Diagnostic Test Accuracy Review

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Physical tests for shoulder impingements and local lesions of bursa, tendon or labrum that may accompany impingement

  1. Nigel CA Hanchard1,*,
  2. Mário Lenza2,
  3. Helen HG Handoll1,
  4. Yemisi Takwoingi3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group

Published Online: 30 APR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 15 APR 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007427.pub2


How to Cite

Hanchard NCA, Lenza M, Handoll HHG, Takwoingi Y. Physical tests for shoulder impingements and local lesions of bursa, tendon or labrum that may accompany impingement. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD007427. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007427.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Teesside University, Health and Social Care Institute, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley, UK

  2. 2

    Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Orthopaedic and Trauma Department, São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  3. 3

    University of Birmingham, Public Health, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Birmingham, UK

*Nigel CA Hanchard, Health and Social Care Institute, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, Tees Valley, TS1 3BA, UK. n.hanchard@tees.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 30 APR 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Barth 2006 {published data only}
Bennett 1998 {published data only}
  • Bennett WF. Specificity of the Speed's test: arthroscopic technique for evaluating the biceps tendon at the level of the bicipital groove. Arthroscopy 1998;14(8):789-96.
Calis 2000 {published data only}
Castoldi 2009 {published data only}
  • Castoldi F, Blonna D, Hertel R. External rotation lag sign revisited: accuracy for diagnosis of full thickness supraspinatus tear. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2009;18(4):529-34.
Frost 1999 {published data only}
  • Frost P, Andersen JH, Lundorf E. Is supraspinatus pathology as defined by magnetic resonance imaging associated with clinical sign of shoulder impingement?. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 1999;8(6):565-8.
Guanche 2003 {published data only}
Gumina 2008 {published data only}
  • Gumina S, Bertino A, Di Giorgio G, Postacchini F. A new test of resistance in the diagnosis of postero-superior rotator cuff tears. Chirurgia Degli Organi di Movimento 2008;91(2):85-6.
Hertel 1996 {published data only}
  • Hertel R, Ballmer FT, Lombert SM, Gerber C. Lag signs in the diagnosis of rotator cuff rupture. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 1996;5(4):307-13.
Holtby 2004a {published data only}
  • Holtby R, Razmjou H. Accuracy of the Speed's and Yergason's tests in detecting biceps pathology and SLAP lesions: comparison with arthroscopic findings. Arthroscopy 2004;20(3):231-6.
Holtby 2004b {published data only}
  • Holtby R, Razmjou H. Validity of the supraspinatus test as a single clinical test in diagnosing patients with rotator cuff pathology. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2004;34(4):194-200.
Iagnocco 2003 {published data only}
  • Iagnocco A, Coari G, Leone A, Valesini G. Sonographic study of painful shoulder. Clinical & Experimental Rheumatology 2003;21(1):355-8.
Itoi 1999 {published data only}
  • Itoi E, Kido T, Sano A, Urayama M, Sato K. Which is more useful, the "full can test" or the "empty can test," in detecting the torn supraspinatus tendon?. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1999;27(1):65-8.
Itoi 2006 {published data only}
  • Itoi E, Minagawa H, Yamamoto N, Seki N, Abe H. Are pain location and physical examinations useful in locating a tear site of the rotator cuff?. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;34(2):256-64.
Kibler 2009 {published data only}
  • Kibler WB, Sciasca A, Hester P, Dome d, Jacobs C. Clinical utility of traditional and new tests in the diagnosis of biceps tendon injuries and superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions in the shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2009;37(9):1840-7.
Kim 2001 {published data only}
Kim 2006 {published data only}
  • Kim E, Jeong HJ, Lee KW, Song JS. Interpreting positive signs of the supraspinatus test in screening for torn rotator cuff. Acta Medica Okayama 2006;60(4):223-8.
Kim 2007b {published data only}
  • Kim Y-S, Kim J-M, Ha K-Y, Choy S, Joo M-W, Chung Y-G. The passive compression test: A new clinical test for superior labral tears of the shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;35(9):1489-94.
Liu 1996b {published data only}
  • Liu SH, Henry MH, Nuccion S. A prospective evaluation of a new physical examination in predicting glenoid labral tears. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1996;24(6):721-5.
MacDonald 2000 {published data only}
  • MacDonald PB, Clark P, Sutherland K. An analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of the Hawkins and Neer subacromial impingement tests. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2000;9(4):299-301.
Michener 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Michener LA, Walsworth MK, Doukas WC, Murphy KP. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of 5 physical examination tests and combination of tests for subacromial impingement. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2009;90(11):1898-903.
