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School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18

  1. Maureen Dobbins*,
  2. Heather Husson,
  3. Kara DeCorby,
  4. Rebecca L LaRocca

Editorial Group: Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 21 OCT 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007651.pub2


How to Cite

Dobbins M, Husson H, DeCorby K, LaRocca RL. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD007651. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007651.pub2.

Author Information

  1. McMaster University, School of Nursing, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

*Maureen Dobbins, School of Nursing, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Rm 3N25G, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada. dobbinsm@mcmaster.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Angelopoulos 2009 {published data only}
  • Angelopoulos PD, Milionis HJ, Grammatikaki E, Moschonis G, Manios Y. Changes in BMI and blood pressure after a school based intervention: the CHILDREN study. European Journal of Public Health 2009;19(3):319-25.
Araujo-Soares 2009 {published data only}
  • Araujo-Soares V, McIntyre T, MacLennan G, Sniehotta FF. Development and exploratory cluster-randomised opportunistic trial of a theory-based intervention to enhance physical activity among adolescents. Psychology & Health 2009;24(7):805-22.
Barbeau 2007 {published data only}
Bayne-Smith 2004 {published data only}
  • Bayne-Smith M, Fardy PS, Azzollini A, Magel J, Schmitz KH, Agin D. Improvements in heart health behaviors and reduction in coronary artery disease risk factors in urban teenaged girls through a school-based intervention: the PATH program. American Journal of Public Health 2004;94(9):1538-43.
Burke 1998 {published data only}
  • Burke V, Milligan RA, Thompson C, Taggart AC, Dunbar DL, Spencer MJ, et al. A controlled trial of health promotion programs in 11-year-olds using physical activity "enrichment" for higher risk children. Journal of Pediatrics 1998;132(5):840-8.
Bush 1989 {published data only}
Colin-Ramirez 2010 {published data only}
  • Colin-Ramirez E, Castillo-Martinez L, Orea-Tejeda A, Vergara A, Villa AR. Impact of a school-based intervention to cardiovascular risk factors prevention (RESCATE) on physical activity and diet in Mexican children aged 8-10 years [Efecto de una intervencion escolar basada en actividad fisica y dieta para la prevencion de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (RESCATE) en ninos mexicanos de 8 a 10 anos]. Revista Espanola de Nutricion Comunitaria 2009;15(2):71-80.
  • Colin-Ramirez E, Castillo-Martinez L, Orea-Tejeda A, Vergara-Castaneda A, Keirns-Davis C, Villa-Romero A. Outcomes of a school-based intervention (RESCATE) to improve physical activity patterns in Mexican children aged 8-10 years. Health Education Research 2010;25(6):1042-9.
Dishman 2004 {published data only}
  • Dishman RK, Motl RK, Saunders R, Felton G, Ward DS, Dowda M. Self-efficacy partially mediates the effect of a school-based physical-activity intervention among adolescent girls. Preventive Medicine 2004;38(5):628-36.
  • Pate RR, Ward DS, Saunders RP. Promotion of physical activity among high-school girls: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health 2005;95:1582-7.
  • Saunders RP, Ward D, Felton GM, Dowda M, Pate RR. Examining the link between program implementation and behavior outcomes in the Lifestyle Education for Activity Program (LEAP). Evaluation and Program Planning 2006;29(4):352-63.
  • Ward DS, Saunders R, Felton GM, Williams E, Epping JN, Pate RR. Implementation of a school environment intervention to increase physical activity in high school girls. Health Education Research 2006;21(6):896-910.
Donnelly 2009 {published data only}
Dorgo 2009 {published data only}
  • Dorgo S, King GA, Candelaria NG, Bader JO, Brickey GD, Adams CE. Effects of manual resistance training on fitness in adolescents. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2009;23(8):2287-94.
Ewart 1998 {published data only}
  • Ewart CK, Loftus KS, Hagberg JM. School-based exercise to lower blood pressure in high-risk African American girls: project design and baseline findings. Journal of Health Education 1995;26(2):S99-105.
  • Ewart CK, Young DR, Hagberg JM. Effects of school-based aerobic exercise on blood pressure in adolescent girls at risk for hypertension. American Journal of Public Health 1998;88(6):949-51.
Gentile 2009 {published data only}
  • Eisenmann JC, Gentile DA, Welk GJ, Callahan R, Strickland S, Walsh M, et al. SWITCH: rationale, design, and implementation of a community, school, and family-based intervention to modify behaviors related to childhood obesity. BMC Public Health 2008;8:223.
  • Gentile DA, Welk G, Eisenmann JC, Reimer RA, Walsh DA, Russell DW, et al. Evaluation of a multiple ecological level child obesity prevention program: Switch What you Do, View, and Chew. BMC Medicine 2009;7:49.
Haerens 2006 {published data only}
  • Haerens L, Cerin E, Maes L, Cardon G, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Explaining the effect of a 1-year intervention promoting physical activity in middle schools: a mediation analysis. Public Health Nutrition 2007;11(5):501-12.
  • Haerens L, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Maes L, Cardon G, Deforche B. School-based randomized controlled trial of a physical activity intervention among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2007;40(3):258-65.
  • Haerens L, Deforche B, Maes L, Cardon G, Stevens V, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Evaluation of a 2-year physical activity and healthy eating intervention in middle school children. Health Education Research 2006;2(6):911-21.
  • Haerens L, Deforche B, Maes L, Stevens V, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Body mass effects of a physical activity and healthy food intervention in middle schools. Obesity 2006;14(5):847-54.
Haerens 2009 {published data only}
  • Haerens L, Maes L, Vereecken C, De Henauw S, Moreno L, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Effectiveness of a computer tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents compared to a generic advice. Patient Education & Counseling 2009;77(1):38-41.
Jones 2008 {published data only}
  • Jones D, Hoelscher DM, Kelder SH, Hergenroeder A, Sharma SV. Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary activity in adolescent girls - the Incorporating More Physical Activity and Calcium in Teens (IMPACT) Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008;5:42.
Kipping 2008 {published data only}
Kriemler 2010 {published data only}
  • Kriemler S, Zahner L, Schindler C, Meyer U, Hartmann T, Hebestreit H, et al. Effect of school based physical activity programme (KISS) on fitness and adiposity in primary schoolchildren: cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 2010;340:c785.
  • Puder J, Zahner L, Schindler C, Meyer U, Hebestreit H, Rocca H, et al. A school-based physical activity program increases fitness and decreases adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in primary school children: a cluster-randomized trial. Diabetologia 2009;52(Suppl 1):S330-1.
Li 2010 {published data only}
  • Li YP, Hu XQ, Schouten EG, Liu AL, Du SM, Li LZ, et al. Report on childhood obesity in China (8): effects and sustainability of physical activity intervention on body composition of Chinese youth. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences 2010;23:180-7.
Lubans 2009 {published data only}
  • Lubans D, Morgan P. Evaluation of an extra-curricular school sport programme promoting lifestyle and lifetime activity for adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences 2008;26(5):519-29.
  • Lubans D, Morgan P. The 'Learning to Enjoy Activity with Friends' programme. Education & Health 2007;25(1):10-4.
  • Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Callister R, Collins CE. Effects of integrating pedometers, parental materials, and E-mail support within an extracurricular school sport intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health 2009;44(2):176-83.
  • Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Callister R, Collins CE, Plotnikoff RC. Exploring the mechanisms of physical activity and dietary behavior change in the Program X intervention for adolescents. The Journal of Adolescent Health 2010;47(1):83-91.
  • Lubans DR, Sylva K. Mediators of change following a senior school physical activity intervention. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 2009;12(1):134-40.
Luepker 1996 {published data only}
  • Belcher JD, Ellison RC, Shepard WE, Bigelow C, Webber LS, Wilmore JH, et al. Lipid and lipoprotein distributions in children by ethnic group, gender, and geographic location--preliminary findings of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Preventive Medicine 1993;22(2):143-53.
  • Coleman KJ, Tiller CL, Sanchez J, Heath EM, Oumar S, Milliken G, et al. Prevention of the epidemic increase in child risk of overweight in low-income schools. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 2005;159(3):217-24.
  • Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Feldman HA, Elder J, Perry CL, Johnson CC, et al. The effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health upon psychosocial determinants of diet and physical activity behavior. Preventive Medicine 1996;25:442-54.
  • Edmundson EW, Luton SC, McGraw SA, Kelder SH, Layman AK, Smyth M, et al. CATCH: classroom process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl 2:S27-50.
  • Elder JP, McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Reed DB, Harsha DW, Greene T, et al. CATCH: process evaluation of environmental factors and programs. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl 2:S107-27.
  • Hoelscher DM, Feldman HA, Johnson CC, Lytle LA, Osganian SK, Parcel GS, et al. School-based health education programs can be maintained over time: results from the CATCH institution study. Preventive Medicine 2004;38:594-606.
  • Johnson CC, Osganian SK, Budman SB, Lytle LA, Barrera EP, Bonura SR, et al. CATCH: family process evaluation in a multicenter trial. Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl 2:S91-106.
  • Luepker RV, Perry CL, McKinlay SM, Nader PR, Parcel GS, Stone EJ, et al. Outcomes of a field trial to improve children's dietary patterns and physical activity. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) collaborative group. JAMA 1996;275(10):768-76.
  • Lytle LA. Lessons from the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): interventions with children. Current Opinion in Lipidology 1998;9(1):29-33.
  • Lytle LA, Ward J, Nader PR, Pedersen SA, Williston BJ. Maintenance of a health promotion program in elementary schools: results from the CATCH-ON study key informant interviews. Health Education and Behavior 2003;30(4):503-18.
  • McGraw SA, Stone EJ, Osganian SK, Elder JP, Perry CL, Johnson CC, et al. Design of process evaluation within the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Health Education Quarterly 1994;Suppl 2:S5-26.
  • McKenzie TL, Li D, Derby CA, Webber LS, Luepker LRV, Cribb P. Maintenance of effects of the CATCH physical education program: results from the CATCH-on study. Health Education & Behavior 2003;30(4):447-62.
  • McKenzie TL, Nader PR, Strikmiller PK, Yang M, Stone EJ, Perry CL, et al. School physical education: effect of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health. Preventive Medicine 1996;25(4):423-31.
  • McKenzie TL, Stone EJ, Feldman HA, Epping JN, Yang M, Strikmiller PK, et al. Effects of the CATCH physical education intervention: teacher type and lesson location. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2001;21(2):101-9.
  • McKenzie TLF, Li D, Derby C, Webber LS, Luepker LRV, Cribb P. Sustainability of a health-related physical education intervention in 76 elementary schools: CATCH. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2002;34(5):301.
  • Nader PR, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Perry CL, Stone EJ, Cook KC, et al. The effect of adult participation in a school-based family intervention to improve children's diet and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Preventive Medicine 1996;25:455-64.
  • Nader PR, Stone EJ, Lytle LA, Perry CL, Osganian SK, Kelder S, et al. Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: the CATCH cohort. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(7):695-704.
  • Perry CL, Sellers DE, Johnson CC, Pedersen SA, Bachman KJ, Parcel GS, et al. The Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH): intervention, implementation, and feasibility for elementary schools in the United States. Health Education and Behavior 1997;24(6):716-35.
  • Perry CL, Stone EJ, Parcel GS, Ellison RC, Nader PR, Webber LS, et al. School-based cardiovascular health promotion: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Journal of School Health 1990;60:406-13.
  • Stone EJ, Osganian SK, McKinlay SM, Wu MC, Webber LS, Luepker RV, et al. Operational design and quality control in the CATCH multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 1996;25(4):384-99.
  • Webber LS, Osganian SK, Feldman HA, Wu M, McKenzie TL, Nichaman M, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors among children after a 2 1/2-year intervention: the CATCH study. Preventive Medicine 1996;25(4):432-41.
Martinez 2008 {published data only}
  • Martinez VM, Aguilar FS, Gutierrez RF, Martinez MS, Lopez MS, Martinez SS, et al. Assessment of an after-school physical activity program to prevent obesity among 9- to 10-year-old children: a cluster randomized trial. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32:12-22.
McManus 2008 {published data only}
Neumark-Sztainer 2009 {published data only}
  • Neumark-Sztainer D, Haines J, Robinson-O'Brien R, Hannan PJ, Robins M, Morris B, et al. 'Ready. Set. ACTION!' A theater-based obesity prevention program for children: a feasibility study. Health Education Research 2009;24(3):407-20.
Neumark-Sztainer 2010 {published data only}
  • Neumark-Sztainer DR, Friend SE, Flattum CF, Hannan PJ, Story MT, Bauer KW, et al. New moves-preventing weight-related problems in adolescent girls a group-randomized study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010;39(5):421-32.
Peralta 2009 {published data only}
  • Peralta LR, Jones RA, Okely AD. Promoting healthy lifestyles among adolescent boys: the Fitness Improvement and Lifestyle Awareness Program RCT. Preventive Medicine 2009;48(6):537-42.
Petchers 1988 {published data only}
  • Petchers MK, Hirsch EZ, Bloch BA. A longitudinal study of the impact of a school heart health curriculum. Journal of Community Health 1988;13(2):85-94.
Reed 2008 {published data only}
  • Ahamed Y, Macdonald H, Reed K, Naylor P-J, Liu-Ambrase T, McKay H. School-based physical activity does not compromise children's academic performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2007;39(1):371-6.
  • Naylor PJ, Macdonald HM, Warburton DE, Reed KE, McKay HA. An active school model to promote physical activity in elementary schools: Action Schools! BC. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2008;42(5):338-43.
  • Reed KE, Warburton DE, Macdonald HM, Naylor PJ, McKay HA. Action Schools! BC: a school-based physical activity intervention designed to decrease cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Preventive Medicine 2008;46(6):525-31.
Robinson 1999 {published data only}
Salmon 2008 {published data only}
  • Salmon J, Ball K, Crawford D, Booth M, Telford A, Hume C, et al. Reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity among 10-year-old children: overview and process evaluation of the 'Switch-Play' intervention. Health Promotion International 2005;20(1):7-17.
  • Salmon J, Ball K, Hume C, Booth M, Crawford D. Outcomes of a group-randomized trial to prevent excess weight gain, reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity in 10-year-old children: Switch-Play. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32:601-12.
Simon 2004 {published data only}
  • Simon C, Schweitzer B, Oujaa M, Wagner A, Arveiler D, Triby E, et al. Successful overweight prevention in adolescents by increasing physical activity: a 4-year randomized controlled intervention. [Erratum appears in International Journal of Obesity 2008;32(10):1606]. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32(10):1489-98.
  • Simon C, Wagner A, DiVita C, Rauscher E, Klein-Platat C, Arveiler D, et al. Intervention centred on adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behaviour (ICAPS): concept and 6-month results. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 2004;28(Suppl 3):S96-103.
  • Simon C, Wagner A, Platat C, Arveiler D, Schweitzer B, Schlienger JL, et al. ICAPS: a multilevel program to improve physical activity in adolescents. Diabetes & Metabolism 2006;32(1):41-9.
Singh 2009 {published data only}
  • Singh AS, Chin A, Paw MJ, Brug J, van Mechelen W. Dutch obesity intervention in teenagers: effectiveness of a school-based program on body composition and behavior. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2009;163(4):309-17.
Singhal 2010 {published data only}
  • Singhal N, Misra A, Shah P, Gulati S. Effects of controlled school-based multi-component model of nutrition and lifestyle interventions on behavior modification, anthropometry and metabolic risk profile of urban Asian Indian adolescents in North India. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;64(6):364-73.
Stephens 1998 {published data only}
  • Stephens M, Wentz S. Supplemental fitness activities and fitness in urban elementary school classrooms. Family Medicine 1998;30(3):220-3.
Stone 2003 {published data only}
  • Caballero B, Clay T, Davis SM, Ethelbah B, Rock BH, Lohman T, et al. Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in American Indian school children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2003;78(5):1030-8.
  • Caballero B, Clay TE, Davis SM, Ethelbah R, Holyrock B, Lohman TG, et al. The Pathways obesity prevention study: overview of design and measurements. FASEB Journal 2001;15(5):A1091.
  • Caballero B, Davis SM, Davis CE, Ethelbah R, Evans MA, Lohman TG, et al. Pathways: a school-based program for the primary prevention of obesity in American Indian children. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 1998;9(9):535-43.
  • Davis CE, Hunsberger S, Murray DM, Fabsitz RR, Himes JH, Stephenson LK, et al. Design and statistical analysis for the Pathways study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(4 Suppl):S760-3.
  • Davis SM. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 Pt 2):S24-34.
  • Steckler A, Ethelbah B, Martin CJ, Stewart D, Pardilla M, Gittelsohn J, et al. Pathways process evaluation results: a school-based prevention trial to promote healthful diet and physical activity in American Indian third, fourth, and fifth grade students. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 part 2):S80-90.
