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Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation versus no intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  1. Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy1,*,
  2. Myura Nagendran2,
  3. Gian Piero Guerrini3,
  4. Clare D Toon4,
  5. Murat Zinnuroglu5,
  6. Brian R Davidson1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group

Published Online: 13 MAR 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007337.pub3


How to Cite

Gurusamy KS, Nagendran M, Guerrini GP, Toon CD, Zinnuroglu M, Davidson BR. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation versus no intraperitoneal local anaesthetic instillation for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD007337. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007337.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Department of Surgery, London, UK

  2. 2

    Department of Surgery, UCL Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, London, UK

  3. 3

    Ravenna Hospital, Department of Surgery, Ravenna, Italy

  4. 4

    West Sussex County Council, Public Health, Chichester, West Sussex, UK

  5. 5

    Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation/Algology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Gazi University Medical Faculty, Ankara, Turkey

*Kurinchi Selvan Gurusamy, Department of Surgery, Royal Free Campus, UCL Medical School, Royal Free Hospital, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 2PF, UK. k.gurusamy@ucl.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 13 MAR 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Abdel-Raouf 2004 {published data only}
  • Abdel-Raouf M, Amer H. Postoperative analgesic effects of intraperitoneal NMDA receptor antagonists (ketamine and magnesium) in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 2004;20(2):107-11.
Ahmad 1998 {published data only}
  • Ahmad SM, Hassanally D, Harris G, Simson J. Is local and intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine after laparoscopic cholecystectomy effective for pain?. British Journal of Surgery 1998;85(Suppl 1):47.
Alagöl 2003 {published data only}
  • Alagöl A, Karamanlioglu B, Turan FN, Pamukçu Z. The analgesic efficacy of intraperitoneally administered ondansetron in laparoscopic cholecystectomies. Turk Anesteziyoloji ve Reanimasyon 2003;31(2):95-9.
Alkhamesi 2007 {published data only}
  • Alkhamesi NA, Peck DH, Lomax D, Darzi AW. Intraperitoneal aerosolization of bupivacaine reduces postoperative pain in laparoscopic surgery: a randomized prospective controlled double-blinded clinical trial. Surgical Endoscopy 2007;21(4):602-6.
Alper 2009 {published data only}
  • Alper I, Ulukaya S, Ertugrul V, Makay O, Uyar M, Balcioglu T. Effects of intraperitoneal levobupivacaine on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. Agri 2009;21(4):141-5.
Alptekin 2010 {published data only}
  • Alptekin H, Sahin M. Gallbladder bed irrigation with bupivacaine improves pulmonary functions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery 2010;395(5):501-4.
Barczynski 2006 {published data only}
  • Barczynski M, Konturek A, Herman RM. Superiority of preemptive analgesia with intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine before rather than after the creation of pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Surgical Endoscopy 2006;20(7):1088-93.
Bhardwaj 2002 {published data only}
  • Bhardwaj N, Sharma V, Chari P. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine instillation for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 2002, issue 1:49-52.
Castillo-Garza 2012 {published data only}
  • Castillo-Garza G, Diaz-Elizondo JA, Cuello-Garcia CA, Villegas-Cabello O. Irrigation with bupivacaine at the surgical bed for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 2012;16(1):105-11.
Chundrigar 1993 {published data only}
  • Chundrigar T, Hedges AR, Morris AR, Stamatakis JD. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine for effective pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England 1993; Vol. 75, issue 6:437-9.
Elfberg 2000 {published data only}
  • Elfberg BA, Sjövall-Mjöberg S. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine does not effectively reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind study. Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy and Percutaneous Techniques 2000; Vol. 10, issue 6:357-9.
Elhakim 2000a {published data only}
El-Labban 2011 {published data only}