Miller 2008b {published data only}
  • Elliott C. The validity of the lag signs in the diagnosis of rotator cuff dysfunction in patients with shoulder pain (protocol). www.controlled-trials.com 2006.
  • Miller CA, Forrester GA, Lewis JS. The validity of the lag signs in diagnosing full-thickness tears of the rotator cuff: a preliminary investigation. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 2008;89(6):1162-8.
Naredo 2002 {published data only}
  • Naredo E, Aguado P, De Miguel E, Uson J, Mayordomo L, Gijon-banos J, et al. Painful shoulder: comparison of physical examination and ultrasonographic findings. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 2002;61(2):132-6.
Norwood 1989 {published data only}
  • Norwood LA, Barrack R, Jacobson KE. Clinical presentation of complete tears of the rotator cuff. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 1989;71(4):499-505.
O'Brien 1998 {published data only}
  • O'Brien SJ, Pagnani MJ, Fealy S, McGrory JE, Wilson JB. The active compression test: a new and effective test for diagnosing labral tears and acromioclavicular joint abnormality. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1998;26(5):610-3.
Oh 2008 {published data only}
  • Oh JH, Kim JY, Kim WS, Gong HS, Lee JH. The evaluation of various physical examinations for the diagnosis of type II superior labrum anterior and posterior lesion. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2008;36(2):353-9.
Parentis 2006 {published data only}
  • Parentis MA, Glousman RE, Mohr KS, Yocum LA. An evaluation of the provocative tests for superior labral anterior posterior lesions. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;34(2):265-8.
  • Parentis MA, Mohr KJ, Elattrache NS. Disorders of the superior labrum: review and treatment guidelines. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 2002;400:77-87.
Razmjou 2004 {published data only}
  • Razmjou H, Holtby R, Myhr T. Pain provocative shoulder tests: reliability and validity of the impingement tests. Physiotherapy Canada 2004;56(4):229-36.
Schlechter 2009 {published data only}
  • Schlechter JA, Summa S, Rubin BD. The passive distraction test: a new diagnostic aid for clinically significant superior labral pathology. Arthroscopy 2009;25(12):1374-9.
Speer 1994 {published data only}
Stetson 2002 {published data only}
  • Stetson WB, Templin K. The crank test, the O'Brien test, and routine magnetic resonance imaging scans in the diagnosis of labral tears. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;30(6):806-9.
Suder 1994 {published data only}
  • Suder PA, Hougaard K, Frich LH, Rasmussen OS, Lundorf E. Intraarticular findings in the chronically painful shoulder. A study of 32 posttraumatic cases. Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica 1994;65(3):339-43.
Wolf 2001 {published data only}
Zaslav 2001 {published data only}
  • Zaslav KR. Internal rotation resistance strength test: a new diagnostic test to differentiate intra-articular pathology from outlet (Neer) impingement syndrome in the shoulder. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 2001;10(1):23-7.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Adolfsson 1991 {published data only}
Altchek 1990 {published data only}
  • Altchek DW, Warren RF, Wickiewicz TL, Skyhar MJ, Ortiz G, Schwartz E. Arthroscopic acromioplasty. Technique and results.[see comment]. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 1990;72(8):1198-207.
Ansara 2006 {published data only}
  • Ansara S, El-Kawy S, Geeranavar S, Youssef B, Omar M. Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears: a comparison between clinical examination, MRI and operative findings. Our experience in a district general hospital. [abstract]. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume 2006;88(Suppl 2):277.
Ardic 2006 {published data only}
  • Aktas I, Akgun K. Re: Shoulder impingement syndrome: Relationships between clinical, functional, and radiologic findings. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2007;86(12):1035-6.
  • Ardic F, Kahraman Y, Kacar M, Kahraman MC, Findikoglu G, Yorgancioglu ZR. Shoulder impingement syndrome: relationships between clinical, functional, and radiologic findings. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006;85(1):53-60.
Beaudreuil 2009 {published data only}
  • Beaudreuil J. Reply to the letter by Silva about the review entitled "Contribution of clinical tests to the diagnosis of rotator cuff disease: A systematic literature review". Joint Bone Spine: revue du rhumatisme 2009;76(5):577-8.
  • Beaudreuil J, Nizard R, Thomas T, Peyre M, Liotard JP, Boileau P, et al. Contribution of clinical tests to the diagnosis of rotator cuff disease: a systematic literature review. Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme 2009;76(1):15-9.
  • Silva L, Andreu JL. Comments on review by Beaudreuil et al "Contribution of clinical tests to the diagnosis of rotator cuff disease: a systematic review". Joint, Bone, Spine: revue du rhumatisme 2009;76(5):577; author reply 577-8.