  • Stevens J. The impact of the Pathways intervention on psychosocial variables related to diet and physical activity in American Indian school children. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(6 Pt 2):S70-9.
  • Stone EJ, Norman JE, Davis SM, Stewart D, Clay TE, Caballero B, et al. Design, implementation, and quality control in the Pathways American-Indian multicenter trial. Preventive Medicine 2003;37(Suppl):S13-23.
  • Teufel N, Perry CL, Story M, Flint-Wagner HG, Levin S, Clay TE, et al. Pathways family intervention for third-grade American Indian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(4 Suppl):S803-9.
Trevino 2004 {published data only}
  • Trevino RP, Yin Z, Hernandez A, Hale DE, Garcia OA, Mobley C. Impact of the Bienestar school-based diabetes mellitus prevention program on fasting capillary glucose levels: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2004;158(9):911-7.
Verstraete 2006 {published data only}
  • Verstraete SJ, Cardon GM, De Clercq DL, De Bourdeaudhuij IMM. Increasing children's physical activity levels during recess periods in elementary schools: the effects of providing game equipment. European Journal of Public Health 2006;16(4):415-9.
Walter 1988 {published data only}
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Barrett LT, Connelly PA, Kost KL, Walk EH, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease among children: three year results of a randomized intervention trial. In: Hetzel B, Berenson GS editor(s). Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Childhood: Epidemiology and Prevention. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. (Biomedical Division), 1987:161-81.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Coronary heart disease prevention in childhood: one-year results of a randomized intervention study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 1986;2(4):239-45.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Connelly PA, Barrett LT, Kost KL. Primary prevention of chronic disease in childhood: changes in risk factors after one year of intervention. American Journal of Epidemiology 1985;122(5):772-81.
  • Walter HJ, Hofman A, Vaughan RD, Wynder EL. Modification of risk factors for coronary heart disease: five-year results of a school-based intervention trial. New England Journal of Medicine 1988;318(17):1093-100.
  • Walter HJ, Wynder EL. The development implementation evaluation and future directions of a chronic disease prevention program for children: the "know your body" studies. Preventive Medicine 1989;18(1):59-71.
Walther 2009 {published data only}
  • Walther C, Gaede L, Adams V, Gelbrich G, Leichtle A, Erbs S, et al. Effect of increased exercise in school children on physical fitness and endothelial progenitor cells: a prospective randomized trial. Circulation 2009;120(22):2251-9.
Wang 2008 {published data only}
Webber 2008 {published data only}
  • Elder JP, Lytle L, Sallis JF, Young DR, Steckler A, Simons-Morton D. A description of the social–ecological framework used in the Trial of Activity for adolescent Girls (TAAG). Health Education Research 2007;22(2):155-65.
  • Elder JP, Shuler L, Moe SG, Grieser M, Pratt C, Cameron S, et al. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Journal of School Health 2008;78(10):523-31.
  • Lytle LA, Murray DM, Evenson KR, Moody J, Pratt CA, Metcalfe L, et al. Mediators affecting girls' levels of physical activity outside of school: findings from the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2009;38(2):124-36.
  • McKenzie TL, Catellier DJ, Conway T, Lytle LA, Grieser M, Webber LA, et al. Girls' activity levels and lesson contexts in middle school physical education: TAAG baseline. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2006;38(7):1229-35.
  • Moe SG, Pickrel J, McKenzie TL, Strikmiller PK, Coombs D, Murrie D. Using school-level interviews to develop a multisite PE intervention program. Health Education & Behavior 2006;33:52-65.
  • Saunders RP, Moody J. Community agency survey formative research results from the TAAG study. Health Education & Behavior 2006;33(1):12-24.
  • Stevens J, Murray DM, Catellier DJ, Hannan PJ, Lytele LA, Elder JP, et al. Design of the Trial of Activity in Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Contemporary Clinical Trials 2005;26:223-33.
  • Webber LS, Catellier DJ, Lytle LA, Murray DM, Pratt CA, Young DR, et al. Outcomes of a randomized controlled field trial to promote physical activity in middle-school girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. Circulation 2007;115(8):e221.
  • Webber LS, Catellier DJ, Lytle LA, Murray DM, Pratt CA, Young DR, et al. Promoting physical activity in middle school girls: Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008;34(3):173-84.
  • Young DR, Felton GM, Grieser M, Elder J, Johnson C, Lee J, et al. Policies and opportunities for physical activity in middle school environments. Journal of School Health 2007;77(1):41-7.
  • Young DR, Johnson CC, Steckler A, Gittelsohn J, Saunders RP, Saksvig BI, et al. Data to action: using formative research to develop intervention programs to increase physical activity in adolescent girls. Health Education & Behavior 2006;33:97-111.
  • Young DR, Steckler A, Cohen S, Pratt C, Felton G, Moe SG, et al. Process evaluation results from a school- and community-linked intervention: the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). Health Education Research 2008;23(6):976-86.
Weeks 2008 {published data only}
Williamson 2007 {published data only}
Wilson 2011 {published data only}
  • Wilson DK, Van Horn ML, Kitzman-Ulrich H, Saunders R, Pate R, Lawman HG, et al. Results of the "Active by Choice Today" (ACT) randomized trial for increasing physical activity in low-income and minority adolescents. Health Psychology 2011;30(4):463-71.
Young 2006 {published data only}
  • Young DR, Phillips JA, Yu T, Haythornthwaite JA. Effects of a life skills intervention for increasing physical activity in adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2006;160(12):1255-61.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Abbott 1989 {published data only}
  • Abbott J, Farrell J. A health-related exercise project in primary schools. Education and Health 1989;7(2):33-7.
Aburto 2011 {published data only}
  • Aburto NJ, Fulton JE, Safdie M, Duque T, Bonvecchio A, Rivera JA. Effect of a school-based intervention on physical activity: cluster-randomized trial. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2011;43(10):1898-906.
Adeniran 1988 {published data only}
  • Adeniran SA, Toriola AL. Effects of continuous and interval running programmes on aerobic and anaerobic capacities in school girls aged 13 to 17 years. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1988;28(3):260-6.
  • Adeniran SA, Toriola AL. Effects of different running programmes on body fat and blood pressure in schoolboys aged 13-17 years. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1988;28(3):267-73.
Aganovic 2002 {published data only}
  • Aganovic I, Jovanovic Z, Crncevic-Orlic Z, Dordevic V, Gosev M, Nagy L, et al. The effect of weight loss on cardiovascular risk factors: "Healthy Weight Loss School". International Journal of Obesity 2002;26(Suppl 1):S200.
Agron 2002 {published data only}
  • Agron P, Takada E, Purcell A. California project LEAN's food on the run program: an evaluation of a high school-based student advocacy nutrition and physical activity program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(3 Suppl):S103-5.
Alexandrov 1988 {published data only}
  • Alexandrov AA, Isakova G, Maslennikova GY. Prevention of atherosclerosis among 11-year old school children in two Moscow administrative districts. Health Psychology 1988;7(Suppl):247-52.
Alexandrov 1992 {published data only}
  • Alexandrov AA, Maslennikova GY, Kulikov SM, Propirnij GA, Perova NV. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: 3-year intervention results in boys of 12 years of age. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(1):53-62.
Alhassan 2007 {published data only}
Allensworth 1997 {published data only}
  • Allensworth D. Improving the health of youth through a coordinated school health programme. Promotion & Education 1997;4(4):42-7.
Allison 1999 {published data only}
Allison 2000 {published data only}
  • Allison KR, Adlaf EM. Structured opportunities for student physical activity in Ontario elementary and secondary schools. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2000;91(5):371-5.
Al-Nakeeb 2007 {published data only}
Andersen 1998 {published data only}
  • Andersen RE, Crespo CJ, Bartlett SJ, Cheskin LJ, Pratt M. Relationship of physical activity and television watching with body weight and level of fatness among children: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA 1998;279(12):938-42.
Andersen 2003 {published data only}
  • Andersen LB, Wedderkopp N, Hansen HS, Cooper AR, Frobergb K. Biological cardiovascular risk factors cluster in Danish children and adolescents: the European Youth Heart Study. Preventive Medicine 2003;37:363-37.
Andersen 2006 {published data only}
  • Andersen LB, Harro M, Sardinha LB, Froberg K, Ekelund Ulf, Brage S, et al. Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 2006;368(9532):299-304.
Anderson 1999 {published data only}
  • Anderson S, Gauvin L, Potvin L, Paradis G. Longitudinal impact of family support and access to community facilities on children's physical activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(5 Suppl):S272.
Andreacci 2008 {published data only}
  • Andreacci JL, Dixon CB, Rompolski K, vanGorden KM. The effect of an acute after-school exercise bout on percentage of body fat using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis in children. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2008;79(4):535-9.
Annesi 2004 {published data only}
  • Annesi JJ. Relationship between self-efficacy and changes for 9-to 12-yr old children enrolled in a 12-wk after-school physical activity program. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2004;99:191-4.
Ara 2006 {published data only}
  • Ara I, Vicente-Rodriguez G, Perez-Gomez J, Jimenez-Ramirez J, Serrano-Sanchez JA, Dorado C, et al. Influence of extracurricular sport activities on body composition and physical fitness in boys: a 3-year longitudinal study. International Journal of Obesity 2006;30:1062-71.
Arau jo-Soares 2009 {published data only}
  • Araújo-Soares V, McIntyre T, Sniehotta FF. Predicting changes in physical activity among adolescents: the role of self-efficacy, intention, action planning and coping planning. Health Education Research 2009;24(1):128-39.
Arborelius 1988 {published data only}
Ardoy 2010 {published data only}
  • Ardoy DN, Fernandez-Rodriguez JM, Chillon P, Artero EG, Espana-Romero V, Jimenez-Pavon D, et al. Physical fitness enhancement through education, EDUFIT study: background, design, methodology and dropout analysis [Educando para mejorar el estado de forma fisica, estudio EDUFIT: antecedentes, diseno, metodologia y analisis del abandono/adhesion al estudio]. Revista Espanola de Salud Publica 2010;84(2):151-68.
  • Ardoy DN, Fernandez-Rodriguez JM, Ruiz JR, Chillon P, Espana-Romero V, Castillo MJ, et al. Improving physical fitness in adolescents through a school-based intervention: the EDUFIT study [Mejora de la condicion fisica en adolescentes a traves de un programa de intervencion educativa: Estudio EDUFIT]. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia 2011;64(6):484-91.
Armstrong 2000 {published data only}
Babin 2001 {published data only}
  • Babin J, Katic R, Ropac D, Bonacin D. Effect of specially programmed physical and health education on motor fitness of seven-year-old school children. Collegium Antropologicum 2001;25(1):153-65.
Bal 1990 {published data only}
  • Bal LV, Shugaeva EN, Deev AA, Maslova AR, Aleksandrov AA. Results of a three-year trial of arterial hypertension prevention in a population of children aged 11-15 years by overweight control. Cor et Vasa 1990;32(6):448-56.
Baquet 2001 {published data only}
  • Baquet G, Berthoin S, Gerbeaux M, Van Praagh E. High-intensity aerobic training during a 10 week one-hour physical education cycle: effects on physical fitness of adolescents aged 11 to 16. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2001;22(4):295-300.
Baquet 2002 {published data only}
  • Baquet G, Berthoin S, Van Praagh E. Are intensified physical education sessions able to elicit heart rate at a sufficient level to promote aerobic fitness in adolescents?. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2002;73(3):282-8.
Baranowski 2002 {published data only}
  • Baranowski T, Cullen KW, Nicklas T, Thompson D, Baranowski J. School-based obesity prevention: a blueprint for taming the epidemic. American Journal of Health Behavior 2002;26(6):486-93.
Baranowski 2005 {published data only}
Barthold 1993 {published data only}
Baxter 1997 {published data only}
  • Baxter AP, Milner PC, Hawkins S, Leaf M, Simpson C, Wilson KV, et al. The impact of heart health promotion on coronary heart disease lifestyle risk factors in schoolchildren: lessons learnt from a community-based project. Public Health 1997;111(4):231-7.
Beighle 2006 {published data only}
  • Beighle A, Pangrazi RP. Measuring children's activity levels: the association between step-counts and activity time. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2006;3:221-9.
Belansky 2006 {published data only}
  • Belansky ES, Romaniello C, Morin C, Uyeki T, Sawyer RL, Scarbro S, et al. Adapting and implementing a long-term nutrition and physical activity curriculum to a rural, low-income, biethnic community. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2006;38(2):106-13.
Benson 2008 {published data only}
  • Benson AC, Torode ME, Fiatarone Singh MA. The effect of high-intensity progressive resistance training on adiposity in children: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Obesity 2008;32(6):1016-27.
Berenson 1993 {published data only}
  • Arbeit ML, Johnson CC, Mott DS, Harsha DW, Nicklas TA, Webber LS, et al. The Heart Smart cardiovascular school health promotion: behavior correlates of risk factor change. Preventive Medicine 1992;21(1):18-32.
  • Berenson GS. Prevention of heart disease beginning in childhood through comprehensive school health: the Heart Smart Program. Preventive Medicine 1993;22(4):507-12.
  • Butcher AH, Frank GC, Harsha DW, Serpas DC, Little SD, Nicklas TA, et al. Heart Smart: a school health program meeting the 1990 objectives for the nation. Health Education Quarterly 1988;5(1):17-34.
Berenson 1993a {published data only}
  • Berenson GS, Schnakenberg D, Harsha DW, Webber LS, Johnson CC, Nicklas TA. Fort Polk Heart Smart Program. Part I: background design and significance. Military Medicine 1993;158(5):304-8.
Berenson 2001 {published data only}
  • Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR. Emergence of obesity and cardiovascular risk for coronary artery disease: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Preventive Cardiology 2001;4(3):116-21.
Berg-Kelly 1997 {published data only}
  • Berg-Kelly K, Alven B, Erdes L, Erneholm T, Johannisson I, Mattsson-Elofson E. Health habits and risk behavior among youth in three communities with different public health approach. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine 1997;25(3):149-55.
Bergmann 2010 {published data only}
  • Bergmann L, Clifford D, Wolff C. Edutainment and teen modeling may spark interest in nutrition & physical activity in elementary school audiences. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior 2010;42(2):139-41.
Biddle 2004 {published data only}
Bindler 2000 {published data only}
  • Bindler RM, Short RA, Cooney SK, Domitor P, Garabedian H, Hain R, et al. Interventions to decrease cardiovascular risk factors in children: the Northwest Pediatric Heart project. National Academies of Practice Forum: Issues in Interdisciplinary Care 2000;2(1):43-8.
Bischoff 1987 {published data only}
  • Bischoff JA, Lewis KA. A cross-sectional study of fitness levels in a movement education program. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1987;58(3):348-53.
Blank Sherman 1992 {published data only}
  • Blank Sherman J, Alexander MA, Gomez D, Kim M, Marole P. Intervention program for obese children. Journal of Community Health Nursing 1992;9:183-90.
Blessing 1994 {published data only}
  • Blessing DL, Williford HN, Barksdale J, Wang N, Teel S. Effects of a 15-wk school physical fitness program on blood lipids and lipoprotein in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1994;26(5 Suppl):S149.
Bonhauser 2005 {published data only}
  • Bonhauser M, Fernandez G, Puschel K, Yanez F, Montero J, Thompson B, et al. Improving physical fitness and emotional well-being in adolescents of low socioeconomic status in Chile: results of a school-based controlled trial. Health Promotion International 2005;20(2):113-22.
Booth 2001 {published data only}
Boreham 2001 {published data only}
Boyd 1997 {published data only}
  • Boyd KR, Hrycaiko DW. The effect of a physical activity intervention package on the self-esteem of pre-adolescent and adolescent females. Adolescence 1997;32(127):693-708.
Boyle-Holmes 2010 {published data only}
  • Boyle-Holmes T, Grost L, Russell L, Laris BA, Robin L, Haller E, et al. Promoting elementary physical education: results of a school-based evaluation study. Health Education & Behavior 2010;37(3):377-89.
Briancon 2010 {published data only}
  • Briancon S, Bonsergent E, Agrinier N, Tessier S, Legrand K, Lecomte E, et al. PRALIMAP: study protocol for a high school-based, factorial cluster randomised interventional trial of three overweight and obesity prevention strategies. Trials 2010;11:119.
Brown 2004 {published data only}
  • Brown SJ, Schoenly L. Test of an educational intervention for osteoporosis prevention with U.S. adolescents. Orthopaedic Nursing 2004;23(4):245-51.
Brownell 1982 {published data only}
  • Brownell KD, Kaye FS. A school-based behavior modification, nutrition education, and physical activity program for obese children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1982;35(2):277-83.
