Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 4% to 18% of reproductive-aged women and is associated with reproductive, metabolic and psychological dysfunction. Obesity worsens the presentation of PCOS and weight management (weight loss, maintenance or prevention of excess weight gain) is proposed as an initial treatment strategy, best achieved through lifestyle changes incorporating diet, exercise and behavioural interventions.
To assess the effectiveness of lifestyle treatment in improving reproductive, anthropometric (weight and body composition), metabolic and quality of life factors in PCOS.
Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED), controlled trials register, conference abstracts, relevant journals, reference lists of relevant papers and reviews and grey literature databases, with no language restrictions applied.
Randomised controlled trials comparing lifestyle treatment (diet, exercise, behavioural or combined treatments) to minimal or no treatment in women with PCOS.
Data collection and analysis
Two authors independently selected trials, assessed methodological quality and risk of bias and extracted data.
Six studies were included. Three studies compared physical activity to minimal dietary and behavioural advice or no advice. Three studies compared combined dietary, exercise and behavioural interventions to minimal intervention. There were no studies assessing fertility primary outcomes and no data for meta-analysis on ovulation or menstrual regularity. For secondary outcomes, lifestyle intervention provided benefits when compared to minimal treatment for endpoint values for total testosterone (mean difference (MD) -0.27 nmol/L, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.46 to -0.09, P = 0.004), hirsutism by the Ferriman-Gallwey score (MD -1.19, 95% CI -2.35 to -0.03, P = 0.04), weight (MD -3.47 kg, 95% CI -4.94 to -2.00, P < 0.00001), waist circumference (MD -1.95 cm, 95% CI -3.34 to -0.57, P = 0.006), waist to hip ratio (MD -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.00, P = 0.02), fasting insulin (MD -2.02 µU/mL, 95% CI -3.28 to -0.77, P = 0.002) and oral glucose tolerance test insulin (standardised mean difference -1.32, 95% CI -1.73 to -0.92, P < 0.00001) and per cent weight change (MD -7.00%, 95% CI -10.1 to -3.90, P < 0.00001). There was no evidence of effect of lifestyle for body mass index, free androgen index, sex hormone binding globulin, glucose or lipids; and no data for quality of life, patient satisfaction or acne.
Lifestyle intervention improves body composition, hyperandrogenism (high male hormones and clinical effects) and insulin resistance in women with PCOS. There was no evidence of effect for lifestyle intervention on improving glucose tolerance or lipid profiles and no literature assessing clinical reproductive outcomes, quality of life and treatment satisfaction.