Bedi 2008 {published data only}
Berbig 1999 {published data only}
Berg 1997 {published data only}
Berg 1998 {published data only}
Bigliani 1997 {published data only}
Birtane 2001 {published data only}
  • Birtane M, Calis M, Akgun K. The diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging in subacromial impingement syndrome. Yonsei Medical Journal 2001;42(4):418-24.
Blair 1996 {published data only}
  • Blair B, Rokito AS, Cuomo F, Jarolem K, Zuckerman JD. Efficacy of injections of corticosteroids for subacromial impingement syndrome. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 1996;78(11):1685-9.
Blevins 1996a {published data only}
Blevins 1996b {published data only}
Brasseur 2004 {published data only}
  • Brasseur JL, Lucidarme O, Tardieu M, Tordeur M, Montalvan B, Parier J, et al. Ultrasonographic rotator-cuff changes in veteran tennis players: the effect of hand dominance and comparison with clinical findings. European Radiology 2004;14(5):857-64.
Bron 2007 {published data only}
  • Bron C, Franssen J, Wensing M, Oostendorp RAB. Interrater reliability of palpation of myofascial trigger points in three shoulder muscles. Journal of Manual and Manipulative Therapy 2007;15(4):203-15.
Brownlow 2009 {published data only}
  • Brownlow HC, Smith C, Corner T, Neen D, Pennington R. Pain and stiffness in partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. American Journal of Orthopedics 2009;38(7):338-40.
Brox 2003 {published data only}
Bryant 2002 {published data only}
  • Bryant L, Shnier R, Bryant C, Murrell GA. A comparison of clinical estimation, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and arthroscopy in determining the size of rotator cuff tears. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2002;11(3):219-24.
Buchberger 1999 {published data only}
  • Buchberger D J. Introduction of a new physical examination procedure for the differentiation of acromioclavicular joint lesions and subacromial impingement. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics 1999;22(5):316-21.
Burbank 2007 {published data only}
  • Burbank KM, Lemos MJ, Bell G, Lemos DW. Incidence of os acromiale in patients with shoulder pain. American Journal of Orthopedics 2007;36(3):153-5.
Burkhart 2000 {published data only}
Burkhart 2002 {published data only}
  • Burkhart SS, Tehrany AM. Arthroscopic subscapularis tendon repair: Technique and preliminary results. Arthroscopy 18;5:454-63.
Burkhart 2003 {published data only}
  • Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum of pathology. Part II: evaluation and treatment of SLAP lesions in throwers. Arthroscopy 2003;19(5):531-9.
Burkhart 2008 {published data only}
  • Burkhart SS, Ochoa Jr. Subscapularis tendon tears: Diagnosis and treatment strategies. Current Orthopaedic Practice 2008;19(5):542-7.
Callanan 2001 {published data only}
  • Callanan M, Tzannes A, Hayes K, Paxinos A, Walton J, Murrell GA. Shoulder instability. Diagnosis and management. Australian Family Physician 2001;30(7):655-61.
Calvert 2009 {published data only}
  • Calvert E, Chambers GK, Regan W, Hawkins RH, Leith JM. Special physical examination tests for superior labrum anterior posterior shoulder tears are clinically limited and invalid: a diagnostic systematic review. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2009;62(5):558-63.
Chronopoulos 2004 {published data only}
  • Chronopoulos E, Kim TK, Park HB, Ashenbrenner D, McFarland EG. Diagnostic value of physical tests for isolated chronic acromioclavicular lesions. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2004;32(3):655-61.
Cools 2008 {published data only}
  • Cools AM, Cambier D, Witvrouw EE. Screening the athlete's shoulder for impingement symptoms: a clinical reasoning algorithm for early detection of shoulder pathology. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2008;42(8):628-35.
Corso 1995 {published data only}
Crenshaw 1966 {published data only}
Cullen 2007 {published data only}
D'Alessandro 2000 {published data only}
  • D'Alessandro DF, Fleischli JE, Connor PM. Superior labral lesions: Diagnosis and management. Journal of Athletic Training 2000;35(3):286-92.
Dessaur 2008 {published data only}
  • Dessaur WA, Magarey ME. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for superior labral anterior posterior lesions: a systematic review. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2008;38(6):341-52.
Deutsch 1997 {published data only}
  • Deutsch A, Altcheck DW, Veltri DM, Potter HG, Warren RF. Traumatic tears of the subscapularis tendon. Clinical diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging findings, and operative treatment. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1997;25(1):13-22.
Diehr 2006 {published data only}
  • Diehr S, Ison D, Jamieson B, Oh R. Clinical inquiries. What is the best way to diagnose a suspected rotator cuff tear?. Journal of Family Practice 2006;55(7):621-4.
