Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Anaemia is a common (12-55%) co-morbid condition and is associated with worsening symptoms and increased mortality. Anaemia is treatable and can be targeted in the treatment of patients with CHF. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), supplemented by iron therapy, are used to treat anaemia in chronic kidney disease and cancer, however safety concerns have been raised in these patients. The clinical benefit and safety of these agents in CHF remains unclear.