It is not unusual to observe peripheral nervous system involvement in people with tumours outside the nervous system. Any part of the peripheral nervous system can be involved, from sensory and motor neurons to nerve roots and plexuses, from distal trunks to neuromuscular junctions. Pathogenesis also varies from direct infiltration by cancer cells, to treatment toxicity, to metabolic derangement, cachexia, infections and paraneoplastic syndromes.
Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes are symptoms or signs resulting from damage to organs or tissues that are remote from the site of the malignancy or its metastases. The pathogenesis is thought to be immune-mediated as a result of a cross-reaction against antigens shared by the tumour and nervous system cells.
Paraneoplastic neuropathies are the most frequently reported paraneoplastic syndromes. They are, however, heterogeneous and require several therapeutic approaches. This review was undertaken to systematically assess any data available from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of paraneoplastic syndromes of the peripheral nervous system and not the whole range of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes.