthalmology 2013;120(5):1057-63.
  • Brown DM, Campochiaro PA, Singh RP, Li Z, Gray S, Saroj N, et al. Ranibizumab for macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion: six-month primary end point results of a phase III study. Ophthalmology 2010;117(6):1124-33.
  • Campochiaro PA, Bhisitkul RB, Shapiro H, Rubio RG. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes progressive retinal nonperfusion in patients with retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2013;120(4):795-802.
  • Campochiaro PA, Brown DM, Awh CC, Lee SY, Gray S, Saroj N, et al. Sustained benefits from ranibizumab for macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion: twelve-month outcomes of a phase III study. Ophthalmology 2011;118:2041-9.
  • Heier JS, Campochiaro PA, Yau L, Li Z, Saroj N, Rubio RG, Lai P. Ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions: long-term follow-up in the HORIZON trial. Ophthalmology 2012;119:802-9.
  • Suner IJ, Bressler NM, Varma R, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, et al. Reading speed improvements in retinal vein occlusion after ranibizumab treatment. JAMA Ophthalmology 2013;131(7):851-6.
  • Varma R, Bressler NM, Suner I, Lee P, Dolan CM, Ward J, for the BRAVO and CRUISE Study Groups. Improved vision-related function after ranibizumab for macular edema after retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2012;119(10):2108-18.
Epstein 2012 {published data only}
  • Epstein DL, Algvere PV, von Wendt G, Seregard S, Kvanta A. Benefit from bevacizumab for macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: twelve-month results from a prospective, randomized study. Ophthalmology 2012;119(12):2587-91.
  • Epstein DL, Algvere PV, von Wendt G, Seregard S, Kvanta A. Bevacizumab for macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: a prospective, randomized, double-masked clinical study. Ophthalmology 2012;119(6):1184-9.
GALILEO 2013 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Holz FG, Roider J, Ogura Y, Korobelnik JF, Simader C, Groetzbach G, et al. VEGF Trap-Eye for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: 6-month results of the phase III GALILEO study. British Journal of Ophthalmology 2013;97(3):278-84.
  • Korobelnik JF, Holz FG, Roider J, Ogura Y, Simader C, Schmidt-Erfurth U, for the GALILEO Study Group. Intravitreal aflibercept injection for macular edema resulting from central retinal vein occlusion: one-year results of the Phase 3 GALILEO Study. Ophthalmology 2014;121(1):202-8.
ROCC 2010 {published data only}
  • Kinge B, Stordahl PB, Forsaa V, Fossen K, Haugstad M, Helgesen OH, et al. Efficacy of ranibizumab in patients with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: results from the sham-controlled ROCC Study. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2010;150(3):310-4.
Wroblewski 2009 {published data only}
  • Ciulla TA. Treatment of macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion with pegaptanib sodium (Macugen): a one-year study. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2007. Conference abstract 199.
  • Csaky KG. Pegaptanib (Macugen) for macular edema in central retinal vein occlusion: early OCT results and effect of therapy reinitiation. American Academy of Ophthamology 2007. Conference abstract 269.
  • Patel SS. Pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO): anatomical outcomes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2007; Vol. 48:ARVO E-abstract 311.
  • Wells JA. Pegaptanib sodium for treatment of macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2006; Vol. 47:ARVO E-abstract 4279.
  • Wells JA. Safety and efficacy of pegaptanib sodium in treating macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2006. Conference abstract 288.
  • Wells JA, Wroblewski JJ. Pegaptanib sodium for the treatment of macular edema following central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO): functional outcomes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2007; Vol. 48:ARVO E-abstract 1544.
  • Wroblewski JJ, Wells JA 3rd, Adamis AP, Buggage RR, Cunningham ET Jr, Goldbaum M, et al. Pegaptanib sodium for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Archives of Ophthalmology 2009;127(4):374-80.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Byeon 2009 {published data only}
  • Byeon SH, Kwon OW, Song JH, Kim SE, Park YS. Prolongation of activity of single intravitreal bevacizumab by adjuvant topical aqueous depressant (Timolol-Dorzolamide). Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2009;247(1):35-42.