Dinnes 2003a {published data only}
  • Dinnes J, Loveman E, McIntyre L, Waugh N. The effectiveness of diagnostic tests for the assessment of shoulder pain due to soft tissue disorders: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment 2003;7(29):iii, 1-166.
Ebinger 2008 {published data only}
El Dalati 2005 {published data only}
  • El Dalati G, Castellarin G, Martone E, Ricci M, Vecchini E, Caffarri S, et al. Standard sonography and arthrosonography in the study of rotator cuff tears. Radiologia Medica 2005;110(5-6):616-22.
Fodor 2009 {published data only}
  • Fodor D, Poanta L, Felea I, Rednic S, Bolosiu H. Shoulder impingement syndrome: correlations between clinical tests and ultrasonographic findings. Ortopedia Traumatologia Rehabilitacja 2009;11(2):120-6.
Fukuda 1996 {published data only}
  • Fukuda H, Hamada K, Nakajima T, Yamada N, Tomonaga A, Goto M. Partial-thickness tears of the rotator cuff. A clinicopathological review based on 66 surgically verified cases. International Orthopaedics 1996;20(4):257-65.
Gartsman 2000 {published data only}
Gerber 1985 {published data only}
  • Gerber C, Terrier F, Ganz R. The role of the coracoid process in the chronic impingement syndrome. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume 1985;67(5):703-8.
Gerber 1991 {published data only}
  • Gerber C, Krushell RJ. Isolated rupture of the tendon of the subscapularis muscle. Clinical features in 16 cases. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume 1991;73(3):389-94.
Gerber 1996 {published data only}
  • Gerber C, Hersche O, Farron A. Isolated rupture of the subscapularis tendon. Results of operative repair. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 1996;78(7):1015-23.
Gerber 2000 {published data only}
  • Gerber C, Sebesta A. Impingement of the deep surface of the subscapularis tendon and the reflection pulley on the anterosuperior glenoid rim: a preliminary report. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2000;9(6):483-90.
Giombini 1997 {published data only}
  • Giombini A, Rossi F, Pettrone FA, Dragoni S. Posterosuperior glenoid rim impingement as a cause of shoulder pain in top level waterpolo players. Journal of Sports Medicine & Physical Fitness 1997;37(4):273-8.
Gschwend 1988 {published data only}
Hagemann 2004 {published data only}
Halbrecht 1999 {published data only}
  • Halbrecht JT, Tirman P. Internal impingement of the shoulder: comparison of findings between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders of college baseball players. Arthroscopy 1999;15(3):253-8.
Hammer 2003 {published data only}
  • Hammer W. An excellent test for a SLAP Lesion. Dynamic Chiropractic 2003;21(19):1-3.
Hamner 2000 {published data only}
  • Hamner DL, Pink MM, Jobe FW. A modification of the relocation test: arthroscopic findings associated with a positive test. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2000;9(4):263-7.
  • Kolbel R. Modification of the relocation test: arthroscopic findings associated with a positive test [comment]. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2001;10(5):497-8.
Handelberg 1998 {published data only}
Hawkins 1980 {published data only}
Hayes 2003 {published data only}
  • Hayes KW, Petersen CM. Reliability of classifications derived from Cyriax's resisted testing in subjects with painful shoulders and knees. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2003;33(5):235-46.
Hegedus 2008 {published data only}
  • Hegedus EJ, Goode A, Campbell S, Morin A, Tamaddoni M, Moorman CT III, et al. Physical examination tests of the shoulder: a systematic review with meta-analysis of individual tests. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2008;42(2):80-92.
Heyworth 2009 {published data only}
Hughes 2008 {published data only}
Hurschler 2004 {published data only}
Jee 2001 {published data only}
  • Jee WH, McCauley TR, Katz lD, Matheny JM, Ruwe PA, Daigneault JP. Superior labral anterior posterior (SLAP) lesions of the glenoid labrum: reliability and accuracy of MR arthrography for diagnosis. Radiology 2001;218(1):127-32.
Jobe 1997 {published data only}
Jobe 2000 {published data only}
  • Jobe CM, Coen MJ, Screnar P. Evaluation of impingement syndromes in the overhead-throwing athlete. Journal of Athletic Training 2000;35(3):293-9.
Johansson 2009 {published data only}
Jones 2007 {published data only}
  • Jones GL, Galluch DB. Clinical assessment of superior glenoid labral lesions: a systematic review. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 2007;455:45-51.
Keener 2009 {published data only}
  • Keener JD, Brophy RH. Superior labral tears of the shoulder: pathogenesis, evaluation, and treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2009;17(10):627-37.