Buchan 2011 {published data only}
Bungum 1997 {published data only}
Burgeson 2001 {published data only}
Burgess 2006 {published data only}
  • Burgess G, Grogan S, Burwitz L. Effects of a 6-week aerobic dance intervention on body image and physical self-perceptions in adolescent girls. Body Image 3 2006;3:57-66.
Bush 2010 {published data only}
  • Bush PL, Laberge S, Laforest S. Physical activity promotion among underserved adolescents: "make it fun, easy, and popular". Health Promotion Practice 2010;11(Suppl 3):79s-87s.
Butcher 2007 {published data only}
  • Butcher Z, Fairclough S, Stratton G, Richardson D. The effect of feedback and information on children's pedometer step counts at school. Pediatric Exercise Science 2007;19(1):29-38.
Byrd-Williams 2010 {published data only}
  • Byrd-Williams CE, Belcher BR, Spruijt MD, Davis JN, Ventura EE, Kelly L, et al. Increased physical activity and reduced adiposity in overweight Hispanic adolescents. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2010;42(3):478-84.
Cale 2000 {published data only}
  • Cale L. Physical activity promotion in secondary schools. European Physical Education Review 2000;6(1):71-90.
Calfas 1991 {published data only}
  • Calfas KJ, Sallis JF, Nader PR. The development of scales to measure knowledge and preference for diet and physical activity behavior in 4- to 8-year old children. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics 1991;12(3):185-90.
Calfas 1994 {published data only}
  • Calfas KJ, Taylor WC. Effects of physical activity on psychological variables in adolescents. Pediatric Exercise Science 1994;6:406-23.
Caravella 1996 {published data only}
  • Caravella T, Pretasky BJ, Detert RA, Oganowski JL. The Wisconsin Elementary Health Education Pilot Project: years one and two diffusion activities. Journal of Health Education 1996;27(3):170-7.
Cardon 2002 {published data only}
  • Cardon GM, De Bourdeaudhuij IMM. Physical education and physical activity in elementary schools in Flanders. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 2002;7(1):5-18.
Cardon 2004 {published data only}
  • Cardon G, Verstraete S, De Clereq D, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Physical activity levels in elementary-school physical education: a comparison of swimming and nonswimming classes. Journal of teaching in physical education 2004;23:252-63.
Carlson 2008 {published data only}
  • Carlson SA, Fulton JE, Lee SM, Maynard M, Brown D, Kohl HW, et al. Physical education and academic achievement in elementary school: data from the Early Childhood longitudinal study. American Journal of Public Health 2008;98(4):721-7.
Carrel 2005a {published data only}
  • Carrel AL, Clark R, Peterson SE, Nemeth BA, Sullivan J, Allen DB. Improvement of fitness, body composition, and insulin sensitivity in overweight children in a school-based exercise program - a randomized, controlled study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2005;159(10):963-8.
Carrel 2005b {published data only}
  • Carrel A, Meinen A, Garry C, Storandt R. Effects of nutrition education and exercise in obese children: the Ho-Chunk Youth Fitness Program. WMJ 2005;104(5):44-7.
Casazza 2007 {published data only}
  • Casazza K, Ciccazzo M. The method of delivery of nutrition and physical activity information may play a role in eliciting behavior changes in adolescents. Eating Behaviors 2007;8:73-82.
Cass 2006 {published data only}
  • Cass Y, Price P. Moorefit - increasing physical activity in adolescent girls using the Health Promoting Schools framework. Education and Health 2006;24(1):3-7.
Castelli 2007 {published data only}
  • Castelli DM, Hillman CH, Buck SM, Erwin HE. Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2007;29:239-52.
Cawley 2007 {published data only}
Chad 1999 {published data only}
  • Chad KE, Humbert ML, Jackson PL. The effectiveness of the Canadian Quality Daily Physical Education program on school physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1999;70(1):55-64.
Challener 1990 {published data only}
Chatzisarantis 2009 {published data only}
  • Chatzisarantis N, Hagger MS. Effects of an intervention based on self-determination theory on self-reported leisure-time physical activity participation. Psychology & Health 2009;24(1):29-48.
Chavarro 2005 {published data only}
  • Chavarro JE, Peterson KE, Sobol AM, Wiecha JL, Gortmaker SL. Effects of a school-based obesity-prevention intervention on menarche (United States). Cancer Causes and Control 2005;16(10):1245-52.
Chomitz 2003 {published data only}
  • Chomitz VR, Collins J, Kim J, Kramer E, McGowan R. Promoting healthy weight among elementary school children via a health report card approach. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2003;157(8):765-72.
Choudhuri 2002 {published data only}
  • Choudhuri D, Choudhuri S, Kulkarni VA. Physical fitness: a comparative study between students of residential (Sainik) and non-residential schools (aged 12-14 years). Indian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology 2002;46(3):328-32.
Chow 2001 {published data only}
  • Chow C, Lindner K. Testing Ajzen's theory of planned behavior on the physical activity participatory behavior of Hong Kong children and youth: a pilot study. In: Chin MK, Hensley LD, Liu YK editor(s). Innovation and Application of Physical Education and Sports Science in the New Millennium - An Asia-Pacific Perspective Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Institute of Education, 2001:373-86.
Ciccomascolo 2008 {published data only}
  • Ciccomascolo LE, Grossi LM. The effect of an 8-week educational curriculum and physical activity program on attitudes toward physical activity and body image of urban adolescent girls. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal 2008;17(2):17-23.
Cirignano 2010 {published data only}
  • Cirignano SM, Du L, Morgan KT. Promoting youth physical activity in the classroom through a comprehensive walking program. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal 2010;39(2):161-72.
Clark 2008 {published data only}
  • Clark, J. Effects of medicine ball training in fitness performance of high school physical education students. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 2008;79(4):9-9.
Coe 2005 {published data only}
  • Coe DP, Pivarnik JM, Womack CJ, Reeves MJ, Malina RM. Effect of physical education class enrollment and seasonality on physical activity levels in middle school children. Pediatric Exercise Science 2005;17(1):93-4.
Coe 2006 {published data only}
  • Coe DP, Pivarnik JM, Womack CJ, Reeves MJ, Malina RM. Effect of physical education and activity levels on academic achievement in children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2006;38(8):1515-9.
Cohen 1991 {published data only}
  • Cohen CJ, McMilan CS, Samuelson DR. Long-term effects of lifestyle modification exercise program on the fitness of sedentary obese children. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1991;31:183-8.
Colchico 2000 {published data only}
  • Colchico K, Zybert P, Basch CE. Effects of after-school physical activity on fitness, fatness, and cognitive self-perceptions: a pilot study among urban, minority adolescent girls. American Journal of Public Health 2000;90(6):977-8.
Collins 1988 {published data only}
Collins 1995 {published data only}
Connor 1986 {published data only}
Contento 2010 {published data only}
  • Contento IR, Koch PA, Lee H, Calabrese BA. Adolescents demonstrate improvement in obesity risk behaviors after completion of choice, control & change, a curriculum addressing personal agency and autonomous motivation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010;110(12):1830-9.
Cornelius 1991 {published data only}
  • Cornelius LJ. Health habits of school-age children. Journal of Health Care 1991;2(3):374-95.
Cottrell 2005 {published data only}
  • Cottrell L, Spangler-Murphy E, Minor V, Downes A, Nicholson P, Neal WA. A kindergarten cardiovascular risk surveillance study: CARDIAC-Kinder. American Journal of Health Behavior 2005;29(6):595-606.
Cox 2006 {published data only}
  • Cox M, Schofield G, Greasley N, Kolt GS. Pedometer steps in primary school-aged children: a comparison of school-based and out-of-school activity. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2006;9(1-2):91-7.
Crawford 1997 {published data only}
  • Crawford PB, O'Neill KJ, Wolfe T, Obarzanek E. An approach to providing dietary and physical-activity dairy instruction to adolescent girls enrolled in a longitudinal study: the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;65(4 Suppl):S1297-8.
Dale 2000 {published data only}
  • Dale D, Corbin CB. Physical activity participation of high school graduates following exposure to conceptual or traditional physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2000;71(1):61-8.
  • Dale D, Corbin CB, Cuddihy TF. Can conceptual physical education promote physically active lifestyles?. Pediatric Exercise Science 1998;10:97-109.
Davis 1995 {published data only}
  • Davis K, Christoffel KK. Obesity in preschool and school-age children: treatment early and often may be best. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1994;148(12):1257-61.
  • Davis K, Christoffel KK, Vespa H, Pierleoni MP, Papanastassiou R. Early frequent treatment in prevention of childhood obesity: how we do it. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1993;699:260-1.
  • Davis SM, Lambert LC, Gomez Y, Skipper B. Southwest cardiovascular curriculum project: study findings for American Indian elementary students. Journal of Health Education 1995;26(2):81.
DeBar 2006 {published data only}
  • DeBar LL, Ritenbaugh C, Aickin M, Orwoll E, Elliot D, Dickerson J, et al. YOUTH: a health plan-based lifestyle intervention increases bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2006;160(12):1269-76.
de Barros 2009 {published data only}
  • de Barros MV, Nahas MV, Hallal PC, de Farias J, Florindo AA, Honda de Barros SS. Effectiveness of a school-based intervention on physical activity for high school students in Brazil: the Saude na Boa project. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2009;6(2):163-9.
De Bourdeaudhuij 2010 {published data only}
  • De Bourdeaudhuij I, Maes L, De Henauw S, De Vriendt T, Moreno LA, Kersting M, et al. Evaluation of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents in six European countries: the Activ-O-Meter in the HELENA intervention study. Journal of Adolescent Health 2010;46(5):458-66.
Deforche 2004 {published data only}
  • Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Tanghe A, Hills AP, Bode PD. Changes in physical activity and psychosocial determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents treated for obesity. Patient Education and Counseling 2004;55(3):407-15.
Dehar 1991 {published data only}
  • Dehar M, Duignan P, Casswell S. Evaluation of Heartbeat New Zealand. Health Promotion International 1991;6(1):13-9.
Del Ben 1991 {published data only}
  • Del Ben M, Angelico F, Fabiani L. Management of childhood obesity through a school-based programme of general health and nutrition education. Public Health 1991;105(393):398.
Dellinger 2002 {published data only}
DeMarco 1989 {published data only}
De Meij 2010 {published data only}
  • De Meij SB. Promoting physical activity in children: the stepwise development of the primary school-based JUMP-in intervention applying the RE-AIM evaluation framework. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2010;44(12):879-87.
Dempsey 1993 {published data only}
  • Dempsey JM, Kimiecik JC, Horn TS. Parental influence on children's moderate to vigorous physical activity participation: an expectancy-value approach. Pediatric Exercise Science 1993;5:151-67.
Dencker 2006 {published data only}
  • Dencker M, Thorsson O, Karlsson MK, Linden C, Eiberg S, Wollmer P, et al. Daily physical activity related to body fat in children aged 8-11 years. The Journal of Pediatrics 2006;149(1):38-42.
Dennison 2004 {published data only}
Derri 2004 {published data only}
  • Derri V, Aggeloussis N, Petraki C. Health-related fitness and nutritional practices: can they be enhanced in upper elementary school students?. Physical Educator 2004;61(1):35.
DeVault 2009 {published data only}
  • DeVault N, Kennedy T, Hermann J, Mwavita M, Rask P, Jaworsky A. It's all about kids: preventing overweight in elementary school children in Tulsa, OK. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2009;109(4):680-7.
Devis 1992 {published data only}
  • Devis J, Peiro C. Exercise and health in a Spanish PE curriculum: a modified programme of 'the exercise challenge'. In: Williams T, Almond L, Sparkes A editor(s). Sport & Physical Activity: Moving Towards Excellence. London: E & FN Spon, 1992:418-28.
Diaz 1997 {published data only}
  • Diaz FJ, Garcia R, Melchor T, Montano G, Moreno F. The effect of diet and exercise upon cardiovascular risk factor in adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1997;29(5 Suppl):S237.
Diehl 1998 {published data only}
  • Diehl HA. Coronary risk reduction through intensive community-based lifestyle intervention: the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) experience. American Journal of Cardiology 1998;82(10B):T83-7.
Dishman 2005 {published data only}
  • Dishman RK, Motl RW, Saunders R, Felton G, Ward DS, Dowda M, et al. Enjoyment mediates effects of a school-based physical-activity intervention. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2005;37(3):478-87.
Dishman 2010 {published data only}
  • Dishman RK, Dunn AL, Sallis JF, Vandenberg RJ, Pratt CA. Social-cognitive correlates of physical activity in a multi-ethnic cohort of middle-school girls: two-year prospective study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2010;35(2):188-98.
Donnelly 1996 {published data only}
Dowda 2001 {published data only}
  • Dowda M, Ainsworth BE, Addy CL, Saunders RP, Riner W. Environmental influences, physical activity, and weight status in 8- to 16-year-olds. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 2001;155(6):711-7.
Drews 2009 {published data only}
  • Drews KL, Harrell JS, Thompson D, Mazzuto SL, Ford EG, Carter M, et al. Recruitment and retention strategies and methods in the HEALTHY study. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33:S21-8.
Dudley 2010 {published data only}
  • Dudley DA, Okely AD, Pearson P, Peat J. Engaging adolescent girls from linguistically diverse and low income backgrounds in school sport: a pilot randomised controlled trial. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2010;13(2):217-24.
Dunbar 1998 {published data only}
Duncan 1983 {published data only}
Duncan 2004 {published data only}
  • Duncan MJ, Al-Nakeeb Y, Nevill A, Jones MV. Body image and physical activity in British secondary school children. European Physical Education Review 2004;10(3):243-60.
  • Duncan MJ, Al-Nakeeb Y, Nevill AM, Jones MV. Body dissatisfaction, body fat and physical activity in British children. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity 2006;1(2):89-95.
Duncan 2009 {published data only}
  • Duncan MJ, Al-Nakeeb Y, Nevill AM. Effects of a 6-week circuit training intervention on body esteem and body mass index in British primary school children. Body Image 2009;6(3):216-20.
Duncan 2010 {published data only}
  • Duncan MJ, Staples V. The impact of a school-based active video game play intervention on children's physical activity during recess. Human Movement 2010;11(1):95-9.
Dunn 2006 {published data only}
  • Dunn C, Thomas C, Ward D, Pegram L, Webber K, Cullitan C. Design and implementation of a nutrition and physical activity curriculum for child care settings. Preventing Chronic Disease 2006;3(2):1-8.
DuShaw 1984 {published data only}
Dwyer 1979 {published data only}
Dwyer 1983 {published data only}
  • Dwyer T, Coonan WE, Leitch DR, Hetzel BS, Baghurst RA. An investigation of the effects of daily physical activity on the health of primary school students in South Australia. International Journal of Epidemiology 1983;12(3):308-13.
Dwyer 1991 {published data only}
  • Dwyer T, Viney R, Jones M. Assessing school health education programs. International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care 1991;7(3):286-95.
Dwyer 2003 {published data only}
  • Dwyer JJM, Hansen B, Barrera M, Allison K, Ceolin-Celestini S, Koenig D, et al. Maximizing children's physical activity: an evaluability assessment to plan a community-based, multi-strategy approach in an ethno-racially and socio-economically diverse city. Health Promotion International 2003;18(3):199-208.
Dyson 1998 {published data only}
Dzewaltowski 2002 {published data only}
Dzewaltowski 2007 {published data only}
  • Dzewaltowski DA, Karteroliotis K, Welk G, Johnston JA, Nyaronga D, Estabrooks PA. Measurement of self-efficacy and proxy efficacy for middle school youth physical activity. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2007;29(3):310-32.
Dzewaltowski 2009 {published data only}
  • Dzewaltowski DA, Estabrooks PA, Welk G, Hill J, Milliken G, Karteroliotis K, et al. Healthy youth places: a randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of facilitating adult and youth leaders to promote physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption in middle schools. Health Education & Behavior 2009;36(3):583-600.
Economos 2007 {published data only}
Edwards 2005 {published data only}
Eisenmann 2007 {published data only}
Ekelund 2004 {published data only}
  • Ekelund U, Sardinha LB, Anderssen SA, Harro M, Franks PW, Brage S. Associations between objectively assessed physical activity and indicators of body fatness in 9- to 10-y-old European children: a population-based study from 4 distinct regions in Europe (the European Youth Heart Study). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80:584-90.
Eliakim 1996 {published data only}
  • Eliakim A, Barstow TJ, Brasel JA, Ajie H, Lee WN, Renslo R, et al. Effect of exercise training on energy expenditure, muscle volume, and maximal oxygen uptake in female adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics 1996;129(4):537-43.