Campochiaro 2008 {published data only}
  • Campochiaro PA, Hafiz G, Shah SM, Nguyen QD, Ying H, Do DV, et al. Ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions: implication of VEGF as a critical stimulator. Molecular Therapy 2008;16(4):791-9.
  • Campochiaro PA, Shah SM, Hafiz G, Quinlan E, Zimmer-Gller I, Nguyen QD, et al. Ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2007; Vol. 48. ARVO E-abstract 1545.
Ding 2011 {published data only}
  • Ding X, Li J, Hu X, Yu S, Pan J, Tang S. Prospective study of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide versus bevacizumab for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2011;31(5):838-45.
Wang 2011 {published data only}
  • Wang H, Li X, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Li M, Su X, Zhu J. Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab alone or with triamcinolone acetonide for treatment of macular edema caused by central retinal vein occlusion. International Journal of Ophthalmology 2011;4(1):89-94.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
EBOVER {published data only}

 

Habibabadi 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Habibabadi H, Moradian S, Piri N, Esfahani M, Aalami Z, Lashay A, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab vs combination of bevacizumab and triamcinolone vs sham treatment in central retinal vein occlusion. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2008. Conference abstract 271.
  • Habibabadi HF, Moradian S, Piri N, Esfahani MR, Aalami Z, Karkhaneh R, et al. Intravitreal bevacizumab vs combination of bevacizumab and triamcinolone vs sham treatment for central retinal vein occlusion. American Academy of Ophthalmology 2007. Conference abstract 273.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Adamis 1996
  • Adamis AP, Shima DT, Tolentino MJ, Gragoudas ES, Ferrara N, Folkman J, et al. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor prevents retinal ischemia-associated iris neovascularization in a nonhuman primate. Archives of Ophthalmology 1996;114(1):66-71.
Aggermann 2012
  • Aggermann T, Brunner S, Krebs I, Haas P, Womastek I, Brannath W, et al. ROVO Study Group. A prospective, randomised, multicenter trial for surgical treatment of central retinal vein occlusion: results of the Radial Optic Neurotomy for Central Vein Occlusion (ROVO) study group. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2013;251(4):1065-72.
Aiello 1995
  • Aiello LP, Pierce EA, Foley ED, Takagi H, Chen HRL, Ferrara N, et al. Suppression of retinal neovascularization in vivo by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) using soluble VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1995;92(23):10457-61.
Arevalo 2008
  • Arevalo JF, Garcia RA, Wu L, Rodriguez FJ, Dalma-Weiszhausz J, Quiroz-Mercado H, et al. Radial optic neurotomy for central retinal vein occlusion: results of the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Retina 2008;28(8):1044-52.
Bakri 2007a
Bakri 2007b
Beck 2007
  • Beck RW, Maguire MG, Bressler NM, Glassman AR, Lindblad AS, Ferris FL. Visual acuity as an outcome measure in clinical trials of retinal disease. Ophthalmology 2007;114(10):1804-9.
Bertelsen 2013
  • Bertelsen M, Linneberg A, Christoffersen N, Vorum H, Gade E, Larsen M. Mortality in patients with central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2014;121(3):637-42.
Boyd 2002
  • Boyd SR, Zachary I, Chakravarthy U, Allen GJ, Wisdom GB, Cree IA, et al. Correlation of increased vascular endothelial growth factor with neovascularization and permeability in ischemic central vein occlusion. Archives of Ophthalmology 2002;120(12):1644-50.
Campochiaro 2009
  • Campochiaro PA, Choy DF, Do DV, Gulnar H, Shah SM, Nguyen QD, et al. Monitoring ocular drug therapy by analysis of aqueous samples. Ophthalmology 2009;116(11):2158-64.