  • El-Labban G, Hokkam E, El-Labban M, Morsy K, Saadl S, Heissam K. Intraincisional vs intraperitoneal infiltration of local anaesthetic for controlling early post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain. Journal of Minimal Access Surgery 2011;7(3):173-7.
Feroci 2009 {published data only}
  • Feroci F, Kroning KC, Moraldi L, Borrelli A, Ottaviano A, De Prizio M, et al. A new effective method to reduce pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Giornale di Chirurgia 2010;31(10):423-8.
  • Feroci F, Kröning KC, Scatizzi M. Effectiveness for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy of 0.5% bupivacaine-soaked Tabotamp placed in the gallbladder bed: a prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Surgical Endoscopy 2009;23(10):2214-20.
Fornari 1996 {published data only}
  • Fornari M, Miglietta C, Di-Gioia S, Garrone C, Morino M. The use of bupivacaine through intraoperative topic way in the control of the postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minerva Chirurgica 1996; Vol. 51, issue 10:881-5.
Fu 2009 {published data only}
Fuhrer 1996 {published data only}
  • Fuhrer Y, Charpentier C, Boulanger G, Menu N, Grosdidier G, Laxenaire C. Analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy using intraperitoneal bupivacaine. Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation 1996;15(2):128-34.
  • Fuhrer Y, Charpentier C, Menu N, Boulanger G, Grosdidier G, Faffet P, et al. Effects on postoperative pain and pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal bupivacaine after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1995;74(Suppl 1):141.
Garcia 2007 {published data only}
  • Garcia JBS, Alencar JAM, Dos SCEC. Intraperitoneal administration of 50% enantiomeric excess (S75-R25) bupivacaine in postoperative analgesia of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia 2007; Vol. 57, issue 4:344-55.
Golubovic 2009 {published data only}
  • Golubovic S, Golubovic V, Cindric- Stancin M, Tokmadzic VS. Intraperitoneal analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: bupivacaine versus bupivacaine with tramadol. Collegium Antropologicum 2009;33(1):299-302.
Gvozdenovic 2011 {published data only}
  • Gvozdenovic LV, Milic SD, Ivanov D, Pajtic V, Mancic N, Gvozdenovic NV. Crucial role of multimodale analgesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2011;28(Suppl 48):202-3.
Hasan 2007 {published data only}
  • Hasan S, Lauwers M, Van H, Van NY, Camu F. Postoperative vain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A placebo-controlled randomized trial of local infiltration and intra peritoneal administration of ropivacaine 0.25%. Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica 2007; Vol. 58, issue 2:150.
Hazinedaroglu 2006 {published data only}
  • Hazinedaroglu SM, Kayaoglu HA, Ates Y, Ertürk S, Butuner C, Turkcapar AG. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pain medicine 2006; Vol. 7, issue 6:539-41.
Jabbour-Khoury 2005 {published data only}
  • Jabbour-Khoury SI, Dabbous AS, Gerges FJ, Azar MS, Ayoub CM, Khoury GS. Intraperitoneal and intravenous routes for pain relief in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. JSLS 2005; Vol. 9, issue 3:316-21.
Jiranantarat 2002 {published data only}
  • Jiranantarat V, Rushatamukayanunt W, Lert-Akyamanee N, Sirijearanai R, Piromrat I, Suwannanonda P, et al. Analgesic effect of intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine for postoperative laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 2002; Vol. 85, issue Suppl 3:S897-S903.
Joris 1995 {published data only}
  • Joris J, Thiry E, Paris P, Weerts J, Lamy M. Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: characteristics and effect of intraperitoneal bupivacaine. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1995;81(2):379-84.
  • Thiry E, Paris P, Weerts J, Joris J. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine does not reduce postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994; Vol. 72, issue Suppl 1:120.
Kallel 2011 {published data only}
  • Kallel S, Ben Soltana MH, Djemal W, Triki Z, Chaari M, Karoui A. Peritoneal block analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2011;28(Suppl 48):123.
Karaaslan 2006 {published data only}
  • Karaaslan D, Sivaci RG, Akbulut G, Dilek ON. Preemptive analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled study. Pain Practice 2006;6(4):237-41.
Karadeniz 2003 {published data only}
  • Karadeniz U, Erdemli O, Unver S, Ayoglu H, Ayogu F, Ebil S. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine injection and infusion via subphrenic catheter for postoperative pain management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy [abstract]. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1998;80(Suppl 1):172.