Kibler 1995 {published data only}
  • Kibler WB. Specificity and sensitivity of the anterior slide test in throwing athletes with superior glenoid labral tears. Arthroscopy 1995;11(3):296-300.
  • Wright SA, Hawkins RJ. The anterior slide test for identifying superior gleniod labral tears. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 1996; Vol. 6, issue 1:64.
Kibler 2006a {published data only}
  • Kibler WB. Scapular involvement in impingement: signs and symptoms. Instructional Course Lectures 2006;55:35-43.
Kibler 2006b {published data only}
  • Kibler WB, Sciascia A, Dome D. Evaluation of apparent and absolute supraspinatus strength in patients with shoulder injury using the scapular retraction test. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2006;34(10):1643-7.
Kim 1999 {published data only}
  • Kim S-H, Ha K-I, Han K-Y. Biceps load test: a clinical test for superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions in shoulders with recurrent anterior dislocations. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1999;27(3):300-3.
Kim 2004b {published data only}
  • Kim S-H, Park J-H, Park J-S, Oh I. Painful jerk test: a predictor of success in nonoperative treatment of posteroinferior instability of the shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2004;32(8):1849-55.
Kim 2005 {published data only}
  • Kim SH, Park JS, Jeong WK, Shin SK. The Kim test: a novel test for posteroinferior labral lesion of the shoulder--a comparison to the jerk test. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;33(8):1188-92.
Kim 2007a {published data only}
  • Kim HA, Kim SH, Seo YI. Ultrasonographic findings of the shoulder in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and comparison with physical examination. Journal of Korean Medical Science 2007;22(4):660-6.
Kim 2009 {published data only}
  • Kim HM, Teefey SA, Zelig A, Galatz LM, Keener JD, Yamaguchi K. Shoulder strength in asymptomatic individuals with intact compared with torn rotator cuffs. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 2009;91(2):289-96.
Kirkley 2002 {published data only}
  • Kirkley A, Litchfield RB, Jackowski DM, Lo IK. The use of the impingement test as a predictor of outcome following subacromial decompression for rotator cuff tendinosis. Arthroscopy 2002;18(1):8-15.
Koester 2005 {published data only}
Lafosse 2007 {published data only}
  • Lafosse L, Reiland Y, Baier GP, Toussaint B, Jost B. Anterior and posterior instability of the long head of the biceps tendon in rotator cuff tears: a new classification based on arthroscopic observations. Arthroscopy 2007;23(1):73-80.
Le Huec 1996 {published data only}
  • Le Huec JC, Schaeverbeke T, Moinard M, Kind M, Diard F, Dehais J, et al. Traumatic tear of the rotator interval. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 1996;5(1):41-6.
Leroux 1995 {published data only}
  • Leroux JL, Thomas E, Bonnel F, Blotman F. Diagnostic value of clinical tests for shoulder impingement syndrome. Revue Du Rhumatisme [English Edition] 1995;62(6):423-8.
Lewis 2005 {published data only}
  • Lewis JS, Wright C, Green A. Subacromial impingement syndrome: the effect of changing posture on shoulder range of movement. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2005;35(2):72-87.
Lewis 2007 {published data only}
  • Lewis JS, Valentine RE. The pectoralis minor length test: A study of the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy in subjects with and without shoulder symptoms. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2007;8(64).
Lewis 2009 {published data only}
Litaker 2000 {published data only}
  • Litaker D, Pioro M, El Bilbeisi H, Brems J. Returning to the bedside: using the history and physical examination to identify rotator cuff tears. Journal of the American Geriatric Society 2000;48(12):1633-7.
  • Riddle D. A set of three clinical tests can detect the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001;47(4):297-8.
Liu 1996a {published data only}
  • Liu SH, Henry MH, Nuccion S, Shapiro MS, Dorey F. Diagnosis of glenoid labral tears. A comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1996;24(2):149-54.
  • Seeger LL, Yao L, Gold RH. Diagnosis of glenoid labral tears: a comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and clinical examinations [comment]. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1997;25(1):141-4.
Lo 2004 {published data only}
  • Lo IKY, Nonweiler B, Woolfrey M, Litchfiled R, Kirkley A. An evaluation of the apprehension, relocation, and surprise tests for anterior shoulder instability. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2004;32(2):301-7.
Luime 2004 {published data only}
Lyons 1992 {published data only}
Lyons 2005 {published data only}
Maffet 1995 {published data only}
Malhi 2005 {published data only}
Maman 2009 {published data only}
  • Maman E, Harris C, White L, Tomlinson G, Shashank M, Boynton E. Outcome of nonoperative treatment of symptomatic rotator cuff tears monitored by magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 2009;91(8):1898-906.