Campochiaro 2010
  • Campochiaro PA, Hafiz G, Channa R, Shah SM, Nguyen QD, Ying H, et al. Antagonism of vascular endothelial growth factor for macular edema caused by retinal vein occlusions: two-year outcomes. Ophthalmology 2010;117(12):2387-94.
Catier 2005
  • Catier A, Tadayoni R, Paques M, Erginay A, Haouchine B, Gaudric A, et al. Characterization of macular edema from various etiologies by optical coherence tomography. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2005;140(2):200-6.
Chan 2011
  • Chan CK, Ip MS, Vanveldhuisen PC, Oden NL, Scott IU, Tolentino MJ, et al. SCORE Study report #11: incidences of neovascular events in eyes with retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2011;118(7):1364-72.
Clarkson 1994
  • Clarkson JG. Central Vein Occlusion Study: photographic protocol and early natural history. Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society 1994;92:203-13; discussion 213-5.
CVOS Group 1995
  • CVOS Group. Evaluation of grid pattern photocoagulation for macular edema in central vein occlusion. The Central Vein Occlusion Study Group M report. Ophthalmology 1995;102(10):1425-33.
CVOS Group 1997
  • CVOS Group. Natural history and clinical management of central retinal vein occlusion. The Central Vein Occlusion Study Group. Archives of Ophthalmology 1997;115(10):1275.
DeCroos 2009
  • DeCroos FC, Shuler RK Jr, Stinnett S, Fekrat S. Pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and panretinal endophotocoagulation for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. American Journal of Ophthalmology 2009;147(4):627-33.
Drechsler 2012
  • Drechsler F, Koferl P, Hollborn M, Wiedemann P, Bringmann A, Kohen L, Rehak M. Effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment on the retinal gene expression in acute experimental central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmic Research 2012;47(3):157-62.
Economides 2003
Edelman 2005
  • Edelman JL, Lutz D, Castro MR. Corticosteroids inhibit VEGF-induced vascular leakage in a rabbit model of blood-retinal and blood-aqueous barrier breakdown. Experimental Eye Research 2005;80(2):249-58.
Everett 2006
  • Everett AI, Yang SS. Venous occlusive disease: the latest in current management. Retina 2006;26(6):S63-4.
Eyetech 2008
  • Eyetech, Inc. Macugen - Pegatanib sodium injection. www.macugen.com/macugenUSPI.pdf 2008.
Feng 2013
  • Feng J, Zhao T, Zhang Y, Ma Y, Jiang Y. Differences in aqueous concentrations of cytokines in macular edema secondary to branch and central retinal vein occlusion.. PLoS One 2013;8(7):e68149.
Ferrara 2006
  • Ferrara N, Damico L, Shams N, Lowman H, Kim R. Development of ranibizumab, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antigen binding fragment, as therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2006;26(8):859-70.
Funk 2009
  • Funk M, Kriechbaum K, Prager F, Benesch T, Georgopoulos M, Zlabinger GJ, et al. Intraocular concentrations of growth factors and cytokines in retinal vein occlusion and the effect of therapy with bevacizumab. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 2009;50(3):1025-32.
Genentech 2008
  • Genentech, Inc. Lucentis: Full prescribing information. www.gene.com/gene/products/information/pdf/lucentis-prescribing.pdf 2008.
Genentech 2009
  • Genentech, Inc. Avastin: Full prescribing information. www.gene.com/gene/products/information/pdf/avastin-prescribing.pdf 2009.
Genentech/Roche 2009a
  • Genentech/Roche. Lucentis - Ranibizumab injection: Product Information Home. www.gene.com/gene/products/information/tgr/lucentis/ 2009.
Genentech/Roche 2009b
  • Genentech/Roche. Avastin: Product Information Home. www.gene.com/gene/products/information/oncology/avastin/ 2009.
Gewaily 2009
Glanville 2006
  • Glanville JM, Lefebvre C, Miles JN, Camosso-Stefinovic J. How to identify randomized controlled trials in MEDLINE: ten years on. Journal of the Medical Library Association 2006;94(2):130-6.