  • Karadeniz Ü, Erdemli Ö, Ünver S, Yasitli H, Ayoglu H. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine infusion and injection for postoperative pain management in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anestezi Dergisi 2003;11(3):226-30.
Kilic 1996 {published data only}
  • Kilic A, Basgul E, Ozdemir A, Erdem MK. The efficacy of the intraperitoneal bupivacaine application on early postoperative pain and blood gas values after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Agri Dergisi 1996; Vol. 8, issue 3:20-6.
Kim 2010 {published data only}
  • Kang H, Baek CW, Woo YC, Kim JY, Park SG, Park JS. Intraperitoneal ropivacaine washout for reduction of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomized study. Pain Medicine 2009;10(6):1153-4.
  • Kim TH, Kang H, Park JS, Chang IT, Park SG. Intraperitoneal ropivacaine instillation for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Journal of the Korean Surgical Society 2010;79(2):130-6.
Kolsi 2000 {published data only}
  • Kolsi K, Ghozzi H, Masmoudi A, Mzali R, Sahnoun Z, Zeghal K, et al. Intraperitoneal lignocaine for analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Acute Pain 2000; Vol. 3, issue 4:200-5.
Kucuk 2007 {published data only}
  • Kucuk C, Kadiogullari N, Canoler O, Savli S. A placebo-controlled comparison of bupivacaine and ropivacaine instillation for preventing postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgery Today 2007;37(5):396-400.
Labaille 2002 {published data only}
  • Labaille T, Mazoit JX, Paqueron X, Franco D, Benhamou D. The clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intraperitoneal ropivacaine for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2002; Vol. 94, issue 1:100-5.
Lee 2001 {published data only}
  • Lee IO, Kim SH, Kong MH, Lee MK, Kim NS, Choi YS, et al. Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: the effect and timing of incisional and intraperitoneal bupivacaine. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 2001;48(6):545-50.
Lepner 2003 {published data only}
  • Lepner U, Goroshina J, Samarütel J. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomised prospective double-blind clinical trial. Scandinavian Journal of Surgery 2003; Vol. 92, issue 2:121-4.
Louizos 2005 {published data only}
  • Louizos AA, Hadzilia SJ, Leandros E, Kouroukli IK, Georgiou LG,  Bramis JP. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of preincisional infiltration and intraperitoneal instillation of levobupivacaine 0.25%. Surgical Endoscopy 2005;19(11):1503-6.
Maestroni 2002 {published data only}
  • Maestroni U, Sortini D, Devito C, Pour-Morad-Kohan-Brunaldi F, Anania-Pavanelli L, Pasqualucci A, et al. A new method of preemptive analgesia in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgical Endoscopy 2002; Vol. 16, issue 9:1336-40.
Mraovic 1997 {published data only}
  • Mraovic B, Jurisic T, Kogler-Majeric V, Sustic A. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine for analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1997; Vol. 41, issue 2:193-6.
Ng 2004 {published data only}
  • Ng A, Swami A, Smith G, Robertson G, Lloyd DM. Is intraperitoneal levobupivacaine with epinephrine useful for analgesia following laparoscopic cholecystectomy? A randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2004; Vol. 21, issue 8:653-7.
Nicolau 2008 {published data only}
  • Nicolau AE, Merlan V, Grecu I, Nicolau M, Micu B. Multimodal analgesia in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A double-blind randomized control trial. Chirurgia 2008;103(5):547-51. [1221-9118]
Pasqualucci 1994 {published data only}
  • Pasqualucci A, Contardo R, Da Broi U, Colo F, Terrosu G, Donini A, et al. The effects of intraperitoneal local anesthetic on analgesic requirements and endocrine response after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind controlled study. Journal of Laparoendoscopic Surgery 1994;4(6):405-12.
Pasqualucci 1996 {published data only}
  • Pasqualucci A, De Angelis V, Contardo R, Colo F, Terrosu G, Donini A, et al. Preemptive analgesia: intraperitoneal local anesthetic in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesiology 1996;85(1):11-20.
Paulson 2003 {published data only}
  • Paulson J, Mellinger J, Baguley W. The use of intraperitoneal bupivacaine to decrease the length of stay in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. 45th Annual Meeting of the Midwest-Surgical-Association 2002:275-8.