Matava 2005 {published data only}
McCabe 2005 {published data only}
  • McCabe RA, Nicholas SJ, Montgomery KD, Finneran JJ, McHugh MP. The effect of rotator cuff tear size on shoulder strength and range of motion. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2005;35(3):130-5.
McFarland 1999 {published data only}
  • McFarland EG, Hsu C-Y, Neira C, O'Neil O. Internal impingement of the shoulder: A clinical and arthroscopic analysis. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 1999;8(5):458-60.
McFarland 2001 {published data only}
McFarland 2008 {published data only}
McFarland 2009 {published data only}
  • McFarland EG, Tanaka MJ, Garzon-Muvdi J, Jia X, Petersen SA. Clinical and imaging assessment for superior labrum anterior and posterior lesions. [Review] [51 refs]. Current Sports Medicine Reports 2009;8(5):234-9.
Meister 2004 {published data only}
  • Meister K, Buckley B, Batts J. The posterior impingement sign: diagnosis of rotator cuff and posterior labral tears secondary to internal impingement in overhand athletes. American Journal of Orthopedics 2004;33(8):412-5.
Meserve 2009 {published data only}
  • Meserve BB, Cleland JA, Boucher TR. A meta-analysis examining clinical test utility for assessing superior labral anterior posterior lesions. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2009;37(11):2252-8.
Miller 2008a {published data only}
Mimori 1999 {published data only}
  • Mimori K, Muneta T, Nakagawa T, Shinomiya K. A new pain provocation test for superior labral tears of the shoulder. American Journal of Sports Medicine 1999;27(2):137-42.
Mirkovic 2005 {published data only}
  • Mirkovic M, Green R, Taylor N, Perrott M. Accuracy of clinical tests to diagnose superior labral anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions. Physical Therapy Reviews 2005;10(1):5-14.
Mitchell 2005 {published data only}
Moosikasuwan 2005 {published data only}
Morgan 1998 {published data only}
Morrison 1997 {published data only}
  • Morrison DS, Frogameni AD, Woodworth P. Non-operative treatment of shoulder impingement syndrome. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume 1997;79(5):732-7.
Morrissey 2005 {published data only}
  • Morrissey M. Shoulder diagnosis validation by motion analysis and laxity testing (protocol). National Research Register 2005 Issue 1 2005.
Munro 2009 {published data only}
Murrell 2001 {published data only}
  • Murrell GA, Walton JR. Diagnosis of rotator cuff tears. Lancet 2001;357:769-70.
  • Riddle D. Individual tests from the history and physical examination are inaccurate in diagnosing rotator cuff tears. Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 2001;47(4):297.
Myers 2005 {published data only}
  • Myers TH, Zemanovic JR, Andrews JR. The resisted supination external rotation test: a new test for the diagnosis of superior labral anterior posterior lesions. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;33(9):1315-20.
Neer 1972 {published data only}
  • Neer CS. Anterior acromioplasty for the chronic impingement syndrome in the shoulder: a preliminary report. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 1972;54(1):41-50.
Neer 1977 {published data only}
Neer 1983a {published data only}
  • Neer CS 2nd. Impingement lesions. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 1983;(173):70-7.
Neri 2009 {published data only}
Nomden 2009 {published data only}
  • Nomden JG, Slagers AJ, Bergman GJ, Winters JC, Kropmans TJ, Dijkstra PU. Interobserver reliability of physical examination of shoulder girdle. Manual Therapy 2009;14(2):152-9.
Norregaard 2002 {published data only}
O'Connor 2005 {published data only}
Odom 2001 {published data only}
  • Odom CJ, Taylor AB, Hurd CE, Denegar CR. Measurement of scapular asymmetry and assessment of shoulder dysfunction using the Lateral Scapular Slide Test: a reliability and validity study. Physical Therapy 2001;81(2):799-809.
Oh 2007 {published data only}
Olmsted 2003 {published data only}
  • Olmsted LC, Denegar C. Physical examination of the shoulder: Considerations of sensitivity and specificity. Athletic Therapy Today 2003;8(5):25-31.
Osbahr 2006 {published data only}
Ostor 2005 {published data only}
  • Ostor AJ, Richards CA, Prevost AT, Speed CA, Hazleman BL. Diagnosis and relation to general health of shoulder disorders presenting to primary care. Rheumatology 2005;44(6):800-5.
Pandya 2008 {published data only}
  • Pandya NK, Colton A, Webner D, Sennett B, Huffman GR. Physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of superior labrum anterior-posterior lesions of the shoulder: a sensitivity analysis. Arthroscopy 2008;24(3):311-7.
Perez-Palomares 2009 {published data only}
  • Perez-Palomares S, Olivan-Blazquez B, Arnal-Burro AM, Mayoral-Del Moral O, Gaspar-Calvo E, de-la-Torre-Beldarrain ML, et al. Contributions of myofascial pain in diagnosis and treatment of shoulder pain. A randomized control trial. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 2009;10(92).
Piasecki 2008 {published data only}
Pisan 2000 {published data only}
Polimeni 2003 {published data only}
  • Polimeni V, Panuccio A, Furfari P, Crupi D, BarrecaG, Forgione C, et al. Preliminary study on the efficacy of various rehabilitation therapies for shoulder pain. Europa Medicophysica 2003;39(1):59-63.
Polsky 2006 {published data only}
  • Polsky MB, Stein J. Evaluation and management of superior labral anterior posterior tears in the overhead athlete. Current Opinion in Orthopaedics 2006;17(2):160-3.
Pugh 2009 {published data only}
  • Pugh S, Callaghan M, Hogg K. Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. BET 1: which is the best clinical test for diagnosing a full thickness rotator cuff tear?.. Emergency Medicine Journal 2009;26(12):881.
Rao 2003 {published data only}
  • Rao AG, Kim TK, Chronopoulos E, McFarland EG. Anatomical variants in the anterosuperior aspect of the glenoid labrum: a statistical analysis of seventy-three cases. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume 2003;85(4):635-59.
Razmjou 2006 {published data only}
  • Razmjou H, Haines T, Holtby R. Diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making: Exploring the role of pretest probability in patients with rotator cuff pathology. Physiotherapy Canada 2006;58(13):196-204.
Read 1998 {published data only}
  • Read JW, Perko M. Shoulder ultrasound: diagnostic accuracy for impingement syndrome, rotator cuff tear, and biceps tendon pathology. Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery 1998;7(3):264-71.
Rhee 2005a {published data only}
  • Rhee YG, Lee DH, Lim CT. Unstable isolated SLAP lesion: Clinical presentation and outcome of arthroscopic fixation. Arthroscopy - Journal of Arthroscopic and Related Surgery 2005;21(9):1099.
Rowan 2007 {published data only}
  • Rowan KR, Andrews G, Spielmann A, Leith J, Forster BB. MR shoulder arthrography in patients younger than 40 years of age: frequency of rotator cuff tear versus labroligamentous pathology.[Erratum appears in Australas Radiol. 2007;51(4):402 Note: Forster, B B [added]]. Australasian Radiology 2007;51(3):257-9.
Ryu 2002 {published data only}
  • Ryu RK, Dunbar WH5th, Kuhn JE, McFarland EG, Chronopoulos E, Kim TK. Comprehensive evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in the throwing athlete. Arthroscopy 2002;18(9 Suppl 2):70-89.
Sandenbergh 2006 {published data only}
  • Sandenbergh R, Marais A. Reliability of Diagnostic Tests in Rotator Cuff Muscle Pathology. South African Journal of Physiotherapy 2006;62(3):6-12.
Savoie 2001 {published data only}
Scheibel 2005 {published data only}
Schellingerhout 2008 {published data only}
Sileo 2006 {published data only}
  • Sileo M, Panchal A, Ruotolo CJ, Teitelbaum H, Lindenfeld TN, Wells L. A statistical correlation of shoulder physical examination maneuvers and arthroscopic findings [abstract]. Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; 2006 March 24-26: Chicago (IL). AAOS On-Line Service, 2006.
Silva 2008 {published data only}
Skedros 2007 {published data only}
  • Skedros JG, Pitts TC. Temporal variations in a modified Neer impingement test can confound clinical interpretation. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research 2007;460:130-6.
Smith 2000 {published data only}
  • Smith KL, Harryman DT 2nd, Antoniou J, Campbell B, Sidles JA, Matsen FA 3rd. A prospective, multipractice study of shoulder function and health status in patients with documented rotator cuff tears. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2000;9(5):395-402.
Snyder 1990 {published data only}
  • Snyder S J, Karzel R P, Del Pizzo W, Ferkel R D, Friedman M J. SLAP lesions of the shoulder. Arthroscopy 1990;6(4):274-9.
Soncini 2000 {published data only}
  • Soncini G, Costantino C. Shoulder pain in baseball players. Journal of Sports Traumatology & Related Research 2000;22(2):45-57.
Sorensen 2007 {published data only}
  • Sorensen AK, Bak K, Krarup AL, Thune CH, Nygaard M, Jorgensen U, et al. Acute rotator cuff tear: do we miss the early diagnosis? A prospective study showing a high incidence of rotator cuff tears after shoulder trauma. Journal of Shoulder & Elbow Surgery 2007;16(2):174-80.