Gragoudas 2004
Gregori 2010
Guex-Crosier 1999
Hasselbach 2007
  • Hasselbach HC, Ruefer F, Feltgen N, Schneider U, Bopp S, Hansen LL, et al. Treatment of central retinal vein occlusion by radial optic neurotomy in 107 cases. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2007;245(8):1145-56.
Hayreh 1983
  • Hayreh SS. Classification of central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 1983;90(5):458-74.
Hayreh 1990a
  • Hayreh SS, Klugman MR, Beri M, Kimura AE, Podhajsky P. Differentiation of ischemic from non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion during the early acute phase. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 1990;228(3):201-17.
Hayreh 1990b
  • Hayreh SS, Klugman MR, Podhajsky P, Servais GE, Perkins ES. Argon laser panretinal photocoagulation in ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. A 10-year prospective study. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 1990;228(4):281-96.
Hayreh 1994
  • Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB, Podhajsky P. Incidence of various types of retinal vein occlusion and their recurrence and demographic characteristics. American Journal of Ophthalmology 1994;117(4):429-41.
Hayreh 2003
Hayreh 2011
Hee 1995
  • Hee MR, Puliafito CA, Wong C, Duker JS, Reichel E, Rutledge B, et al. Quantitative assessment of macular edema with optical coherence tomography. Archives of Ophthalmology 1995;113(8):1019-29.
Heier 2012
  • Heier JS, Campochiaro PA, Yau L, Li Z, Saroj N, Rubio RG, et al. Ranibizumab for macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions: long-term follow-up in the HORIZON trial. Ophthalmology 2012;119(4):802-9.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Homsi 2007
  • Homsi J, Daud AI. Spectrum of activity and mechanism of action of VEGF/PDGF inhibitors. Cancer Control 2007;14(3):285-94.
Krohne 2008
Los 2007
Lynch 2007
McAllister 2010
  • McAllister IL, Gillies ME, Smithies LA, Rochtchina E, Harper CA, Daniell MD, et al. The Central Retinal Vein Bypass Study: a trial of laser-induced chorioretinal venous anastomosis for central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2010;117(5):954-65.
McIntosh 2010
  • McIntosh RL, Rogers SL, Lim L, Cheung N, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, et al. Natural history of central retinal vein occlusion: an evidence-based systematic review. Ophthalmology 2010;117(6):1113-23.
Meyer 2011
Nishijima 2007
  • Nishijima K, Ng YS, Zhong L, Bradley J, Schubert W, Jo N, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A is a survival factor for retinal neurons and a critical neuroprotectant during the adaptive response to ischemic injury. American Journal of Pathology 2007;171(1):53-67.
Opremcak 2006
Ozurdex GENEVA 2010
  • Haller JA, Bandello F, Belfort R, Blumenkranz MS, Gillies M, Heier J, et al. The OZURDEX GENEVA Study Group. Randomized, sham-controlled trial of dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema due to retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2010;117(6):1134-46.
Ozurdex GENEVA 2011
  • Haller JA, Bandello F, Belfort R Jr, Blumenkranz MS, Gillies M, Heier J, et al. The OZURDEX GENEVA Study Group. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in patients with macular edema related to branch or central retinal vein occlusion twelve-month study results. Ophthalmology 2011;118(12):2453-60.
Park 2007
  • Park CH, Scott AW, Fekrat S. Effect of oral pentoxifylline on cystoid macular edema associated with central retinal vein occlusion. Retina 2007;27(8):1020-5.
Park 2010
  • Park DH, Kim IT. Long-term effects of vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion and hemiretinal vein occlusion. Retina 2010;30(1):117-24.
Pe'er 1995
  • Pe'er J, Shweiki D, Itin A, Hemo I, Gnessin H, Keshet E. Hypoxia-induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor by retinal cells is a common factor in neovascularizing ocular diseases. Laboratory Investigation 1995;72(6):638-45.