Eliakim 1997 {published data only}
Epstein 2000 {published data only}
Ericsson 2011 {published data only}
  • Ericsson I. Effects of increased physical activity on motor skills and marks in physical education: an intervention study in school years 1 through 9 in Sweden. Physical Education & Sport Pedagogy 2011;16(3):313-29.
Ernst 1999 {published data only}
  • Ernst MP, Pangrazi RP. Effects of a physical activity program on children's activity levels and attraction to physical activity. Pediatric Exercise Science 1999;11(4):393-405.
Ernst 2003 {published data only}
  • Ernst M. Examination of physical activity during a physical activity intervention and recess. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2003;74(1 Suppl):A43.
Errecart 1991 {published data only}
Erwin 2011 {published data only}
Escobar 2010 {published data only}
Everhart 2002 {published data only}
  • Everhart B, Harshaw C, Everhart B, Kermodie M, Stubblefield E. Multimedia software's effects on high school physical education students' fitness patterns. Physical Educator 2002;59(3):151-7.
Ewart 1998 {published data only}
Ezendam 2007 {published data only}
  • Ezendam NP, Oenema A, van de Looij-Jansen PM, Brug J. Design and evaluation protocol of "FATaintPHAT", a computer-tailored intervention to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents. BMC Public Health 2007;7:324-34.
Faigenbaum 1999 {published data only}
Faigenbaum 2001 {published data only}
  • Faigenbaum AD, Chu DA. Plyometric training for children and adolescents. American College of Sports Medicine 2001;December:1-2.
Faigenbaum 2003 {published data only}
  • Faigenbaum AD. Youth Resistance Training. Research Digest: President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports 2003; Vol. 4, issue 3:1-8.
Faigenbaum 2007 {published data only}
  • Faigenbaum AD, McFarland JE, Keiper FB, Tevlin W, Ratamess NA, Jie K, et al. Effects of a short-term plyometric and resistance training program on fitness performance in boys age 12 to 15 years. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine 2007;6(4):519-25.
Faigenbaum 2009 {published data only}
  • Faigenbaum AD, Farrell AC, Radler T, Zbojovsky D, Chu DA, Ratamess NA, et al. "Plyo Play": a novel program of short bouts of moderate and high intensity exercise Improves physical fitness in elementary school children. Physical Educator 2009;66(1):37-44.
Fairclough 2002 {published data only}
  • Fairclough S. Promoting lifetime physical activity through physical education. Are we providing the right opportunities?. British Journal of Teaching Physical Education 2002;32(2):38-42.
Fairclough 2005 {published data only}
  • Fairclough S, Stratton G. ''Physical education makes you fit and healthy''. Physical education's contribution to young people's physical activity levels. Health Education Research 2005;20(1):14-23.
Faludi 1999 {published data only}
  • Faludi J, Farkas A, Zsidegh M, Petrekanits M, Pavlik G. Characteristics influencing changes in aerobic performance of children aged 7-9. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 1999;86(3-4):229-35.
Fardy 1996 {published data only}
  • Fardy PS, Azzollini A, Magel JR, Pitsikoulis C. Effects of school-based health promotion on obesity: the Path program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002;34(5 Suppl):S68.
  • Fardy PS, Azzollini A, Magel JR, White RE, Schmitz MK, Agin D, et al. Gender and ethnic differences in health behaviors and risk factors for coronary disease among urban teenagers: the PATH program. Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine 2000;3(2):59-68.
  • Fardy PS, White RE, Haltiwanger-Schmitz K, Magel JR, McDermott KJ, Clark LT, et al. Coronary disease risk factor reduction and behavior modification in minority adolescents: the PATH program. Journal of Adolescent Health 1996;18(4):217-53.
Fisher 2011 {published data only}
Fitzgibbon 2005 {published data only}
  • Fitzgibbon ML, Stolley MR, Schiffer L, Van Horn L, KauferChistoffel K, Dyer A. Two-year follow-up results for Hip-Hop to Health Jr: a randomized controlled trial for overweight prevention in preschool minority children. The Journal of Pediatrics 2005;146(5):618-25.
Fitzgibbon 2011 {published data only}
Fleming 2000 {published data only}
  • Fleming TL, Green JL, Martin JC, Wicks MW. Effectiveness of a cardiovascular health promotion education intervention on the attitudes of urban African American school-age children. Journal of Community Health Nursing 2000;17(1):49-60.
Flores 1995 {published data only}
Foster 1985 {published data only}
Foster 2008 {published data only}
  • Foster GD, Sherman S, Borradaile KE, Grundy KM, Vander Veur SS, Nachmani J, et al. A policy-based school intervention to prevent overweight and obesity. Pediatrics 2008;121(4):e794-802.
Fox 2004 {published data only}
  • Fox K, Cooper A, McKenna J. The school and promotion of children's health enhancing physical activity. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 2004;23:338-58.
Francis 2010 {published data only}
  • Francis M, Nichols SS, Dalrymple N. The effects of a school-based intervention programme on dietary intakes and physical activity among primary-school children in Trinidad and Tobago. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(5):738-47.
Frauhiger 2002 {published data only}
  • Frauhiger L. The effects of daily physical activity on student academic achievement and physical health. [Thesis] 2002.
Frenn 2003 {published data only}
  • Frenn M, Malin S. Addressing health disparities in middle school students nutrition and exercise. Journal of Community Health Nursing 2003;20(1):1-14.
Frenn 2005 {published data only}
  • Frenn M, Malin S, Brown RL, Greer Y, Fox J, Greer J, et al. Changing the tide: an internet/video exercise and low-fat diet intervention with middle-school students. Applied Nursing Research 2005;18:13-21.
Fuchs 2002 {published data only}
Fullerton 2007 {published data only}
Gallotta 2009 {published data only}
Giralt 2011 {published data only}
  • Giralt M, Albaladejo R, Tarro L, Morina D, Arija V, Sola R. A primary-school-based study to reduce prevalence of childhood obesity in Catalunya (Spain) - EDAL-Educacion en alimentacion: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2011;12:54.
Goldfine 1993 {published data only}
Goran 1999 {published data only}
  • Goran MI, Reynolds KD, Lindquist CH. Role of physical activity in the prevention of obesity in children. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1999;23(Suppl 3):S18-S33.
Goran 2005 {published data only}
Gore 1996 {published data only}
Gortmaker 1999a {published data only}
  • Gortmaker SL, Cheung LWY, Peterson KE, Chomitz G, Cradle JH, Dart H, et al. Impact of a school-based interdisciplinary intervention on diet and physical activity among urban primary school children: eat well and keep moving. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(9):975-83.
Gortmaker 1999b {published data only}
  • Gortmaker SL, Peterson KE, Wiecha J, Sobol AM, Dixit S, Fox MK, et al. Reducing obesity via a school-based interdisciplinary intervention among youth: Planet Health. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 1999;153(4):409-18.
  • Kerr CM. A school based, interdisciplinary curriculum in grades 6 and 7 reduced obesity in girls. Evidence-Based Nursing 2000;3(1):13.
Graf 2005 {published data only}
  • Graf C, Rost SV, Koch B, Heinen S, Falkowski G, Dordel S, et al. Data from the StEP TWO programme showing the effect on blood pressure and different parameters for obesity in overweight and obese primary school children. Cardiology in the Young 2005;15(3):291-8.
Graf 2008 {published data only}
  • Graf C, Koch B, Falkowski G, Jouck S, Christ H, Staudenmaier K, et al. School-based prevention: effects on obesity and physical performance after 4 years. Journal of Sports Sciences 2008;26(10):987-94.
Grafner 1987 {published data only}
  • Grafner L, Heinrich J, Knappe J, Holtz H. Atherosclerosis precursors in school children: results of a two-year intervention study. Cor Vasa 1987;29(8):421-7.
Graham 2008 {published data only}
  • Graham DJ, Schneider M, Cooper DM. Television viewing: moderator or mediator of an adolescent physical activity intervention?. American Journal of Health Promotion 2008;23(2):88-91.
Graham 2008a {published data only}
  • Graham D, Appleton S, Rush E, McLennan S, Reed P, Simmons D. Increasing activity and improving nutrition through a schools-based programme: Project Energize. 1. Design, programme, randomisation and evaluation methodology. Public Health Nutrition 2008;11(10):1076-84.
Greene 1995 {published data only}
  • Greene JC, Ignico AA. The effect of a ten-week physical fitness program on fitness profiles, self-concept, and body-esteem in children. Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport & Dance 1995;31(4):42-7.
Greening 2011 {published data only}
Grey 2004 {published data only}
Grey 2009 {published data only}
  • Grey M, Jaser SS, Holl MG, Jefferson V, Dziura J, Northrup V. A multifaceted school-based intervention to reduce risk for type 2 diabetes in at risk youth. Preventive Medicine 2009;49(2-3):122-8.
Grund 2001 {published data only}
  • Grund A, Krause H, Siewers M, Rieckert H, Muller MJ. Is TV viewing an index of physical activity and fitness in overweight and normal weight children?. Public Health Nutrition 2001;4(6):1245-51.
Guldbrandsson 2009 {published data only}
  • Guldbrandsson K, Modig Wennerstad K, Rasmussen F. Municipal policies and plans of action aiming to promote physical activity and healthy eating habits among school children in Stockholm, Sweden: a cross-sectional study. Implementation Science 2009;4:47.
Gunter 2008 {published data only}
Gutin 1993 {published data only}
Gutin 1995 {published data only}
Gutin 1999 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Ramsey L, Barbeau P, Cannady W, Ferguson M, Litaker M, et al. Plasma leptin concentrations in obese children: changes during 4-month periods with and without physical training. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(3):388-94.
Gutin 2002 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Barbeau P, Owens ST, Lemmon CR, Bauman M, Allison J, et al. Effects of exercise intensity on cardiovascular fitness, total body composition, and visceral adiposity of obese adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;75(5):818-26.
Gutin 2005 {published data only}
  • Gutin B, Yin Z, Humphries MC, Barbeau P. Relations of moderate and vigorous physical activity to fitness and fatness in adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81:746-50.
Haerens 2007 {published data only}
  • Haerens L, Deforche B, Vandelanotte C, Maes L, De Bourdeaudhuij I. Acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents. Patient Education & Counseling 2007;66(3):303-10.
Haines 2006 {published data only}
  • Haines J, Neumark-Sztainer D, Perry CL, Hannan PJ, Levine MP. V.I.K. (Very Important Kids): a school-based program designed to reduce teasing and unhealthy weight-control behaviors. Health Education Research 2006;21(6):884-95.
Halfon 1988 {published data only}
  • Halfon ST, Bronner S. The influence of a physical ability intervention program on improved running time and increased sport motivation among Jerusalem schoolchildren. Adolescence 1988;23(90):405-16.
Hansen 1991 {published data only}
  • Hansen HS, Froberg K, Hyldebrandt N, Nielsen JR. A controlled study of eight months of physical training and reduction of blood pressure in children: the Odense schoolchild study. BMJ 1991;303(6804):682-5.
Hansen 2005 {published data only}
  • Hansen SE, Hasselstrom H, Gronfeldt V, Froberg K, Andersen L. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 6-7-year-old Danish children: the Copenhagen school child intervention study. Preventive Medicine 2005;40(6):740-6.
Hardman 2011 {published data only}
  • Hardman CA, Horne PJ, Fergus LC. Effects of rewards, peer-modelling and pedometer targets on children's physical activity: a school-based intervention study. Psychology & Health 2011;26(1):3-21.
Hardy 2007 {published data only}
Harrell 1998 {published data only}
  • Harrell JS, Gansky SA, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, Frauman AC, Bradley CB. School-based interventions improve heart health in children with multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors. Pediatrics 1998;102(2 Pt 1):371-80.
Harris 1998 {published data only}
  • Harris KJ, Richter KP, Schultz J, Johnston J. Formative, process, and intermediate outcome evaluation of a pilot school-based 5-a-day for Better Health Project. American Journal of Health Promotion 1998;12(6):378-81.
Hart 2003 {published data only}
Hartmann 2010 {published data only}
  • Hartmann T, Zahner L, Puhse U, Puder JJ, Kriemler S. Effects of a school-based physical activity program on physical and psychosocial quality of life in elementary school children: a cluster-randomized trial. Pediatric Exercise Science 2010;22(4):511-22.
  • Hartmann T, Zahner L, Puhse U, Schneider S, Puder JJ, Kriemler S. Physical activity, bodyweight, health and fear of negative evaluation in primary school children. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2010;20(1):e27-34.
Hasselstrom 2008 {published data only}
  • Hasselstrom HA, Karlsson MK, Hansen SE, Gronfeldt V, Froberg K, Andersen LB. A 3-year physical activity intervention program increases the gain in bone mineral and bone width in prepubertal girls but not boys: the prospective Copenhagen School Child Interventions Study (CoSCIS). Calcified Tissue International 2008;83(4):243-50.
Hastie 2007 {published data only}
  • Hastie PA, Sluder B, Buchanan AM. Impact of a sport education "obstacle course" season on students' cardiovascular fitness. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2007;78(1):-.
Heale 2008 {published data only}
  • Heale R. A group intervention for parents and children achieved greater weight loss in obese children than routine care. Evidence-Based Nursing 2008;11(2):43.
HEALTHY Study Group 2010 {published data only}
  • HEALTHY Study Group, Foster GD, Linder B, Baranowski T, Cooper DM, Goldberg L, et al. A school-based intervention for diabetes risk reduction. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(5):443-53.
Henaghan 2008 {published data only}
  • Henaghan J, McWhannell N, Foweather L, Cable NT, Batterham AM, Stratton G, et al. The effect of structured exercise classes and a lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in primary schoolchildren: an exploratory trial (The A-CLASS Project). Pediatric Exercise Science 2008;20(2):169-80.
Hipsky 2002 {published data only}
Hoelscher 2010 {published data only}
Holcomb 1998 {published data only}
Hollar 2010 {published data only}
  • Hollar D, Messiah SE, Lopez-Mitnik G, Hollar TL, Almon M, Agatston AS. Effect of a two-year obesity prevention intervention on percentile changes in body mass index and academic performance in low-income elementary school children. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(4):646-53.
  • Hollar D, Messiah SE, Lopez-Mitnik G, Hollar TL, Almon M, Agatston AS. Healthier options for public schoolchildren program improves weight and blood pressure in 6- to 13-year-olds. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010;110(2):261-7.
Hopper 1992 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, Herb RA. Effect of including parents in a school-based exercise and nutrition program for children. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1992;63(3):315-21.
Hopper 1996 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, MacConnie SE. School-based cardiovascular exercise and nutrition programs with parent participation. Journal of Health Education 1996;27(5 Suppl):S32-9.
  • Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB, MacConnie SE, Schonfeldt B, Shunk T. A school-based cardiovascular exercise and nutrition program with parent participation: an evaluation study. Children's Health Care 1996;25(3):221-35.
Hopper 2001 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Gruber MB, Munoz KD, MacConnie SE, Pfingston YM, Nguyen K. Relationship of blood cholesterol to body composition, physical fitness, and dietary intake measures in third-grade children and their parents. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2001;72(2):182-8.
Hopper 2005 {published data only}
  • Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB, Nguyen KP. The effects of a family fitness program on the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of third-grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2005;76(2):130-9.
Howard 1996 {published data only}
  • Howard JK, Bindler RM, Synoground G, Van Gemert FC. A cardiovascular risk reduction program for the classroom. Journal of School Nursing 1996;12(4):4-11.
Howe 2003 {published data only}
  • Howe C, Gutin B, Litaker M, Barbeau P. Effect of a physical activity intervention on heart rate variability in black girls: relative changes in fitness and fatness. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2003;35(5 Supplement):S70.
Huang 2007 {published data only}
  • Huang SH, Weng KP, Hsieh KS, Ou SF, Lin CC, Chien KJ, et al. Effects of a classroom-based weight-control intervention on cardiovascular disease in elementary-school obese children. Acta Paediatrica Taiwanica 2007;48(4):201-6.
Huberty 2011 {published data only}
Huguet 1997 {published data only}
  • Huguet G, Touitou Y, Reinberg A. Morning versus afternoon gymnastic time and diurnal and seasonal changes in psychophysiological variables of school children. Chronobiology International 1997;14(4):371-84.
Ingle 2006 {published data only}
  • Ingle L, Sleap M, Tolfrey K. The effect of a complex training and detraining programme on selected strength and power variables in early pubertal boys. Journal of Sports Sciences 2006;24(9):987-97.
Irwin 2010 {published data only}
Jackson 2001 {published data only}
  • Jackson DM, Williamson A, Grant S, Paton JY, Reilly JJ. Effects of a physical activity programme on activity and motor skills in young children: a controlled trial. FASEB Journal 2001;15(5):A951.
