Pneumothorax is a potentially life-threatening complication for people with cystic fibrosis. Spontaneous pneumothorax is the presence of air in the pleural space and can be subdivided into first episode and recurrent. The recurrence of pneumothorax is when it occurs on the same side seven days or more after initial resolution. A pneumothorax is persistent if the air leak lasts for more than five days (Schidlow 1993). Managing spontaneous pneumothoraces is controversial and there is no standard treatment. Medical and surgical intervention are the two main categories for the treatment of recurrent pneumothoraces in people with cystic fibrosis. While surgical interventions are felt to be more effective in people without cystic fibrosis, the complications directly related to the procedure, as well as the post-operative complications make surgical interventions riskier for people with cystic fibrosis. Additionally, these interventions have the potential to make people with cystic fibrosis ineligible for lung transplantation in the future. Therefore, the benefits and side effects or disadvantages for the medical and surgical treatment of recurrent pneumothoraces in people with cystic fibrosis need to be systematically reviewed.