  • Paulson J, Mellinger J, Baguley W. The use of intraperitoneal bupivacaine to decrease the length of stay in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients. The American Surgeon 2003;69(4):275-9.
Rademaker 1994 {published data only}
  • Rademaker BMP, Kalkman CJ, Odoom JA, Dewit L, Ringers J. Intraperitoneal local-anesthetics after laparoscopic cholecystectomy - effects on postoperative pain, metabolic responses and lung-function. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994;72(3):263-6.
Raetzell 1995a {published data only}
  • Raetzell M, Maier C, Schroder D, Wulf H. Intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy - risk or benefit?. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1995; Vol. 81, issue 5:967-72.
Raetzell 1995b {published data only}
  • Raetzell M, Maier C, Schroder D, Wulf H. Intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine during laparoscopic cholecystectomy - risk or benefit?. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1995; Vol. 81, issue 5:967-72.
Razek 2003 {published data only}
  • Razek EA. Intraperitoneal levobupivacaine for analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 2003; Vol. 19, issue 3:249-54.
Razman 2010 {published data only}
  • Razman J, Ramasamy R, Yan YW, Muthupalaniappan K. Intraperitoneal 0.5% bupivacaine instillation in trendelenburg position for postoperative pain relief in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. HPB 2010;12(Suppl S1):106-7.
Roberts 2011 {published data only}
  • Roberts KJ, Gilmour J, Pande R, Nightingale P, Tan LC, Khan S. Efficacy of intraperitoneal local anaesthetic techniques during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques 2011;25(11):3698-705.
Rudra 2002 {published data only}
  • Rudra A, Biswas BN, Mukhopadhya S, Mukhopadhya M, Bagchi D, Bar B. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology 2002; Vol. 18, issue 4:409-11.
Scheinin 1995 {published data only}
  • Scheinin B, Kellokumpu I, Lindgren L, Haglund C, Rosenberg PH. Effect of intraperitoneal bupivacaine on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1995; Vol. 39, issue 2:195-8.
Szem 1996 {published data only}
  • Szem JW, Hydo L, Barie PS. A double-blinded evaluation of intraperitoneal bupivacaine vs saline for the reduction of postoperative pain and nausea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgical Endoscopy 1996; Vol. 10, issue 1:44-8.
Todorov 2009 {published data only}
  • Todorov G, Tzaneva P, Lukanova T, Velev G, Kojtchev A. The effect of intraperitoneal levobupivacain (Chirocaine) application on postoperative pain in laparoscopic cholecystectomy - a prospective study. Khirurgiia 2009;4-5:32-5.
Tunca 2001 {published data only}
  • Tunca T, Basoglu M, Kürsat H, Cesur M. The evaluation of the effects of intraperitoneal morphine+bupivacaine versus bupivacaine for postoperative analgesia. Turk Anesteziyoloji ve Reanimasyon 2001; Vol. 29, issue 6:281-4.
Verma 2006 {published data only}
  • Verma GR, Lyngdoh TS, Kaman L, Bala I. Placement of 0.5% bupivacaine-soaked Surgicel in the gallbladder bed is effective for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques 2006; Vol. 20, issue 10:1560-4.
Weber 1997 {published data only}
  • Weber A, Muñoz J, Garteiz D, Cueto J. Use of subdiaphragmatic bupivacaine instillation to control postoperative pain after laparoscopic surgery. Surgical Laparoscopy & Endoscopy 1997; Vol. 7, issue 1:6-8.
Zimmer 2010 {published data only}
  • Zimmer PW, McCann MJ, O'Brien MM. Bupivacaine use in the Insuflow device during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: results of a prospective randomized double-blind controlled trial. Surgical Endoscopy 2010;24(7):1524-7.
Zmora 2000 {published data only}
  • Zmora O, Stolik-Dollberg O, Bar-Zakai B, Rosin D, Kuriansky J, Shabtai M, et al. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine does not attenuate pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. JSLS 2000; Vol. 4, issue 4:301-4.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Ahmed 2008 {published data only}
  • Ahmed BH, Ahmed A, Tan DF, Awad ZT, Al-Aali AY, Kilkenny J, et al. Post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy pain: effects of intraperitoneal local anesthetics on pain control - a randomized prospective double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. The American Surgeon 2008;74(3):201-9.
Alexander 1997 {published data only}
Bayar 1998 {published data only}
  • Bayar M, Ilhan Y, Onal A, Akkus M, Cifter C. Evaluation of postoperative analgesia and catecholamine levels in laparoscopic cholecystectomy after injection of intraperitoneal bupivacaine. Agri 1998;10(2):30-4.
