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Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in hypertensive patients

  1. Andrea Siebenhofer1,*,
  2. Klaus Jeitler2,
  3. Karl Horvath3,
  4. Andrea Berghold4,
  5. Ulrich Siering5,
  6. Thomas Semlitsch6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Hypertension Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 15 JAN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007654.pub3


How to Cite

Siebenhofer A, Jeitler K, Horvath K, Berghold A, Siering U, Semlitsch T. Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD007654. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007654.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Goethe University, Institute for General Practice, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

  2. 2

    Medical University of Graz, EBM Review Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz, Austria

  3. 3

    Medical University of Graz, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graz, Austria

  4. 4

    Medical University of Graz, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz, Austria

  5. 5

    Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, Quality of Health Care, Köln, Germany

  6. 6

    and HEALTH - Institute of Medical Technologies and Health Management, Joanneum Research, EBM Review Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria

*Andrea Siebenhofer, Institute for General Practice, Goethe University, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, Frankfurt am Main, 60590, Germany. andrea.siebenhofer@medunigraz.at.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Bakris 2002 {published data only}
  • Bakris G, Calhoun D, Egan B, Hellmann C, Dolker M, Kingma I, et al. Orlistat improves blood pressure control in obese subjects with treated but inadequately controlled hypertension. Journal of Hypertension 2002;20(11):2257-67.
Cocco 2005 {published data only}
  • Cocco G, Pandolfi S, Rousson V. Sufficient weight reduction decreases cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients with the metabolic syndrome: A randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes (diet and exercise). HeartDrug 2005;5(2):68-74.
Fanghaenel 2003 {published data only}
  • Fanghaenel G, Cortinas L, Sanchez-Reyes L, Gomez-Santos R, Campos-Franco E, Berber A. Safety and efficacy of sibutramine in overweight Hispanic patients with hypertension. Advances in Therapy 2003;20(2):101-13.
Faria 2002 {published data only}
  • Faria AN, Ribeiro Filho FF, Kohlmann NE, Gouvea F, Sr, Zanella MT. Effects of sibutramine on abdominal fat mass, insulin resistance and blood pressure in obese hypertensive patients. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 2005;7(3):246-53.
  • Faria AN, Ribeiro Filho FF, Lerario DDG, Kohlmann N, Gouvea Ferreira SR, Zanella MT. Effects of sibutramine on the treatment of obesity in patients with arterial hypertension. Portuguese, English]. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 2002;78(2):172-80.
Guy-Grand 2004 {published data only}
McMahon 2000 {published data only}
  • McMahon FG, Fujioka K, Singh BN, Mendel CM, Rowe E, Rolston K, et al. Efficacy and safety of sibutramine in obese white and African American patients with hypertension: a 1-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2000;160(14):2185-91.
McMahon 2002 {published data only}
  • McMahon FG, Weinstein SP, Rowe E, Ernst KR, Johnson F, Fujioka K, et al. Sibutramine is safe and effective for weight loss in obese patients whose hypertension is well controlled with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Journal of Human Hypertension 2002;16(1):5-11.
XENDOS 2001-2006 {published data only}
  • Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG). Evaluation of the benefits and harms of non-drug weight-reducing treatment strategies in patients with essential hypertension [Nutzenbewertung nichtmedikamentöser Behandlungsstrategien bei Patienten mit Bluthochdruck: A-Gewichtsreduktion]. http://iqwig.de/download/A05-21A_Abschlussbericht_Gewichtsreduktion_bei_Bluthochdruck_neu.pdf. Köln: Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG), 2006:19-119.
  • Torgerson JS, Arlinger K, Kappi M, Sjostrom L. Principles for enhanced recruitment of subjects in a large clinical trial. the XENDOS (XENical in the prevention of Diabetes in Obese Subjects) study experience. Controlled Clinical Trials 2001;22(5):515-25.
  • Torgerson JS, Hauptman J, Boldrin MN, Sjostrom L. XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes care 2004;27(1):155-61.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Bach 1999 {published data only}
  • Bach DS, Rissanen AM, Mendel CM, Shepherd G, Weinstein SP, Kelly F, et al. Absence of cardiac valve dysfunction in obese patients treated with sibutramine. Obesity Research 1999;7(4):363-9.
Bray 1999 {published data only}
  • Bray GA, Blackburn GL, Ferguson JM, Greenway FL, Jain AK, Mendel CM, et al. Sibutramine produces dose-related weight loss. Obesity Research 1999;7(2):189-98.
Broom 2002 {published data only}
  • Broom I, Wilding J, Stott P, Myers N, UK Multimorbidity Study Group. Randomised trial of the effect of orlistat on body weight and cardiovascular disease risk profile in obese patients: UK Multimorbidity Study. International Journal of Clinical Practice 2002;56(7):494-9.
Davidson 1999 {published data only}