Sorohan 2009 {published data only}
  • Sorohan A, Mc Creesh K. Assessment of subacromial impingement syndrome in the primary care setting: development of an evidence based clinical framework. Physiotherapy Ireland 2009;30(1):16-22.
Tate 2008 {published data only}
  • Tate AR, McClure P, Kareha S, Irwin D. Effect of the scapula reposition text on shoulder impingement symptoms and elevation strength in overhead athletes. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2008;38(1):4-11.
Tennent 2003a {published data only}
  • Tennent TD, Beach WR, Meyers JF. A review of the special tests associated with shoulder examination: part I: the rotator cuff tests. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2003;31(1):154-60.
Tennent 2003b {published data only}
  • Tennent TD, Beach WR, Meyers JF. A review of the special tests associated with shoulder examination. Part II: laxity, instability, and superior labral anterior and posterior (SLAP) lesions. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2003;31(2):301-7.
Trantalis 2008 {published data only}
  • Trantalis JN, Lo IKY. Superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears: Recent advances and outcomes. Current Orthopaedic Practice 2008;19(5):530-4.
Tyler 2000 {published data only}
  • Tyler TF, Nicholas SJ, Roy T, Gleim GW. Quantification of posterior capsule tightness and motion loss in patients with shoulder impingement. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2000;28(5):668-73.
Vanderbeck 2007 {published data only}
Walch 1998 {published data only}
  • Walch G, Boulahia A, Calderone S, Robinson AHN. The 'dropping' and 'hornblower's' signs in evaluation of rotator-cuff tears. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume 1998;80(4):624-8.
Walsworth 2008 {published data only}
  • Walsworth MK, Doukas WC, Murphy KP, Mielcarek BJ, Michener LA. Reliability and diagnostic accuracy of history and physical examination for diagnosing glenoid labral tears. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2008;36(1):162-8.
Walton 2004 {published data only}
  • Walton J, Mahajan S, Paxinos A, Marshall J, Bryant C, Shnier R, et al. Diagnostic values of tests for acromioclavicular joint pain. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 2004;86(4):807-12.
Walton 2008 {published data only}
  • Kemp K, Sheps DM. Clinical tests to identify SLAP lesions: A meta-analysis. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2009; Vol. 19, issue 4:339-40.
  • Walton DM, Sadi J. Identifying SLAP lesions: a meta-analysis of clinical tests and exercise in clinical reasoning. Physical Therapy in Sport 2008;9(4):167-76.
Wang 2000 {published data only}
  • Wang JC, Horner G, Brown ED, Shapiro MS. The relationship between acromial morphology and conservative treatment of patients with impingement syndrome. Orthopedics 2000;23(6):557-9.
Watson 1989 {published data only}
Wilk 2005 {published data only}
  • Wilk KE, Reinold MM, Dugas JR, Arrigo CA, Moser MW, Andrews JR. Current concepts in the recognition and treatment of superior labral (SLAP) lesions. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy 2005;35(5):273-91.
Wnorowski 1997 {published data only}
Wolff 2006 {published data only}
  • Wolff AB, Sethi P, Sutton KM, Covey AS, Magit DP, Medvecky M. Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 2006;14(13):715-25.
Yang 2006 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Gill 2007 {published data only}
Jia 2008 {published data only}
Jia 2009 {published data only}
  • Jia X, Petersen SA, Khosravi AH, Almareddi V, Pannirselvam V, McFarland EG. Examination of the shoulder: The past, the present, and the future. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery - American Volume 2009;91(Suppl 6):10-8.
Kelly 2010 {published data only}
Kim 2003a {published data only}
  • Kim TK, Queale WS, Cosgarea AJ, McFarland EG. Clinical features of the different types of SLAP lesions: an analysis of one hundred and thirty-nine cases. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 2003;85(1):66-71.
Kim 2003b {published data only}
  • Kim TK, Rauh PB, McFarland EG. Partial tears of the subscapularis tendon found during arthroscopic procedures on the shoulder: a statistical analysis of sixty cases. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2003;31(5):744-50.
Kim 2004a {published data only}
McFarland 2002 {published data only}
  • McFarland EG, Kim TK, Savino RM. Clinical assessment of three common tests for superior labral anterior-posterior lesions. American Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;30(6):810-5.
Nanda 2008 {published data only}
  • Nanda R, Gupta S, Kanapathipillai P, Liow RYL, Rangan A. An assessment of the inter examiner reliability of clinical tests for subacromial impingement and rotator cuff integrity. European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology 2008;18(7):495-500.
Park 2005 {published data only}
  • Park HB, Yokota A, Gill HS, Rasi GE, McFarland EG. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical tests for the different degrees of subacromial impingement syndrome. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume 2005;87(7):1446-55.

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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Hanchard 2008
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