Beqiri 2012 {published data only}
  • Beqiri AI, Domi RQ, Sula HH, Zaimi EQ, Petrela EY. The combination of infiltrative bupivacaine with low-pressure laparoscopy reduces postcholecystectomy pain. A prospective randomized controlled study. Saudi Medical Journal 2012;33(2):134-8.
Berven 1995 {published data only}
  • Berven S, Horvath K, Brooks DC. The effect of topical intraperitoneal bupivacaine on post-operative pain following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minimally Invasive Therapy 1995;4(2):67-71.
Bisgaard 1999 {published data only}
  • Bisgaard T, Klarskov B, Kristiansen VB, Callesen T, Schulze S, Kehlet H, et al. Multi-regional local anesthetic infiltration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients receiving prophylactic multi-modal analgesia: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1999;89(4):1017-24.
Busley 1999 {published data only}
  • Busley R, Blobner M, Jelen-Esselborn S, Feussner H, Kochs E. Intraperitoneal local anaesthetics via subphrenic catheter following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: pain relief and pulmonary function. Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies 1999; Vol. 8, issue 4:219-25.
Celik 2000 {published data only}
  • Celik J, Tuncer S, Reisli R, Okesli S, Otelcioglu S. Intraperitoneal versus interpleural analgesia on post-operative pain to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Turk Anesteziyoloji ve Reanimasyon 2000; Vol. 28, issue 6:317-21.
Cha 2012 {published data only}
  • Cha SM, Kang H, Baek CW, Jung YH, Koo GH, Kim BG, et al. Peritrocal and intraperitoneal ropivacaine for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Journal of Surgical Research 2012;175(2):251-8.
Cunniffe 1998 {published data only}
  • Cunniffe MG, McAnena OJ, Dar MA, Calleary J, Flynn N. A prospective randomized trial of intraoperative bupivacaine irrigation for management of shoulder-tip pain following laparoscopy. American Journal of Surgery 1998;176(3):258-61.
Di Pace 2009 {published data only}
  • Di Pace MR, Cimador M, Catalano P, Caruso A, Sergio M, Casuccio A, et al. Efficacy of periportal infiltration and intraperitoneal instillation of ropivacaine after laparoscopic surgery in children. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques 2009;19(6):821-5.
Elhakim 2000b {published data only}
Gharaibeh 2000 {published data only}
  • Gharaibeh KIA, Al-Jaberi TM. Bupivacaine instillation into gallbladder bed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: does it decrease shoulder pain?. Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques - Part A 2000;10(3):137-41.
Gupta 2002 {published data only}
  • Gupta A, Thörn SE, Axelsson K, Larsson LG, Agren G, Holmström B, et al. Postoperative pain relief using intermittent injections of 0.5% ropivacaine through a catheter after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2002;95(2):450-6.
Hernández-Palazón 2003 {published data only}
  • Hernández-Palazón J, Tortosa JA, Nuño de la Rosa V, Giménez-Viudes J, Ramírez G, Robles R. Intraperitoneal application of bupivacaine plus morphine for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2003; Vol. 20, issue 11:891-6.
Hilvering 2011 {published data only}
  • Hilvering B, Draaisma WA, Bilt JD, Valk RM, Kofman KE, Consten EC. Randomized clinical trial of combined preincisional infiltration and intraperitoneal instillation of levobupivacaine for postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British Journal of Surgery 2011;98(6):784-9.
Inan 2004 {published data only}
Johnson 1999 {published data only}
  • Johnson RC, Hedges AR, Morris R, Stamatakis JD. Ideal pain relief following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. International Journal of Clinical Practice 1999;53(1):16-8.
Lauwick 2008 {published data only}
  • Lauwick S, Kim do J, Michelagnoli G, Mistraletti G, Feldman L, Fried G, et al. Intraoperative infusion of lidocaine reduces postoperative fentanyl requirements in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 2008;55(11):754-60.
Lindgren 1997 {published data only}
Mack 1995 {published data only}
Maharjan 2009 {published data only}
  • Maharjan SK, Shrestha S. Intraperitoneal and periportal injection of bupivacaine for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Kathmandu University Medical Journal 2009;7(25):50-3.
Memedov 2010 {published data only}