  • Davidson MH, Hauptman J, DiGirolamo M, Foreyt JP, Halsted CH, Heber D, et al. Weight control and risk factor reduction in obese subjects treated for 2 years with orlistat: a randomized controlled trial.see comment]erratum appears in JAMA 1999 Apr 7;281(13):1174]. JAMA 1999;281(3):235-42.
de Castro 2009 {published data only}
  • de Castro J J, Dias T, Chambel P, Carvalheiro M, Correia L G, Guerreiro L, et al. A randomized double-blind study comparing the efficacy and safety of orlistat versus placebo in obese patients with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Rev Port Cardiol 2009;28(12):1361-74.
Derosa 2003 {published data only}
  • Derosa G, Mugellini A, Ciccarelli L, Fogari R. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of the action of orlistat, fluvastatin, or both an anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and lipid profile in obese patients with hypercholesterolemia prescribed a standardized diet. Clinical Therapeutics 2003;25(4):1107-22.
Derosa 2008 {published data only}
  • Derosa G, D'Angelo A, Salvadeo SA, Ferrari I, Gravina A, Fogari E, et al. Sibutramine effect on metabolic control of obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with pioglitazone. Metabolism: Clinical & Experimental 2008;57(11):1552-7.
Derosa 2010 {published data only}
Despres 2005 {published data only}
  • Despres J-P, Golay A, Sjostrom L. Effects of rimonabant on metabolic risk factors in overweight patients with dyslipidemia. New England Journal of Medicine 2005;353(20):2121-34.
Despres 2009 {published data only}
  • Despres J P, Ross R, Boka G, Almeras N, Lemieux I. Effect of rimonabant on the high-triglyceride/ low-HDL-cholesterol dyslipidemia, intraabdominal adiposity, and liver fat: the ADAGIO-Lipids trial. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2009;29(3):416-23.
Dujovne 2001 {published data only}
  • Dujovne CA, Zavoral JH, Rowe E, Mendel CM. Effects of sibutramine on body weight and serum lipids: A double-blind, randomized, placebocontrolled study in 322 overweight and obese patients with dyslipidemia. American heart journal 2001;142(3):489-97.
Erdmann 2004 {published data only}
Fanghaenel 2000 {published data only}
  • Fanghanel G, Cortinas L, Sanchez-Reyes L, Berber A. A clinical trial of the use of sibutramine for the treatment of patients suffering essential obesity. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2000;24(2):144-50.
Fanhaenel 2001 {published data only}
  • Fanghanel G, Cortinas L, Sanchez-Reyes L, Berber A. Second phase of a double-blind study clinical trial on Sibutramine for the treatment of patients suffering essential obesity: 6 months after treatment cross-over. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2001;25(5):741-7.
Finer 2000 {published data only}
  • Finer N, James WP, Kopelman PG, Lean ME, Williams G. One-year treatment of obesity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study of orlistat, a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2000;24(3):306-13.
Fujioka 2000 {published data only}
Gentile 2005 {published data only}
  • Gentile S, Guarina G, Padovano B, Buonocunto F, Gruppo Campano Obesita. Efficacy and safety of a short-time orlistat treatment in obese subjects]. Italian]. Annali Italiani di Medicina Interna 2005;20(2):90-6.
Ginsberg 2004 {published data only}
  • Ginsberg DL. Add-on sibutramine for olanzapine-induced weight gain. Primary Psychiatry 2004;11(7):24.
Halpern 2002 {published data only}
  • Halpern A, Leite CC, Herszkowicz N, Barbato A, Costa AP. Evaluation of efficacy, reliability, and tolerability of sibutramine in obese patients, with an echocardiographic study. Revista do Hospital das Clinicas; Faculdade de Medicina Da Universidade de Sao Paulo 2002;57(3):98-102.
Halpern 2003 {published data only}
Hauner 2004 {published data only}
  • Hauner H, Meier M, Wendland G, Kurscheid T, Lauterbach K, Study Group, et al. Weight reduction by sibutramine in obese subjects in primary care medicine: the SAT Study. Experimental & Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 2004;112(4):201-7.
Hauptman 2000 {published data only}
Heinonen 2009 {published data only}
  • Heinonen M V, Laaksonen D E, Karhu T, Karhunen L, Laitinen T, Kainulainen S, et al. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009;19(9):626-33.
Hollander 2007 {published data only}
Hung 2005 {published data only}
Jain 2011 {published data only}
  • Jain S S, Ramanand S J, Ramanand J B, Akat P B, Patwardhan M H, Joshi S R. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of orlistat in obese patients. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2011;15(2):99-104.
James 1997 {published data only}
  • James WP, Avenell A, Broom J, Whitehead J. A one-year trial to assess the value of orlistat in the management of obesity. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 1997;21 Suppl 3:S24-30, 1997 Jun.:-30.
James 2000 {published data only}
  • James WP, Astrup A, Finer N, Hilsted J, Kopelman P, Rossner S, et al. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss: a randomised trial. STORM Study Group. Sibutramine Trial of Obesity Reduction and Maintenance.see comment]. Lancet 2000;356(9248):2119-25.
Kaukua 2004 {published data only}
  • Kaukua JK, Pekkarinen TA, Rissanen AM. Health-related quality of life in a randomised placebo-controlled trial of sibutramine in obese patients with type II diabetes. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 2004;28(4):600-5.