Jago 2009 {published data only}
  • Jago R, McMurray RG, Bassin S, Pyle L, Bruecker S, Jakicic JM, et al. Modifying middle school physical education: piloting strategies to increase physical activity. Pediatric Exercise Science 2009;21(2):171-85.
James 2007 {published data only}
  • James J, Thomas P, Kerr D. Preventing childhood obesity: two year follow-up results from the Christchurch obesity prevention programme in schools (CHOPPS). British Medical Journal 2007;335(7623):762,763-764.
Jamner 2004 {published data only}
  • Jamner MS, Spruijt-Metz D, Bassin S, Cooper DM. A controlled evaluation of a school-based intervention to promote physical activity among sedentary adolescent females: Project FAB. Journal of Adolescent Health 2004;34(4):279-89.
Jansen 2008 {published data only}
  • Jansen W, Raat H, Zwanenburg EJ, Reuvers I, van Walsem R, Brug J. A school-based intervention to reduce overweight and inactivity in children aged 6-12 years: study design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2008;8:257-66.
Janz 2002 {published data only}
  • Janz KF, Dawson JD, Mahoney LT. Increases in physical fitness during childhood improve cardiovascular health during adolescence: the Muscatine Study. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;23 Suppl 1:S15-21.
Jekal 2009 {published data only}
  • Jekal Y, Kim ES, Im JA, Park JH, Lee MK, Lee SH, et al. Interaction between fatness and fitness on CVD risk factors in Asian youth. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2009;30(10):733-40.
Jemmott 2011 {published data only}
  • Jemmott JB, Jemmott LS, O'Leary A, Ngwane Z, Icard L, Bellamy S, et al. Cognitive-behavioural health-promotion intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity among South African adolescents: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Psychology & Health 2011;26(2):167-85.
Jiang 2007 {published data only}
Johns 1999 {published data only}
Johnson-Down 1997 {published data only}
  • Johnson-Down L, O'Loughlin J, Koski KG, Gray-Donald K. High prevalence of obesity in low income and multiethnic schoolchildren: a diet and physical activity assessment. Journal of Nutrition 1997;127(12):2310-5.
Johnston 2007 {published data only}
Jones 1988 {published data only}
  • Jones T, Kozinetz C, Bermudez A, Mazur L, Kaplowitz H. Regular aerobic exercise and blood pressure in children. An efficacy school-based randomized clinical trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;128(4):898-9.
Jones 2007 {published data only}
  • Jones G, Stuart J, Parkins G, Millar C, Stewart K, Murray A, et al. The effect of a 16-week implementation of intervention strategies into after-school activity lesson plans on the aerobic fitness and percentage body fat of children aged 8-14 years old. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007;41(2):119.
Jordan 1995 {published data only}
  • Jordan MC. A comparison of intermittent exercise and relaxation versus steady state exercise on fitness levels and attitudes in seventh grade girls. [Thesis]. Brigham Young University 1995.
Jurg 2006 {published data only}
  • Jurg ME, Kremers SPJ, Candel MJJ, Van der Wal MF, Meij JSB. A controlled trial of a school-based environmental intervention to improve physical activity in Dutch children: JUMP-in, kids in motion. Health Promotion International 2006;21(4):320-30.
Kain 2004 {published data only}
  • Kain J, Albala RU, Vio F, Cerda R, Leyton B. School-based obesity prevention in Chilean primary school children: methodology and evaluation of a controlled study. International Journal of Obesity 2004;28(4):483-93.
Kain 2008 {published data only}
  • Kain J, Leyton B, Cerda R, Vio F, Uauy R. Two-year controlled effectiveness trial of a school-based intervention to prevent obesity in Chilean children. Public Health Nutrition 2008;12(9):1451-61.
Kann 2000 {published data only}
Kaplan 1996 {published data only}
  • Kaplan TA, Campbell MH, Moccia-Loos G. Effects of a 3-month exercise and nutrition program for childhood obesity on anthropometrics, physical fitness, and serum lipids. International Pediatrics 1996;11(1):31-7.
Karabourniotis 2002 {published data only}
  • Karabourniotis D, Evaggelinou C, Tzetzis G, Kourtessis T. Curriculum enrichment with self-testing activities in development of fundamental movement skills of first-grade children in Greece. Perceptual & Motor Skills 2002;94(3 Pt 2):1259-70.
Katz 2010 {published data only}
  • Katz DL, Cushman D, Reynolds J, Njike V, Treu JA, Walker J, et al. Putting physical activity where it fits in the school day: preliminary results of the ABC (Activity Bursts in the Classroom) for fitness program. Preventing Chronic Disease 2010;7(4):A82.
Kawabe 2000 {published data only}
  • Kawabe H, Murata K, Shibata H, Hirose H, Tsujioka M, Saito I, et al. Participation in school sports clubs and related effects on cardiovascular risk factors in young males. Hypertension Research 2000;23(3):227-32.
Keays 1995 {published data only}
  • Keays JJ, Allison KR. The effects of regular moderate to vigorous physical activity on student outcomes: a review. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1995;86(1):62-5.
Kelder 1995a {published data only}
  • Kelder SH, Perry CL, Lytle LL, Klepp KI. Gender differences in the class of 1989 study: the school component of the Minnesota Heart Health Program. Journal of Health Education 1995;26:S36-S44.
Kelder 2004 {published data only}
  • Kelder S, Hoelscher DM, Barroso CS, Walker JL, Cribb P, Hu S. The CATCH Kids Club: a pilot after-school study for improving elementary students' nutrition and physical activity. Public Health Nutrition 2004;8(2):133-40.
Kijboonchoo 1999 {published data only}
  • Kijboonchoo K, Thasanasuwan W, Yamborisut U. Nutrifit programme to improve health-related fitness among young Thai schoolchildren. Food Nutrition Bulletin 1999;2:231-7.
Killen 1989 {published data only}
Kimm 1997 {published data only}
  • Kimm SYS, Glynn NW, Similo S, Kriska A, Fitzgerald S, Aaron DJ, et al. Longitudinal assessment of physical activity (PA) in young girls. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997;145(11 Suppl):S25.
Kimm 2005 {published data only}
  • Kimm SYS, Glynn NW, Obarzanek E, Kriska AM, Daniels SR, Barton BA, et al. Relation between the changes in physical activity and body-mass index during adolescence: a multicentre longitudinal study. The Lancet 2005;366(9482):301-7.
Kiran 2010 {published data only}
  • Kiran A, Knights J. Traditional indigenous games promoting physical activity and cultural connectedness in primary schools - cluster randomised control trial. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 2010;21(2):149-51.
Kirkcaldy 2002 {published data only}
  • Kirkcaldy BD, Shephard RJ, Siefen RG. The relationship between physical activity and self-image and problem behaviour among adolescents. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 2002;37(11):544-50.
Klein-Platat 2005 {published data only}
  • Klein-Platat C, Oujaa M, Wagner A, Haan MC, Arveiler D, Schlienger JL, et al. Physical activity is inversely related to waist circumference in 12-y-old French adolescents. International Journal of Obesity 2005;29(1):9-14.
Klepp 1994 {published data only}
  • Klepp KI, Oygard L, Tell Grethe S, Vellar Odd D. Twelve year follow-up of a school-based health education programme. European Journal of Public Health 1994;4:195-200.
  • Tell GS, Vellar OD. Physical fitness, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors in adolescents: the Oslo Youth Study. Preventive Medicine 1988;17:12-24.
Knox 2009 {published data only}
  • Knox G, Baker JS, Davies B, Faulkner S, Rance J, Rees A, et al. A cross-curricular physical activity intervention to combat cardiovascular disease risk factors in 11-14 year olds: 'activity knowledge circuit'. BMC Public Health 2009;9:466.
Kolbe 1995 {published data only}
Kong 2009 {published data only}
Kouli 2009 {published data only}
  • Kouli O, Rokka S, Mavridis G, Derri V. The effects of an aerobic program on health-related fitness and intrinsic motivation in elementary school pupils. Studies in Physical Culture & Tourism 2009;16(3):301-6.
Koutedakis 2003 {published data only}
Kovacs 2009 {published data only}
  • Kovacs VA, Fajcs Zs, Gabor A, Martos E. School-based exercise program improves fitness, body composition and cardiovascular risk profile in overweight/obese children. Acta Physiologica Hungarica 2009;96(3):337-47.
Kremers 2005 {published data only}
  • Kremers SPJ, Visscher TLS, Brug J, Chin MJM, Paw A, Schouten EG, et al. Netherlands research programme weight gain prevention (NHF-NRG): rationale, objectives and strategies. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(4):498-507.
Kriemler 2011 {published data only}
  • Kriemler S, Meyer U, Martin E, van Sluijs EM, Andersen LB, Martin BW. Effect of school-based interventions on physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents: a review of reviews and systematic update. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2011;45(11):923-30.
Kristensen 2010 {published data only}
  • Kristensen PL, Moeller NC, Korsholm L, Kolle E, Wedderkopp N, Froberg K, et al. The association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children and adolescents: the European youth heart study. European Journal of Applied Physiology 2010;110(2):267-75.
Kwon 2007 {published data only}
  • Kwon MS, Hwang KS. Effects of an exercise program on body composition, cardiopulmonary function, and physical fitness for obese children. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe Chi 2007;37:568-75.
Lal 1991 {published data only}
  • Lal S, Saini RK, Khanna P, Malik JS. Empowering young girls for health and development. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1991;58(3):357-62.
La Torre 2006 {published data only}
  • La Torre G, Masala D, De Vito E, Langiano E, Capelli G, Walter R, et al. Extra-curricular physical activity and socioeconomic status in Italian adolescents. BMC Public Health 2006;6:22.
Lawman 2011 {published data only}
  • Lawman HG, Wilson DK, Van Horn ML, Resnicow K, Kitzman-Ulrich H. The relationship between psychosocial correlates and physical activity in underserved adolescent boys and girls in the ACT trial. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2011;8(2):253-61.
Lazarus 2000 {published data only}
Lee 2010 {published data only}
Le Masurier 2005 {published data only}
  • Le Masurier GC, Beighle A, Corbin CB. Pedometer determined physical activity levels of youth. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2005;2(2):159-68.
LeMura 2000 {published data only}
  • LeMura LM, Andreacci J, Carlonas R, Klebez JM, Chelland S. Evaluation of physical activity measured via accelerometry in rural fourth-grade children. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2000;90(1):329-37.
Levin 2002 {published data only}
  • Levin S, Martin MW, McKenzie TL, DeLouise AC. Assessment of a pilot video's effect on physical activity and heart health for young children. Family and Community Health 2002;25(3):10-7.
Lien 2010 {published data only}
  • Lien N, Bjelland M, Bergh IH, Grydeland M, Anderssen SA, Ommundsen Y, et al. Design of a 20-month comprehensive, multicomponent school-based randomised trial to promote healthy weight development among 11-13 year olds: the Health In Adolescents study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 2010;38(Suppl 5):38-51.
Lindstrom 2010 {published data only}
  • Lindstrom J, Absetz P, Hemi K, Peltomaki P, Peltonen M. Reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes with nutrition and physical activity - efficacy and implementation of lifestyle interventions in Finland. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(6A):993-9.
Lionis 1991 {published data only}
Liskova 2002 {published data only}
  • Liskova S, Moravcova A, Kytnarova J, Hosek P. Long-term effectiveness of obesity intervention program in children. International Journal of Obesity 2002;26(Suppl 1):S10.
Lubans 2006 {published data only}
  • Lubans D, Sylva K. Controlled evaluation of a physical activity intervention for senior school students: effects of the lifetime activity program. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology 2006;28(3):252-68.
Lubans 2010a {published data only}
  • Lubans DR, Sheaman C, Callister R. Exercise adherence and intervention effects of two school-based resistance training programs for adolescents. Preventive Medicine 2010;50(1-2):56-62.
Lubans 2010b {published data only}
  • Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Dewar D, Collins CE, Plotnikoff RC, Okely AD, et al. The Nutrition and Enjoyable Activity for Teen Girls (NEAT girls) randomized controlled trial for adolescent girls from disadvantaged secondary schools: rationale, study protocol, and baseline results. BMC Public Health 2010;10:652.
Lubans 2011 {published data only}
  • Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Aguiar EJ, Callister R. Randomized controlled trial of the Physical Activity Leaders (PALs) program for adolescent boys from disadvantaged secondary schools. Preventive Medicine 2011;52(3-4):239-46.
Ludwig 2004 {published data only}
  • Ludwig A, Doyle-Baker PK. Assessment of Calgary elementary physical education programs. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology 2004;29 Suppl:S63.
Luepker 1999 {published data only}
  • Luepker RV. How physically active are American children and what can we do about it?. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 1999;23(Suppl 2):S12-7.
Lungo 1994 {published data only}
  • Lungo D. The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I and percent body fat in adolescent females. Brigham Young University 1994.
Macaulay 1997 {published data only}
  • Macaulay AC, Paradis G, Potvin L, Cross EJ, Saad-Haddad C, McComber A, et al. The Kahnawake Schools Diabetes Prevention Project: intervention, evaluation, and baseline results of a diabetes primary prevention program with a native community in Canada. Preventive Medicine 1997;26(6):779-90.
MacConnie 1991 {published data only}
  • MacConnie SE, Hopper CA, Munoz KD, Gruber MB. The effect of parental inclusion in an exercise and nutrition intervention program. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1991;23(4 Suppl):S30.
Macdonald 1999 {published data only}
Macdonald 2007 {published data only}
MacKelvie 2001 {published data only}
MacKelvie 2002 {published data only}
MacKelvie 2004 {published data only}
  • MacKelvie KJ, Petit MA, Khan KM, Beck TJ, McKay HA. Bone mass and structure are enhanced following a 2-year randomized controlled trial of exercise in prepubertal boys. Bone 2004;34(4):755-64.
MacLean 2003 {published data only}
  • MacLean LB. Bounce at the bell: the effects of a 7-month intervention of brief bouts of moderate intensity exercise on bone mass, bone structure, and bone strength in children [M.Sc. Dissertation], 2003. circle.ubc.ca/handle/2429/14502. (accessed 12/12/2012).
  • McKay HA, MacLean L, Petit M, Kelvie-O'Brien K, Janssen P, Beck T, et al. Bounce at the Bell: a novel program of short bouts of exercise improves proximal femur bone mass in early pubertal children. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;39(8):521-6.
  • McKay HA, Petit MA, Schutz RW, Prior JC, Barr SI, Khan KM. Augmented trochanteric bone mineral density after modified physical education classes: a randomized school-based exercise intervention study in prepubescent and early pubescent children. Journal of Pediatrics 2000;136(2):156-62.
Mahar 2006 {published data only}
  • Mahar MT, Murphy SK, Rowe DA, Golden J, Shields AT, Raedeke TD. Effects of a classroom-based program on physical activity and on-task behavior. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2006;38(12):2086-94.
Mahon 1993 {published data only}
  • Mahon AD, Ignico AA, Marsh ML. The effects of daily physical education on health related physical fitness in first-grade children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;March Suppl:A-43.
Mandigo 2003 {published data only}
  • Mandigo JL, Thompson LP, Spence J, Melnychuk N, Schwartz M, Causgrove-Dunn J, et al. Physical activities available at Alberta schools. Alberta Centre for Well-Being, 2003.
Manios 1999 {published data only}
  • Kafatos A, Manios Y, Moschandreas J. Health and nutrition education in primary schools of Crete: follow-up changes in body mass index and overweight status. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(9):1090-2.
  • Kafatos I, Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education program in primary schools of Crete: changes in blood pressure over 10 years. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;61(7):837-45.
  • Manios Y, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education in elementary schools: changes in health knowledge, nutrient intakes and physical activity over a six year period. Public Health Nutrition 1999;23(3A):445-8.
  • Manios Y, Kafatos I, Kafatos A. Ten-year follow-up of the Cretan Health and Nutrition Education Program on children's physical activity levels. Preventive Medicine 2006;43(6):442-6.
  • Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Hatzis C, Kafatos A. Evaluation of a health and nutrition education program in primary school children of Crete over a three-year period. Preventive Medicine 1999;28(2):149-59.
  • Manios Y, Moschandreas J, Hatzis C, Kafatos A. Health and nutrition education in primary schools of Crete: changes in chronic disease risk factors following a 6-year intervention programme. British Journal of Nutrition 2002;88(3):315-24.
Marcus 1987 {published data only}
  • Marcus AC, Wheeler RC, Cullen JW, C. Quasi-experimental evaluation of the Los Angeles Know Your Body program: knowledge, beliefs, and self-reported behaviors. Preventive Medicine 1987;16(6):803-15.