  • Memedov C, Mentes O, Simsek A, Kece C, Yagci G, Harlak A, et al. Comparison of analgesic effects of intraperitoneal lornoxicam and ropivacaine administration in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. [Turkish]. Trakya Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Dergisi 2010;27(2):142-9.
Michaloliakou 1996 {published data only}
  • Michaloliakou C, Chung F, Sharma S. Preoperative multimodal analgesia facilitates recovery after ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesia and Analgesia 1996; Vol. 82, issue 1:44-51.
Moreira 2000 {published data only}
  • Moreira RW, Amatto PE, Bessa-Jr RC, Silva JB. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia 2000; Vol. 50, issue 4:283-8.
Newcomb 2007 {published data only}
  • Newcomb W, Lincourt A, Hope W, Schmelzer T, Sing R, Kercher K, et al. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled comparison of local anesthetic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for postoperative pain management after laparoscopic surgery. The American Surgeon 2007;73(6):618-24.
Ng 2002 {published data only}
  • Ng A, Smith G. Intraperitoneal administration of analgesia: is this practice of any utility?. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2002; Vol. 89, issue 4:535-7.
Özkoçak 2002 {published data only}
  • Özkoçak I, Kirdemir P, Rasa K, Aksu C, Gögüs N. The comparison of preemptive intraperitoneal analgesic effects of tramadol, pethidine and bupivacaine. Anestezi Dergisi 2002; Vol. 10, issue 1:49-52.
Paech 2008 {published data only}
  • Paech MJ, Ilett KF, Hackett LP, Page-Sharp M, Parsons RW. Disposition and clinical outcome after intraperitoneal meperidine and ropivacaine administration during laparoscopic surgery. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2008;106(1):278-86.
Papadima 2009 {published data only}
  • Papadima A, Lagoudianakis EE, Antonakis P, Filis K, Makri I, Markogiannakis H, et al. Repeated intraperitoneal instillation of levobupivacaine for the management of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgery 2009;146(3):475-82.
Pappas-Gogos 2008 {published data only}
  • Pappas-Gogos G, Tsimogiannis KE, Zikos N, Nikas K, Manataki A, Tsimoyiannis EC. Preincisional and intraperitoneal ropivacaine plus normal saline infusion for postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Surgical Endoscopy 2008; Vol. 22, issue 9:2036-45.
Rizzotti 2002 {published data only}
  • Rizzotti L, Roussakis G, Barsakis A, Efstathiou G, Laopodis B, Katsoulis E. Subdiaphragmatic instillation of ropivacaine, via epidural catheter, for post-operative pain control, after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Recent Views of Clinical Pain - Proceedings of the 10th International Pain Clinic. Sardinia, Italy, 2002:211-4.
Schulte-Steinberg 1995 {published data only}
  • Schulte-Steinberg H, Weninger E, Jokisch D, Hofstetter B, Misera A, Lange V, et al. Intraperitoneal versus interpleural morphine or bupivacaine for pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anesthesiology 1995;82(3):634-40.
Sozbilen 2007 {published data only}
  • Sozbilen M, Yeniay L, Unalp M, Makay O, Pirim A, Ulukaya S, et al. Effects of ropivacaine on pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective, randomized study. Advances in Therapy 2007; Vol. 24, issue 2:247-57.
Stempin 2007 {published data only}
  • Stempin S, Gajdosz R. Intraperitoneal morphine for prevention of postoperative shoulder pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Anestezjologia Intensywna Terapia 2007; Vol. 39, issue 1:18-20.
Tsimoyiannis 1998a {published data only}
  • Tsimoyiannis EC, Lekkas ET, Glantzounis G, Siakas P, Jabarin M, Tzourou H. Intraperitoneal bupivacaine and normal saline infusion for reduction of postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 6th World Congress of Endoscopic Surgery, Parts 1 and 2. 1998:A49-53.
Tsimoyiannis 1998b {published data only}
  • Tsimoyiannis EC, Glantzounis G, Lekkas ET, Siakas P, Jabarin M, Tzourou H. Intraperitoneal normal saline and bupivacaine infusion for reduction of postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Surgical Laparoscopy & Endoscopy 1998;8(6):416-20.
Tsimoyiannis 1998c {published data only}
  • Tsimoyiannis EC, Siakas P, Tassis A, Lekkas ET, Tzourou H, Kambili M. Intraperitoneal normal saline infusion for postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. World Journal of Surgery 1998;22(8):824-8.
Wallace 1996 {published data only}
  • Wallace DH, Serpell MG, O'Dwyer PJ. Effect of bupivacaine on postoperative pain and pulmonary function after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. British Journal of Surgery 1996;83(11):1637.

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