Pe'er 1998
Prasad 2010
  • Prasad PS, Oliver SC, Coffee RE, Hubschman JP, Schwartz SD. Ultra wide-field angiographic characteristics of branch retinal and hemicentral retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2010;117(4):780-4.
Prisco 2002
Raszewska-Steglinska 2009
  • Raszewska-Steglinska M, Gozdek P, Cisiecki S, Michalewska Z, Michalewski J, Nawrocki J. Pars plana vitrectomy with ILM peeling for macular edema secondary to retinal vein occlusion. European Journal of Ophthalmology 2009;19(6):1055-62.
RevMan 2011
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Rogers 2010
  • Rogers S, McIntosh RL, Cheung N, Lim L, Wang JJ, Mitchell P, et al. The prevalence of retinal vein occlusion: pooled data from population studies from the United States, Europe, Asia, and Australia. Ophthalmology 2010;117(2):313-9.
SCORE 2009
  • Ip MS, Scott IU, VanVeldhuisen PC, Oden NL, Blodi BA, Fisher M, et al. SCORE Study Research Group. A randomized trial comparing the efficacy and safety of intravitreal triamcinolone with observation to treat vision loss associated with macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion: The standard care vs corticosteroid for retinal vein occlusion (SCORE) study report 5. Archives of Ophthalmology 2009;127(9):1101-14.
Shahsuvaryan 2003
Shima 1996
  • Shima DT, Gougos A, Miller JW, Tolentino M, Robinson G, Adamis AP, et al. Cloning and mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in ischemic retinas of Macaca fascicularis. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 1996;37(7):1334-40.
Stem 2013
  • Stem MS, Talwar N, Comer GM, Stein JD. A longitudinal analysis of risk factors associated with central retinal vein occlusion. Ophthalmology 2013;120(2):362-70.
Stewart 2008
Stewart 2012
  • Stewart MW, Grippon S, Kirkpatrick P. Aflibercept. Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 2012; Vol. 11, issue 4:269-70.
van der Reis 2011
  • van der Reis MI, La Heij EC, De Jong-Hesse Y, Ringens PJ, Hendrikse F, Schouten JS. A systematic review of the adverse events of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) 2011;31(8):1449-69.
Vinores 1999
Wittstrom 2012
  • Wittstrom E, Holmberg H, Hvarfner C, Andreasson S. Clinical and electrophysiologic outcome in patients with neovascular glaucoma treated with and without bevacizumab. European Journal of Ophthalmology 2012;22(4):563-74.
Wolf-Schnurrbusch 2011
  • Wolf-Schnurrbusch UE, Ghanem R, Rothenbuehler SP, Enzmann V, Framme C, Wolf S. Predictors of short-term visual outcome after anti-VEGF therapy of macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2011;52(6):3334-7.
Wright 2007
  • Wright JK, Franklin B, Zant E. Clinical case report: treatment of a central retinal vein occlusion with hyperbaric oxygen. Undersea & Hyperbaric Medicine 2007;34(5):315-9.
Wu 2008
  • Wu L, Martinez-Castellanos MA, Quiroz-Mercado H, Arevalo JF, Berrocal MH, Farah ME, et al. Twelve-month safety of intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (Avastin): results of the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group (PACORES). Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2008;246(1):81-7.
Yasuda 2011
  • Yasuda S, Kachi S, Kondo M, Ushida H, Uetani R, Terui T, et al. Significant correlation between electroretinogram parameters and ocular vascular endothelial growth factor concentration in central retinal vein occlusion eyes. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 2011;52(8):5737-42.
Zambarakji 2005
  • Zambarakji HJ, Ghazi-Nouri S, Schadt M, Bunce C, Hykin PG, Charteris DG. Vitrectomy and radial optic neurotomy for central retinal vein occlusion: effects on visual acuity and macular anatomy. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology 2005;243(5):397-405.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Braithwaite 2010
Smith 2008
  • Smith TST, Nanji AA, Greenberg PB. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor for macular edema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007325]