Marcus 2009 {published data only}
  • Marcus C, Nyberg G, Nordenfelt A, Karpmyr M, Kowalski J, Ekelund U. A 4-year, cluster-randomized controlled childhood obesity prevention study: STOPP. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33:408-17.
Marks 2006 {published data only}
  • Marks JT, Campbell MK, Ward DS, Ribisl KM, Wildemuth BM, Symons MJ. A comparison of web and print media for physical activity promotion among adolescent girls. Journal of Adolescent Health 2006;39(1):96-104.
Martin 2010 {published data only}
  • Martin MW, Martin S, Rosengard P. PE2GO: program evaluation of a physical activity program in elementary schools. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2010;7(5):677-84.
Matsudo 1999 {published data only}
  • Matsudo V, Andrade D, Matsudo S, Aramjo T, Andrade E, Figueira A, et al. Impact of a community - school intervention program on physical activity behavior of male and female adolescents. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(5 Suppl):S272.
Mauriello 2010 {published data only}
  • Mauriello LM, Ciavatta MM, Paiva AL, Sherman KJ, Castle PH, Johnson JL, et al. Results of a multi-media multiple behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Preventive Medicine 2010;51(6):451-6.
McAuley 2010 {published data only}
McKay 2003 {published data only}
  • McKay HA. Lessons learned from school-based intervention trials: UBC Healthy Bones Studies. Journal of Musculoskeletal Neuronal Interactions 2003;3(4):341-4.
McKenzie 1993 {published data only}
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Faucette FN, Roby J, Kolody B. Effects of a curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;64(2):178-87.
McKenzie 2002 {published data only}
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Conway TL, Marshall SJ, Rosengard P. Evaluation of a two-year middle-school physical education intervention: M-SPAN. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2004;36(8):1382-8.
McManus 1997 {published data only}
McManus 2005 {published data only}
  • McManus AM, Cheng CH, Leung MP, Yung TC, Macfarlane DJ. Improving aerobic power in primary school boys: a comparison of continuous and interval training. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2005;26(9):781-6.
McManus 2008a {published data only}
McMurray 2002 {published data only}
  • McMurray RG, Harrell JS, Bangdiwala SI, Bradley CB, Deng S, Levine A. A school-based intervention can reduce body fat and blood pressure in young adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 2002;31(2):125-32.
McMurray 2009 {published data only}
  • Drews K, Harrell J, Thompson D, Mazzuto S, Ford E, Carter M, et al. Recruitment and retention strategies and methods in the HEALTHY study. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S21-8.
  • Hirst K, Baranowski T, DeBar L, Foster GD, Kaufman F, Kennel P, et al. HEALTHY study rationale, design and methods: moderating risk of type 2 diabetes in multi-ethnic middle school students. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S4-S20.
  • McMurray RG, Bassin S, Jago R, Bruecker S, Moe EL, Murray T, et al. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study physical education intervention component. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S37-43.
  • Schneider M, Hall WJ, Hernandez AE, Hindes K, Montez G, Pham T, et al. Rationale, design and methods for process evaluation in the HEALTHY study. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S60-7.
  • Venditti E, Elliot D, Faith M, Firrell L, Giles C, Goldberg L, et al. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study behavior intervention component. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33(Suppl 4):S44-51.
McNeil 2009 {published data only}
  • McNeil DA, Wilson BN, Siever JE, Ronca M, Mah JK. Connecting children to recreational activities: results of a cluster randomized trial. American Journal of Health Promotion 2009;23(6):376-87.
McWhannell 2008 {published data only}
  • McWhannell N, Henaghan J, Foweather L, Doran D, Batterham A, Reilly T, et al. The effect of a 9-week physical activity programme on bone and body composition of children aged 10-11 years: an exploratory trial. International Journal of Sports Medicine 2008;29(12):941-7.
Mecredy 1993 {published data only}
  • Mecredy D, Panaro L. Efficacy and community development: heart health interventions and adolescents. Public Health and Epidemiology Report Ontario 1993;4(1):16-9.
Meininger 2000 {published data only}
  • Meininger JC. School-based interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: evidence of effects for minority populations. Annual Review of Nursing Research 2000;18:219-44.
Mellin 1987 {published data only}
  • Mellin LM, Slinkard LA, Irwin CE. Adolescent obesity intervention: validation of the SHAPEDOWN program. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1987;87(3):333-8.
Melnyk 1994 {published data only}
Melnyk 2007 {published data only}
  • Melnyk BM, Small L, Morrison-Beedy D, Strasser A, Spath L, Kreipe R, et al. The COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN program: feasibility, preliminary efficacy & lessons learned from an after school group intervention with overweight adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Health Care 2007;21(5):315-22.
Melnyk 2009 {published data only}
Meredith 1991 {published data only}
Mettler 2000 {published data only}
  • Mettler MM, Stone WJ, Herrick AB, Klein DA. Evaluation of a community-based physical activity campaign via the transtheoretical model. Health Promotion Practice 2000;1(4):351-9.
Metzker 2000 {published data only}
  • Metzker AL. The effects of a transtheoretical model physical activity intervention program on the physical activity behavior of female adolescents. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2000;71(1):A-78.
Meunnich Cowell 1989 {published data only}
Mier 2002 {published data only}
  • Mier CM, Dunning D. Gender differences in the effects of physical education on fitness components in middle-school children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002;34(5 Suppl):S142.
Missouri 2003 {published data only}
  • Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services BoCDPCHP. Home to School: using handheld palm computers to gather information on environmental factors affecting walking to school among elementary school children. Health Education and Behavior 2003;4:405-6.
Moberg 1990 {published data only}
Monness 2009 {published data only}
Moodie 2011 {published data only}
  • Moodie M, Haby MM, Swinburn B, Carter R. Assessing cost-effectiveness in obesity: active transport program for primary school children - TravelSMART schools curriculum program. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2011;8(4):503-15.
Moon 1999 {published data only}
  • Moon AM, Mullee MA, Rogers L, Thompson RL, Speller V, Roderick P. Helping schools to become health-promoting environments: an evaluation of the Wessex Healthy Schools Award. Health Promotion International 1999;14(2):111-22.
Morris 1997 {published data only}
Mo-suwan 1998 {published data only}
  • Mo-suwan L, Pongprapai S, Junjana C, Puetpaiboon A. Effects of a controlled trial of a school-based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(5):1006-11.
Motlagh 2009 {published data only}
  • Motlagh ME, Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Heidarzadeh A. Rationale, methods and first results of the Iranian national programme for prevention of chronic diseases from childhood: CASPIAN Study. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 2009;15(2):302-14.
Mott 1991 {published data only}
  • Mott DS, Virgilio SJ, Warren BL, Berenson GS. Effectiveness of a personalized fitness module on knowledge, attitude, and cardiovascular endurance of fifth-grade students: "Hear Smart". Perceptual Motor Skills 1991;73:847-58.
Moya 2011 {published data only}
  • Moya MP, Sanchez LM, Lopez BJ, Escribano SF, Notario PB, Salcedo AF, et al. Cost-effectiveness of an intervention to reduce overweight and obesity in 9-10-year-olds. The Cuenca study [Coste-efectividad de un programa de actividad física de tiempo libre para prevenir el sobrepeso y la obesidad en niños de 9-10 años]. Gaceta Sanitaria 2011;25(3):198-204.
Muller 2001 {published data only}
  • Muller MJ, Asbeck I, Mast M, Langnase K, Grund A. Prevention of obesity more than an intention: concept and first results of the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS). International Journal of Obesity 2001;25(Suppl. 1):S66-74.
Muller 2005 {published data only}
Muth 2008 {published data only}
  • Muth ND, Chatterjee A, Williams D, Cross A, Flower K. Making an IMPACT: effect of a school-based pilot intervention. North Carolina Medical Journal 2008;69(6):432-40.
Nabipour 2004 {published data only}
  • Nabipour I, Imami SR, Mohammadi MM, Heidari G, Bahramian F, Azizi F, et al. A school-based intervention to teach 3-4 grades children about healthy heart; the Persian Gulf healthy heart project. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 2004;58(7):289-96.
Nader 1992 {published data only}
  • Madsen J, Sallis JF, Rupp JW, Senn KL, Patterson TL, Atkins CJ, et al. Process variables as predictors of risk factor changes in a family health behavior change program. Health Education Research 1993;8(2):193-204.
  • Madsen J, Sallis JF, Rupp JW, Senn KL, Patterson TL, Atkins CJ, et al. Relationship between self-monitoring of diet and exercise change and subsequent risk factor changes in children and adults. Patient Education and Counseling 1993;21(1-2):61-9.
  • Nader PR, Sallis JF, Abramson IS, Broyles SL, Patterson TL, Senn KL, et al. Family-based cardiovascular risk reduction education among Mexican- and Anglo-Americans and Europeans. Family and Community Health 1992;15:57-74.
  • Nader PR, Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Abramson IS, Rupp JW, Senn KL, et al. A family approach to cardiovascular risk reduction: results from the San Diego Family Health Project. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):229-44.
  • Nader PR, Sallis JF, Rupp JW, Atkins CJ, Patterson TL, Abramson IS. San Diego Family Health Project: reaching families through the schools. Journal of School Health 1986;56(6):227-31.
  • Patterson TL, Sallis JF, Nader PR, Rupp JW, McKenzie TL, Roppe BE, et al. Direct observation of physical activity and dietary behaviors in a structured environment: effects of a family-based health promotion program. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 1988;11(5):447-58.
  • Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Buona JJ, Nader PR. Relation of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adults. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127:933-46.
Nahas 2009 {published data only}
  • Nahas MV, de Barros MV, de Assis MA, Hallal PC, Florindo AA, Konrad L. Methods and participant characteristics of a randomized intervention to promote physical activity and healthy eating among Brazilian high school students: the Saude na Boa project. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2009;6(2):153-62.
Naylor 2006 {published data only}
  • Naylor PJ, Macdonald HM, Zebedee JA, Reed KE, McKay HA. Lessons learned from Action Schools! BC - an ''active school'' model to promote physical activity in elementary schools. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 2006;9(5):413-23.
NCCDP 1997 {published data only}
Nelson 2011 {published data only}
  • Nelson L, Evans M, Guess W, Morris M, Olson T, Buckwalter J. Heart rates of elementary physical education students during the dancing classrooms program. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 2011;82(2):256-63.
  • Nelson LP, Wilson A. Impact of dancing classrooms on elementary physical education: a school climate study of personal and social development. TAHPERD Journal 2011;79(3):12-6.
NeumarkSztainer 2003 {published data only}
Newton 2010 {published data only}
  • Newton RL Jr, Hongmei H, Anton SD, Martin CK, Stewart TM, Lewis L, et al. An environmental intervention to prevent excess weight gain in African-American students: a pilot study. American Journal of Health Promotion 2010;24(5):340-3.
Niederer 2009 {published data only}
  • Niederer I, Kriemler S, Zahner L, Burgi F, Ebenegger V, Hartmann T, et al. Influence of a lifestyle intervention in preschool children on physiological and psychological parameters (Ballabeina): study design of a cluster randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2009;9:94-105.
Nielsen 2010 {published data only}
  • Nielsen G, Taylor R, Williams S, Mann J. Permanent play facilities in school playgrounds as a determinant of children's activity. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2010;7(4):490-6.
Nyberg 2011 {published data only}
  • Nyberg G, Sundblom E, Norman A, Elinder LS. A healthy school start - parental support to promote healthy dietary habits and physical activity in children: design and evaluation of a cluster-randomised intervention. BMC Public Health 2011;11:185.
O'Loughlin 1999 {published data only}
  • O'Loughlin J, Paradis G, Kishchuk N, Barnett T, Renaud L. Prevalence and correlates of physical activity behaviors among elementary schoolchildren in multiethnic, low income, inner-city neighborhoods in Montreal, Canada. Annals of Epidemiology 1999;9(7):397-407.
Okely 2010 {published data only}
  • Okely AD, Collins CE, Morgan PJ, Jones RA, Warren JM, Cliff DP, et al. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of a child-centered physical activity program, a parent-centered dietary-modification program, or both in overweight children: the HIKCUPS study. The Journal of Pediatrics 2010;157(3):388-94.
Ostbye 2011 {published data only}
  • Ostbye T, Zucker NL, Krause KM, Lovelady CA, Evenson KR, Peterson BL, et al. Kids and Adults Now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): rationale, design and baseline characteristics. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2011;32(3):461-9.
Owen 1995 {published data only}
Oxizoglou 2005 {published data only}
  • Oxizoglou N, Kanioglou A, Rizos S. A comparative study of a handball program and a physical education curriculum and their influence on the anthropometric characteristics formation of pupils aged 12-14. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education 2005;3(2):123-30.
Palmer 2005 {published data only}
  • Palmer S, Graham G, Elliott E. Effects of a web-based health program on fifth grade children's physical activity knowledge, attitudes and behavior. American Journal of Health Education 2005;36(2):86-93.
Pangrazi 2003 {published data only}
Parcel 1989 {published data only}
  • Parcel GS, Simons-Morton BG, O'Hara NM, Baranowski T, Wilson B. School promotion of healthful diet and physical activity: impact on learning outcomes and self-reported behavior. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):181-99.
Park 2007 {published data only}
  • Park TG, Hong HR, Lee J, Kang HS. Lifestyle plus exercise intervention improves metabolic syndrome markers without change in adiponectin in obese girls. Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism 2007;51(3):197-203.
Parlee-Hirth 2002 {published data only}
  • Keihner A, Meigs R, Sugerman S, Backman D, Garbolino T, Mitchell P. The Power Play! campaign's school idea & resource kits improve determinants of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity among fourth- and fifth-grade children. Journal of Nutrition Education & Behavior 2011;42(4 Suppl 2):S122-9.
  • Parlee-Hirth M. California children's 5 a day - power play! campaign. American Journal of Health Promotion 2002;16(6):371-2.
Pate 1987 {published data only}
Pate 1994 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Matthews C, Alpert BS, Strong WB, DuRant RH. Systolic blood pressure to exercise in black and while preadolescent and early adolescent boys. Archive of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1994;148(10):1027-31.
Pate 1995a {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Pratt M, Blair SN. Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 1995;273:402-7.
Pate 1995b {published data only}
Pate 1996 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Heath GW, Dowda M, Trost SG. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviours in a representative sample of US adolescents. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(11):1577-81.
Pate 1999 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Trost SG, Dowda M, Ott AE, Ward DS, Saunders R, et al. Tracking of physical activity, physical inactivity, and health-related physical fitness in rural youth. Pediatric Exercise Science 1999;11(4):364-76.
Pate 2003 {published data only}
  • Pate R, Saunders RP, Ward DS, Felton G, Trost SG, Dowda M. Evaluation of a community-based intervention to promote physical activity in youth: lessons from Active Winners. American Journal of Health Promotion 2003;17(3):171-82.
Pate 2006 {published data only}
  • Pate RR, Davis MG, Robinson TN, Stone EJ, McKenzie TL, Young JC. Collaboration with the councils on cardiovascular disease in the young and on nutrition, physical activity, and metabolism (Physical Activity Committee) in schools: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association council promoting physical activity in children and youth: a leadership role for cardiovascular nursing. Circulation 2006;114:1214-24.
Pena 2004 {published data only}
  • Peña E. The effects of a school-based intervention on the physical activity behaviors of Latino high school students [thesis]. ACSM. Indianapolis, 2004.
Peralta 2009a {published data only}
  • Peralta LR, Jones RA, Okely AD. Promoting healthy lifestyles among adolescent boys: the Fitness Improvement and Lifestyle Awareness Program RCT. Preventive Medicine 2009;48(6):537-42.
Perry 1987 {published data only}
  • Perry CL, Klepp KI, Halper A, Dudovitz BS, Golden D, Griffin G, et al. Promoting healthy eating and physical activity patterns among adolescents: a pilot study of 'Slice of Life'. Health Education Research 1987;2(2):93-103.
Petkevicius 1985 {published data only}
  • Petkevicius RV, Grinkeviciene OK, Bojarskas JL, Sackute AA, Zaborskis AA. Preventive study of atherosclerosis and ischaemic heart disease risk factors among Kaunas school-children. Cor Vasa 1985;27(4):229-35.
Phillipp 1989 {published data only}
  • Phillipp A, Piland NF, Seidenwurm J, Smith HL. Improving physical fitness in high school students: implications from an experimental course. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 1989;9(1):58-73.
Piper 1993 {published data only}
  • Piper DL, King MJ, Moberg DP. Implementing a middle school health promotion research project: lessons our textbook didn't teach us. Evaluation and Program Planning 1993;16(3):171-80.
Plachta-Danielzik 2007 {published data only}
Plotnikoff 1999 {published data only}
  • Plotnikoff R, Williams P, Fein A. Effects of a school capacity-building intervention on children's heart health: evaluation of the Coalfields Healthy Heartbeat School Project in New South Wales, Australia. Health Education Journal 1999;58(4):389-400.
Pollatschek 1989 {published data only}
  • Pollatschek JL, O'Hagan FJO. An investigation of the psycho-physical influences of a quality physical education programme. Health Education Research, Theory and Practice 1989;4(3):341-50.
Prochaska 2002 {published data only}
Prusak 2010 {published data only}
  • Prusak KA, Pennington T, Graser SV, Beighle A, Morgan CF. Systemic success in physical education: the East Valley phenomenon. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 2010;29(1):85-106.
Racette 2010 {published data only}
Raitakari 1994a {published data only}
  • Ritakari OT, Porkka KVK, Rasanen L, Ronnemaa T, Viikari JSA. Clustering and six year cluster-tracking of serum total cholesterol, HCL-cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure in children and young adults. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 1994;47(10):1085-93.
Rakovi 2008 {published data only}
  • Rakovi A, Aleksandrovi M, Stankovi D. Quantitative changes of functional abilities at boys under influence of experimental race walking programme [Kvantitativne promjene funkcionalnih sposobnosti dje-ceaka pod utjecajem eksperimentalnog programa sportskog hodanja]. Acta Kinesiologica 2008;2(1):66-70.
Ramsay 1990 {published data only}
Ransdell 2003 {published data only}
  • Ransdell LB, Oakland D, Taylor A. Increasing physical activity in girls and women. JOPERD 2003;74(1):37-55.
Reilly 2006 {published data only}
  • Reilly JJ, Kelly L, Montgomery C, Williamson A, Fisher A, McColl JH, et al. Physical activity to prevent obesity in young children: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2006;333:1041.
Reinhardt 2002 {published data only}
  • Reinhardt WC, Brevard PB. Integrating the Food Guide Pyramid and Physical Activity Pyramid for positive dietary and physical activity behaviors in adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(3 Suppl):S96-9.
Renaud 1997 {published data only}
  • Renaud L, Chevalier S, Dufour R, O'Loughlin J, Beaudet N, Bourgeois A, et al. Evaluation of the implementation of an educational curriculum: optimal interventions for the adoption of an educational program of health in elementary schools. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1997;88:351-3.
Resaland 2011 {published data only}
Resnick 2009 {published data only}
  • Resnick EA, Bishop M, O'Connell A, Hugo B, Isern G, Timm A, et al. The CHEER study to reduce BMI in elementary school students: a school-based, parent-directed study in Framingham, Massachusetts. Journal of School Nursing 2009;25(5):361-72.
Resnicow 1992 {published data only}
  • Resnicow KA, Cohn L, Reinhardt J, Cross D, Futterman R, Kirschner E, et al. A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body program in inner-city schoolchildren. Health Education Quarterly 1992;19(4):463-80.
Resnicow 1993 {published data only}
Resnicow 1996 {published data only}
Resnicow 1997 {published data only}
Resnicow 2000 {published data only}
  • Resnicow KA, Yaroch AL, Davis A, Wang DT, Carter S, Slaughter L, et al. GO GIRLS!: results from a nutrition and physical activity program for low-income, overweight African American adolescent females. Health Education and Behavior 2000;27(5):616-31.
Resnicow 2002 {published data only}
  • Resnicow KA, Jackson A, Braithwaite R, DiIorio C, Blisset D, Rahotep S, et al. Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit: a church-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. Health Education Research 2002;17(5):562-73.
Reybrouck 1990 {published data only}
Rezvanian 2010 {published data only}
  • Rezvanian H, Hashemipour M, Kelishadi R, Tavakoli N, Poursafa P. A randomized, triple masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial for controlling childhood obesity. World Journal of Pediatrics 2010;6(4):317-22.
Ridgers 2010 {published data only}
  • Ridgers ND, Fairclough SJ, Stratton G. Twelve-month effects of a playground intervention on children's morning and lunchtime recess physical activity levels. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2010;7(2):167-75.
Rimmer 1997 {published data only}
Robbins 2006 {published data only}
Robinson 1999 {published data only}
Robinson 2003 {published data only}
  • Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen KW, Thompson DI, Nicklas TA, Zakeri IE, et al. The Fun, Food, and Fitness Project (FFFP): the Baylor GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;12(1 Suppl 1):S30-9.
  • Kumanyika SK, Obarzanek E, Robinson TN, Beech BM. Phase 1 of the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): conclusion. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S88-S91.
  • Kumanyika SK, Story M, Beech BM, Sherwood NE, Baranowski JC, Powell TM, et al. Collaborative planning for formative assessment and cultural appropriateness in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): a retrospection. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S15-S29.
  • Obarzanek E, Pratt CA. Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS): new approaches to obesity prevention among young African-American girls. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S1-S5.
  • Robinson TN, Killen JD, Kraemer HC, Wilson DM, Matheson DM, Haskell WL, et al. Dance and reducing television viewing to prevent weight gain in African-American girls: the Stanford GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S65-S77.
  • Rochon J, Klesges RC, Story M, Robinson TN, Baranowski T, Obarzanek E, et al. Common design elements of the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Studies (GEMS). Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S6-14.
  • Story M, Sherwood NE, Himes JH, Davis M, Jacobs DR, Cartwright Y, et al. An after-school obesity prevention program for African-American girls: the Minnesota GEMS pilot study. Ethnicity & Disease 2003;13(1 Suppl 1):S54-S64.
  • Treuth MS, Sherwood NE, Baranowski T, Butte NF, Jacobs DR, McClanahan B, et al. Physical activity self-report and accelerometry measures from the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site studies. Preventive Medicine 2004;38:S43-9.
Robinson 2007 {published data only}
  • Robinson TN,  Matheson DM,  Kraemer HC, Obarzanek E,  Wilson DM,  Haskell WL, et al. Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multisite Studies): long-term efficacy of after-school dance and screen time reduction in low-income African-American girls. Circulation 2007;116:843.
Robinson 2008 {published data only}
  • Robinson TN, Kraemer HC, Matheson DM, Obarzanek E, Wilson DM, Haskell WL, et al. Stanford GEMS phase 2 obesity prevention trial for low-income African-American girls: design and sample baseline characteristics. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2008;29(1):56-69.
  • Robinson TN, Matheson DM, Kraemer HC, Obarzanek E, Wilson DM, Haskell WL, et al. Stanford GEMS (Girls health Enrichment Multisite Studies): long-term efficacy of after-school dance and screen time reduction in low-income African-American girls. Circulation 2007;116(16 Suppl S):56-69.
Rodgers 2001 {published data only}
  • Rodgers DV, Johnson SR, Tschann JM, Chesterman EA, Mellin LM. The Evaluation of a school-based obesity prevention program among fourth grade students. San Anselmo: Center for Child Obesity, 2001.
Rosenbaum 2007 {published data only}
  • Rosenbaum M, Nonas C, Weil R, Horlick M, Fennoy I, Vargas I, et al. School-based intervention acutely improves insulin sensitivity and decreases inflammatory markers and body fatness in junior high school students. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2007;92(2):504-8.
Rowland 1991 {published data only}
Ruiz 2006 {published data only}
  • Ruiz JR, Rizzo NS, Hurtig-Wennlöf A, Ortega FB, Warnberg J, Sjöström M. Relations of total physical activity and intensity to fitness and fatness in children: the European Youth Heart Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84(2):299-303.
Saakslahti 2004 {published data only}
  • Saakslahti A, Numminen P, Salo P, Tuominen J, Helenius H, Valimaki I. Effects of a three-year intervention on children's physical activity from age 4 to 7. Pediatric Exercise Science 2004;16(2):167-80.
Sabet-Sarvestani 2008 {published data only}
  • Sabet-Sarvestani R, Kargar M, Kave M-H, Tabatabaee H. The effect of dietary behavior modification on anthropometric indices in obese adolescent female students. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 2008;18(Suppl 1):71-6.
Sacher 2003 {published data only}
  • Sacher P, Hogan L, Chadwick P, Lawson M. An integrated programme of nutrition, exercise and behavioural modification in a small group of obese 7-11-year-old children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2003;62(OCA-B):3A.
Sadowsky 1999 {published data only}
  • Sadowsky HS, Sawdon JM, Scheiner ME, Sticklin AM. Eight week moderate intensity exercise intervention elicits body composition change in adolescents. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal 1999;10(2):38-44.
Sahota 2001a {published data only}
Sahota 2001b {published data only}
Saksvig 2003 {published data only}
  • Saksvig B, Gittelsohn J, Zinman B, Hanley A, Valente T, Harris S. A successful school-based diabetes prevention intervention for native Canadian children. Diabetes 2003;52(Suppl 1):A209-10.
Sakuragi 2009 {published data only}
  • Sakuragi S, Abhayaratna K, Gravenmaker KJ, O'Reilly C, Sirkusalanukul W, Budge MM, et al. Influence of adiposity and physical activity on arterial stiffness in healthy children. Hypertension 2009;53:611-6.
  • Telford RD, Bass SL, Budge MM, Byrne DG, Carlson JS, Coles D, et al. The Lifestyle Of Our Kids (LOOK) project: outline of methods. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 2009;12(1):156-63.
Sallis 1993a {published data only}
  • Sallis JF, Condon SA, Goggin KJ, Roby JJ, Kolody RB, Alcaraz JE. The development of self-administered physical activity surveys for 4th grade students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;64(1):25-31.
Sallis 1993b {published data only}
Sallis 1997 {published data only}
  • Marcoux MF, Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Marshall S, Armstrong CA, Goggin KJ. Process evaluation of a physical activity self-management program for children: SPARK. Psychology and Health 1999;14:659-77.
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Alcaraz J, Roby J, Kolody B. Effects of a two-year health-related curriculum on the physical fitness of children. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1993;25(5 Suppl):S147.
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Faucette N, Roby JJ, Kolody B. Effects of a curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 1993;64(2):178.
  • McKenzie TL, Sallis JF, Kolody B, Faucette FN. Long-term effects of a physical education curriculum and staff development program: SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1997;68(4):280-91.
  • Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Faucette N, Hovell MF. The effects of a 2-year physical education program (SPARK) on physical activity and fitness in elementary school students. Sports, Play and Active Recreation for Kids. American Journal of Public Health 1997;87(8):1328-34.
  • Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Alcaraz JE, Kolody B, Hovell MF, Nader PR. Project SPARK: effects of physical education on adiposity in children. Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1993;29:127-36.
  • Sallis JF, McKenzie TL, Kolody B, Lewis M, Marshall S, Rosengard P. Effects of health-related physical education on academic achievement: project SPARK. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 1999;70(2):127-34.
Salmon 2005 {published data only}
  • Salmon J, Ball K, Crawford D, Booth M, Telford A, Hume C, et al. Reducing sedentary behaviour and increasing physical activity among 10-year-old children: overview and process evaluation of the 'Switch Play' intervention. Health Promotion International 2005;20:7-17.
Salmon 2010 {published data only}
  • Salmon J. Novel strategies to promote children's physical activities and reduce sedentary behavior. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2010;7(Suppl 3):S299-306.
Samples 2010 {published data only}
  • Samples EY. Childhood obesity. American Fitness 2010;28(6):66-7.
Santiago 2007 {published data only}
  • Santiago JA, Morales J, Rodriguez AX. Health-related fitness changes in Hispanic elementary schoolchildren after 1 year of regular physical education. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport 2007;78(1):A-21.
Sasaki 1987 {published data only}
  • Sasaki J, Shindo M, Tanaka H, Ando M. A long term aerobic exercise program decreases the obesity index and increases the high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in obese children. International Journal of Obesity 1987;11:339-45.
Schneider 2007 {published data only}
  • Schneider M, Dunton GF, Bassin S, Graham DJ, Eliakim AF, Cooper DM. Impact of a school-based physical activity intervention on fitness and bone in adolescent females. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2007;4(1):17-29.
Schneider 2009 {published data only}
  • Schneider M, Hall WJ, Hernandez AE, Hindes K, Montez G, Pham T. Rationale, design and methods for process evaluation in the HEALTHY study. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33:S60-7.
Schofield 2005 {published data only}
  • Schofield L, Mummery WK, Schofield G. Effects of a controlled pedometer-intervention trial for low-active adolescent girls. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2005;37(8):1414-20.
Schuldheisz 1998 {published data only}
  • Schuldheisz JM. The effects of an interdependent group-oriented contingency on middle school students' physical activity levels during physical education. Microform Publications, 1998.
Schwarzer 2010 {published data only}
Scott 1988 {published data only}
  • Scott KA, Myers AM. Impact of fitness training on native adolescents' self-evaluations and substance use. Canadian Journal of Public Health 1988;79(6):424-9.
Sharma 2009 {published data only}
  • Sharma SV, Hoelscher DM, Kelder SH, Day RS, Hergenroeder A. Psychosocial, environmental and behavioral factors associated with bone health in middle-school girls. Health Education Research 2009;24(2):173-84.
Shaw 1989 {published data only}
  • Shaw SM, Kemeny L. Fitness promotion for adolescent girls: the impact and effectiveness of promotional material which emphasizes the slim ideal. Adolescence 1989;24(95):677-87.
Shea 1996 {published data only}
  • Shea S, Basch CE, Wechsler H, Lantigua R. The Washington Heights-Inwood Healthy Heart Program: a 6-year report from a disadvantaged urban setting. American Journal of Public Health 1996;86(2):166-71.
Shek 2008 {published data only}
  • Shek DT, Sun RC, Siu AM. Interim evaluation of the Secondary 2 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S: insights based on the experimental implementation phase. Scientific World Journal 2008;8:61-72.
Shephard 1992 {published data only}
Shephard 1996 {published data only}
  • Labarre R, Lavallee H, Shephard RJ, Jequier JC, Rajic M. Cohort effects: a possible limitation to the interpretation of longitudinal studies. American Journal of Human Biology 1993;5(3):305-10.
  • Shephard RJ. Long-term studies of physical activity in children: The Trois-Rivieres experience. In: Binkhorst RA, Kemper HCG, Saris WHM editor(s). Children and Exercise XI. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics, 1985:252-9.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Changes of physical performance as indicators of the response to enhanced physical education. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1994;34(4):323-35.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Effects of enhanced physical education on lung volumes of primary school children. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness 1996;36(3):186-94.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Enhanced physical education and body fat in the primary school child. American Journal of Human Biology 1993;5(6):697-704.
  • Shephard RJ, Lavallee H. Impact of enhanced physical education in the prepubescent child: Trois Rivieres revisited. Pediatric Exercise Science 1993;5(2):177-89.
  • Trudeau F, Laurencelle L, Tremblay J, Rajic M, Shephard RJ. A long-term follow-up of participants in the Trois-Rivieres semi-longitudinal study of growth and development. Pediatric Exercise Science 1998;10:366-77.
  • Trudeau F, Laurencelle L, Tremblay J, Rajic M, Shephard RJ. Daily primary school physical education: effects on physical activity during adult life. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(1):111-7.
Shimon 2009 {published data only}
  • Shimon JM, Petlichkoff LM. Impact of pedometer use and self-regulation strategies on junior high school physical education students daily step counts. Journal of Physical Activity & Health 2009;6(2):178-84.
Shingo 2002 {published data only}
  • Shingo N, Takeo M. The educational experiments of school health promotion for the youth in Japan: analysis of the 'sport test' over the past 34 years. Health Promotion International 2002;17(2):147-60.
Siegel 1984 {published data only}
  • Siegel JA, Manfredi TG. Effects of a ten-month fitness program on children. Physician and Sports Medicine 1984;12(5):91-7.
Siegrist 2011 {published data only}
  • Siegrist M, Hanssen H, Lammel C, Haller B, Halle M. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3). BMC Public Health 2011;11:258.
Simonetti 1986 {published data only}
  • Simonetti D-A, Tarsitani G, Cairella M, Siani V, De Filippis S, Manicinelli S, et al. Prevention of obesity in elementary and nursery school children. Public Health 1986;100:166-73.
Singh 2007 {published data only}
  • Singh AS, Paw MJMC, Brug J, Van Mechelen W. Short-term effects of school-based weight gain prevention among adolescents. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2007;161(6):565-71.
Skybo 2002 {published data only}
  • Skybo TA, Ryan-Wenger N. A school-based intervention to teach third grade children about the prevention of heart disease. Pediatric Nursing 2002;28(3):223-9.
Slawta 2004 {published data only}
  • Slawta JN, Nalle DJ, Bentley JL, Smith J. The Be A Fit Kid Program: improving dietary and physical activity habits in children. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2004;36:S101-2.
Slootmaker 2010 {published data only}
  • Slootmaker SM, Chinapaw MJ, Seidell JC, van Mechelen W, Schuit AJ. Accelerometers and internet for physical activity promotion in youth? Feasibility and effectiveness of a minimal intervention. Preventive Medicine 2010;51(1):31-6.
Smith 2009 {published data only}
  • Smith H, Grogan S, Davey R, Cochrane T. Developing a successful physical activity intervention in primary school children. Education and Health 2009;27(3):63-66.
Smith 2011 {published data only}
Sobczyk 1995 {published data only}
  • Sobczyk W, Hazel N, Reed CD. Health Promotion Schools of Excellence: a model program for Kentucky and the nation. Journal of the Kentucky Medical Association 1995;93:142-7.
Sollerhed 2008 {published data only}
  • Sollerhed A, Ejlertsson G. Physical benefits of expanded physical education in primary school: findings from a 3-year intervention study in Sweden. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports 2008;18(1):102-7.
Soong 1997 {published data only}
  • Soong PX, McGill L, Yang FL. The effects of two exercise programs on VO-2max in children in Singapore. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1997;29(5 Suppl):S14.
Sothern 1993 {published data only}
Sothern 1999 {published data only}
  • Sothern MS, von Almen TK, Schumacher HD, Suskind RM, Blecker U. A multidisciplinary approach to the treatment of childhood obesity. Delaware Medical Journal 1999;71(6):255-61.
Sothern 2001 {published data only}
Spence 1997 {published data only}
  • Spence JC, Poon P. Results from the Alberta Schools' Athletic Association Survey. Alberta Centre for Well-Being. Alberta Centre for Well-Being, 1997.
Speroni 2007 {published data only}
  • Speroni KG, Earley C, Atherton M. Evaluating the effectiveness of the Kids Living Fit program: a comparative study. The Journal of School Nursing 2007;23(6):329-36.
Spiegel 2006 {published data only}
Standage 2005 {published data only}
Stergioulas 1998 {published data only}
Stewart 1997 {published data only}
  • Stewart KJ, Seemans CM, McFarland LD, Weinhofer JJ. Social learning versus traditional teaching in an elementary school cardiovascular health promotion program. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997;11(3):194-7.
Stewart 2004 {published data only}
Stock 2007 {published data only}
  • Stock S, Miranda C, Evans S, Plessis S, Ridley J, Yeh S, et al. Healthy Buddies: a novel, peer-led health promotion program for the prevention of obesity and eating disorders in children in elementary school. Pediatrics 2007;120(4):e1059-68.
Stone 1989 {published data only}
Stone 1995 {published data only}
  • Stone EJ, Baranowski T, Sallis JF, Cutler JA. Review of behavioural research for cardiopulmonary health: emphasis on youth, gender, and ethnicity. Journal of Health Education 1995;26 (2 Suppl):S9-17.
Stone 1998 {published data only}
Stratton 2000 {published data only}
Stratton 2005 {published data only}
Strazzullo 1988 {published data only}
  • Strazzullo P, Cappuccio FP, Trevisan M, De Leo A, Krogh V, Giorgione, Mancini M. Leisure time physical activity and blood pressure in schoolchildren. American Journal of Epidemiology 1988;127(4):726-33.
Strong 2005 {published data only}
Tak 2007 {published data only}
  • Tak YR, An JY, Kim YA, Woo HY. [The effects of a physical activity-behavior modification combined intervention (PABM-intervention) on metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese elementary school children]. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi 2007;37:902-13.
Tamir 1990 {published data only}
  • Tamir D, Feurstein A, Brunner S, Halfon S, Reshef A, Palti H. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in childhood: changes in serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and body mass index after 2 years of intervention in Jerusalem school-children age 7-9 years. Preventive Medicine 1990;19:22-30.
Tavener 1993 {published data only}
  • Tavener M, Payne W. The effect of participation in a 'Health in Primary Schools Program' on the physical fitness of children. Australian Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport 1993;25(3):84-8.
Taylor 2006 {published data only}
Taylor 2007 {published data only}
  • Taylor RW, McAuley KA, Barbezat W, Strong A, Williams SM, Mann JI. APPLE Project: 2-y findings of a community-based obesity prevention program in primary school age children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86(3):735-42.
Taymoori 2008 {published data only}
  • Taymoori P, Niknami S, Berry T, Lubans D, Ghofranipour F, Kazemnejad A. A school-based randomized controlled trial to improve physical activity among Iranian high school girls. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008;5:18.
Taymoori 2008a {published data only}
  • Taymoori P, Lubans DR. Mediators of behavior change in two tailored physical activity interventions for adolescent girls. Psychology of Sport & Exercise 2008;9(5):605-19.
Teerarungsikul 2009 {published data only}
  • Teerarungsikul N, Phuphaibul R, Loveland-Cherry CJ, Pookboonmee R, Kijboonchoo K, Nityasuddhi D. Effectiveness of a physical activity promotion program on perceived self-efficacy, physical activity and physical fitness among Thai adolescent girls. Thai Journal of Nursing Research 2009;13(2):81-93.
Telford 2009 {published data only}
  • Telforda RD, Basse SL, Budgec MM, Byrnec DG, Carlsonm JS, Coles D, et al. The Lifestyle Of Our Kids (LOOK) project: outline of methods. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2009;12:156-63.
Thakor 2004 {published data only}
  • Thakor HG, Kumar P, Desai VK. Effect of physical and mental activity on blood pressure. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 2004;71(4):307-12.
Theodorakis 2008 {published data only}
  • Theodorakis Y, Kosmidou E, Hassandra M, Goudas M. Review of the applications of a health education program "I Do not Smoke I Exercise" to elementary, junior high school and high school students. Inquiries in Sport & Physical Education 2008;6(3):181-94.
Thomas 2007 {published data only}
  • Thomas NE, Cooper SM, Williams SP, Baker JS, Davies B. Relationship of fitness, fatness, and coronary-heart-disease risk factors in 12- to 13-year-olds. Pediatric Exercise Science 2007;19(1):93-101.
Tolfrey 1998 {published data only}
Tolfrey 2004 {published data only}
Toruner 2010 {published data only}
Trevino 1998 {published data only}
Trost 1997 {published data only}
Trost 1999a {published data only}
Trost 1999b {published data only}
Trudeau 1999 {published data only}
  • Trudeau F, Laurencelle L, Tremblay J, Rajic M, Shepard RJ. Daily primary school physical education: effects on physical activity during adult life. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(1):111-7.
Trudeau 2008 {published data only}
  • Trudeau F, Shephard RJ. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2008;5:10.
Tsai 2009 {published data only}
Tsorbatzoudis 2005 {published data only}
  • Tsorbatzoudis H. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme to promote physical activity: an application of the theory of planned behavior. Perceptual & Motor Skills 2005;101(3):787-802.
Tuckman 1986 {published data only}
Tudor-Locke 2001 {published data only}
Tudor-Locke 2006 {published data only}
  • Tudor-Locke D, Lee SM, Morgan CF, Beighle MA, Pangrazi RP. Children's pedometer-determined physical activity during the segmented school day. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 2006;38(10):1732-8.
Turnbull 2004 {published data only}
Uzunovic 2008 {published data only}
  • Uzunovic S. The transformation of strength, speed, and coordination under the influence of sport dancing [Transformacija snage, brzine I koordinacije pod uticajem modernog sportskog plesa]. Facta Universitatis [Series Physical Education & Sport] 2008;6(2):135-46.
Vaccaro 1989 {published data only}
Valverde 1998 {published data only}
  • Valverde MA, Patin RV, Oliveira FL, Lopez FA, Vitolo MR. Outcomes of obese children and adolescents enrolled in a multidisciplinary health program. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders 1998;22(6):513-9.
van Beurden 2003 {published data only}
  • van Beurden E, Barnett LM, Zask A, Dietrich UC, Brooks LO, Beard J. Can we skill and activate children through primary school physical education lessons? "Move it Groove it" - a collaborative health promotion intervention. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(4):493-501.
van Mil 1999 {published data only}
  • van Mil E, Goris AHC, Westerterp KR. Physical activity and the prevention of childhood obesity: Europe versus the United States. International Journal of Obesity 1999;23(Suppl 3):S41-4.
Velez 2010 {published data only}
  • Velez A, Golem DL, Arent SM. The impact of a 12-week resistance training program on strength, body composition, and self-concept of Hispanic adolescents. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 2010;24(4):1065-73.
Venditti 2009 {published data only}
  • Venditti EM, Elliot DL, Faith MS, Firrell LS, Giles CM, Goldberg L. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study behavior intervention component. International Journal of Obesity 2009;33:S44-51.
Verderber 2001 {published data only}
  • Verderber JMS, Rizzo TL, Sherrill C. Assessing student intention to participate in inclusive physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly 2003;20(1):26-45.
Verstraete 2007 {published data only}
  • Verstraete SJ, Cardon GM, De Clercq DL, De Bourdeaudhuij I. A comprehensive physical activity promotion programme at elementary school: the effects on physical activity, physical fitness and psychosocial correlates of physical activity. Public Health Nutrition 2007;10(5):477-84.
Verstraete 2007a {published data only}
  • Verstraete SJM, Cardon GM, De Clercq DLR, De Bourdeaudhuij IMM. Effectiveness of a two-year health-related physical education intervention in elementary schools. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education 2007;26(1):20-34.
Veugelers 2005 {published data only}
Vissers 2008 {published data only}
  • Vissers D, De Meulenaere A, Vanroy C, Vanherle K, Van-de Sompel A, Truijen S, et al. Effect of a multidisciplinary school-based lifestyle intervention on body weight and metabolic variables in overweight and obese youth. e-SPEN 2008;3:e196-202.
Walton 1999 {published data only}
Wang 2006 {published data only}
  • Wang Y, Tussing L, Odoms-Young A, Braunschweig C, Flay B, Hedeker D, et al. Obesity prevention in low socioeconomic status urban African-American adolescents: study design and preliminary findings of the HEALTH-KIDS Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;60(1):92-103.
Wang 2006a {published data only}
  • Wang Y, Tussing L, Odoms-Young A, Braunschweig C, Flay B, Hedeker D, et al. Obesity prevention in low socioeconomic status urban African-American adolescents: study design and preliminary findings of the HEALTH-KIDS Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;60(1):92-103.
Warren 2003 {published data only}
  • Warren JM, Henry CJ, Lightowler HJ, Bradshaw SM, Perwaiz S. Evaluation of a pilot school programme aimed at the prevention of obesity in children. Health Promotion International 2003;18(4):287-96.
Watts 2004 {published data only}
  • Watts K, Beye P, Siafarikas A, O'Driscoll G, Jones TW, Davis EA, et al. Effects of exercise training on vascular function in obese children. Journal of Pediatrics 2004;144(5):620-5.
Weber 1989 {published data only}
  • Weber MD, Johnson CA, Carter S, Dietsch B, Caldwell-Stacy L, Palmer R, et al. Project SMART parent program: preliminary results of a chronic disease risk reduction trail. Annals of Medicine 1989;21(3):231-3.
Weber Cullen 1999 {published data only}
  • Weber Cullen K, Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Hebert D, De Moor C, Hearn MD, et al. Influence of school organizational characteristics on the outcomes of a school health promotion program. Journal of School Health 1999;69(9):376-80.
Wechsler 2000 {published data only}
  • Wechsler H, Devereaux RS, Davis M, Collins J. Using the school environment to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Preventive Medicine 2000;31(2):S121-37.
Weintraub 2008 {published data only}
  • Weintraub DL, Tirumalai EC, Haydel KF, Fujimoto M, Fulton JE, Robinson TN. Team sports for overweight children: the Stanford Sports to Prevent Obesity Randomized Trial (SPORT). Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2008;162(3):232-7.
Wen 2008 {published data only}
  • Wen LM, Fry D, Merom D, Rissel C, Dirkis H, Balafas A. Increasing active travel to school: are we on the right track? A cluster randomised controlled trial from Sydney, Australia. Preventive Medicine 2008;47(6):612-8.
Werch 2005 {published data only}
  • Werch CC, Moore MJ, DiClemente CC, Bledsoe R, Jobli E. A multihealth behavior intervention integrating physical activity and substance use prevention for adolescents. Prevention Science 2005;6(3):213-26.
Werner 1988 {published data only}
  • Werner P, Durham R. Health related fitness benefits in upper elementary school children in a daily physical education program. The Physical Educator 1988;45(2):89-93.
Westcott 1995 {published data only}
  • Westcott WL, Tolken J, Wessner B. School-based conditioning programs for physically unfit children. Strength and Conditioning 1995;46(3):345-50.
Wharf Higgins 2001 {published data only}
  • Wharf Higgins J, Reed N. The GirlPower Project - recreation, BC health goals and social capital. Canadian Journal of Public Health 2001;92(6):448-52.
Williden 2006 {published data only}
  • Williden M, Taylor RW, McAuley KA, Simpson JC, Oakley M, Mann JI. The APPLE project: an investigation of the barriers and promoters of healthy eating and physical activity in New Zealand children aged 5–12 years. Health Education Journal 2006;65(2):135-48.
Wilson 2005 {published data only}
  • Wilson DK, Evans AE, Williams J, Mixon G, Sirard JR, Pate R. A preliminary test of a student-centered intervention on increasing physical activity in underserved adolescents. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 2005;30(2):119-24.
Wilson 2006 {published data only}
  • Wilson DK, Griffin S, Saunders RP, Evans A, Mixond G, Wright M, et al. Formative evaluation of a motivational intervention for increasing physical activity in underserved youth. Evaluation and Program Planning 2006;29(3):260-8.
Wilson 2008 {published data only}
  • Wilson DK, Kitzman-Ulrich H, Williams JE, Saunders R, Griffin S, Pate R, et al. An overview of "The Active by Choice Today" (ACT) trial for increasing physical activity. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2008;29(1):21-31.
Wing 1998 {published data only}
Winters 2003 {published data only}
  • Winters ER, Petosa RL, Charlton TE. Using social cognitive theory to explain discretionary, "leisure-time" physical exercise among high school students. Journal of Adolescent Health 2003;32(6):436-42.
Wong 2008 {published data only}
  • Wong PC, Chia MY, Tsou IY, Wansaicheong GK, Tan B, Wang JC, et al. Effects of a 12-week exercise training programme on aerobic fitness, body composition, blood lipids and C-reactive protein in adolescents with obesity. Annals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore 2008;37:286-93.
Yin 2005 {published data only}
Yopp Cohen 1989 {published data only}
  • Yopp Cohen R, Felix MRJ, Brownell KD. The role of parents and older peers in school-based cardiovascular prevention programs: implications for program development. Health Education Quarterly 1989;16(2):245-53.
Young 2006a {published data only}
  • Young DR, Phillips JA, Yu T, Haythornthwaite JA. Effects of a life skills intervention for increasing physical activity in adolescent girls. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2006;160(12):1255-61.
Young 2007 {published data only}
Zahner 2006 {published data only}
  • Zahner L, Puder JJ, Roth R, Schmid M, Guldimann R, Puhse U, et al. A school-based physical activity program to improve health and fitness in children aged 6-13 years (''Kinder-Sportstudie KISS''): study design of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2006;6:147-58.
Zeelie 2010 {published data only}
  • Zeelie A, Moss SJ, Kruger HS, van Rooyen JM. The impact of a 10-week physical activity intervention programme on selective metabolic syndrome markers in black adolescents. South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education & Recreation 2010;32(1):147-62.
Zizzi 2006 {published data only}
  • Zizzi S, Vitullo E, Rye J, O'Hara-Tompkins N, Abildso C, Fisher B, et al. Impact of a three-week pedometer intervention on high school students' daily step counts and perceptions of physical activity. American Journal of Health Education 2006;37(1):35-40.
Zonderland 1994 {published data only}
  • Zonderland ML, Erich WBM, Kortlandt W, Erkelens DW. Additional physical education and plasma lipids and apoproteins: a 3-year intervention study. Pediatric Exercise and Science 1994;6:128-39.
Zuckerman 1989 {published data only}
  • Zuckerman AE, Olevsky-Peleg E, Bush PJ, Horowitz C, Davidson FR, Brown DG, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors among black school children: comparisons among four Know Your Body studies. Preventive Medicine 1989;18:113-32.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Adams 1995
  • Adams PF, Schoenborn CA, Moss AJ, Warren CW, Kann L. Health risk behaviors among our nation's youth: United States. Vita & Health Statistics 1995; Vol. PHS 95-1520 Vital and Health Statistics; Series 10, no. 192.
Adkins 2004
  • Adkins S, Sherwood NE, Story M, Davis M. Physical activity among African-American girls: the role of parents and the home environment. Obesity Research 2004; Vol. 12, issue Suppl 1:S38-45.
Andersen 1992
Arbeit 1992
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