Kelley 2002 {published data only}
  • Kelley DE, Bray GA, Pi-Sunyer FX, Klein S, Hill J, Miles J, et al. Clinical efficacy of orlistat therapy in overweight and obese patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: A 1-year randomized controlled trial.erratum appears in Diabetes Care. 2003 Mar;26(3):971.]. Diabetes Care 2002;25(6):1033-41.
Lindgarde 2000 {published data only}
Lindgarde 2001 {published data only}
  • Lindgarde F. Orlistat with diet was effective and safe for weight loss and coronary risk reduction in obesity. Evidence-Based Medicine 2001;6(2):54.
Lindgarde 2001A {published data only}
  • Lindgarde F. Effect of orlistat on coronary heart disease risk in obese patients with hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia. Am Heart J 2001;141(1):171.
Madsen 2009 {published data only}
  • Madsen E L, Bruun J M, Skogstrand K, Hougaard D M, Christiansen T, Richelsen B. Long-term weight loss decreases the nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors interleukin-18 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in obese subjects. Metabolism 2009;58(7):946-53.
McNulty 2003 {published data only}
  • McNulty SJ, Ur E, Williams G, Multicenter Sibutramine Study Group. A randomized trial of sibutramine in the management of obese type 2 diabetic patients treated with metformin. Diabetes Care 2003;26(1):125-31.
Miles 2002 {published data only}
  • Miles JM, Leiter L, Hollander P, Wadden T, Anderson JW, Doyle M, et al. Effect of orlistat in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin.erratum appears in Diabetes Care. 2002 Sep;25(9):1671.]. Diabetes Care 2002;25(7):1123-8.
Nissen 2008 {published data only}
  • Nissen S E, Nicholls S J, Wolski K, Rodes-Cabau J, Cannon C P, Deanfield J E, et al. Effect of rimonabant on progression of atherosclerosis in patients with abdominal obesity and coronary artery disease: the STRADIVARIUS randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2008;299(13):1547-60.
O'Leary 2011 {published data only}
  • O'Leary D H, Reuwer A Q, Nissen S E, Despres J P, Deanfield J E, Brown M W, et al. Effect of rimonabant on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) progression in patients with abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: the AUDITOR Trial. Heart 2011;97(14):1143-50.
Pathan 2004 {published data only}
  • Pathan MF, Latif ZA, Nazneen NE, Mili SU. Orlistat as an adjunct therapy in type 2 obese diabetic patients treated with sulphonylurea: a Bangladesh experience. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin 2004;30(1):1-8.
Patschan 2007 {published data only}
  • Patschan S, Scholze J. Obesity-related hypertension. Cardiology Review 2007;24(12):32-5.
Pi-Sunyer 2006 {published data only}
  • Pi-Sunyer FX, Aronne LJ, Heshmati HM, Devin J, Rosenstock J, RIO-North America Study Group. Effect of rimonabant, a cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker, on weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight or obese patients: RIO-North America: a randomized controlled trial.see comment]erratum appears in JAMA. 2006 Mar 15;295(11):1252]. JAMA 2006;295(7):761-75.
Reaven 2001 {published data only}
  • Reaven G, Segal K, Hauptman J, Boldrin M, Lucas C. Effect of orlistat-assisted weight loss in decreasing coronary heart disease risk in patients with syndrome X. American Journal of Cardiology 2001;87(7):827-31.
Rossner 2000 {published data only}
Rossner 2001 {published data only}
  • Rossner S. Sibutramine--antidepressive agent tested against obesity. [Swedish]. Lakartidningen 2001;98(15):1802-3.
Samuelsson 2003 {published data only}
Scheen 2002 {published data only}
  • Scheen AJ, Ernest P. New antiobesity agents in type 2 diabetes: Overview of clinical trials with sibutramine and orlistat. Diabetes and Metabolism 2002;28(6 I):437-45.
SCOUT 2010 {published data only}
  • James P, Caterson I, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal L, Maggioni A, et al. Effects on mortality and morbidity in overweight/obese subjects: The sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes (SCOUT) trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2010;Conference: American College of Cardiology's 59th Annual Scientific Session and i2 Summit: Innovation in Intervention Atlanta, GA United States. Conference Start: 20100314 Conference End: 20100316. Conference Publication:(var.pagings). 55 (10 SUPPL 1):A141.E1326.
  • James W P, Caterson I D, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal L F, Maggioni A P, et al. Effect of sibutramine on cardiovascular outcomes in overweight and obese subjects. N Engl J Med 2010;363(10):905-17.
  • James W Philip T. The SCOUT study: risk-benefit profile of sibutramine in overweight high-risk cardiovascular patients. European Heart Journal Supplements 2005;7(suppl_L):L44-48.
  • Maggioni A P, Caterson I, Coutinho W, Finer N, Gaal L V, Sharma A M, et al. Tolerability of sibutramine during a 6-week treatment period in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease and/or diabetes: a preliminary analysis of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) Trial. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2008;52(5):393-402.
  • Sharma AM, Caterson ID, Coutinho W, Finer N, Van Gaal L, Maggioni AP, et al. Blood pressure changes associated with sibutramine and weight management - an analysis from the 6-week lead-in period of the sibutramine cardiovascular outcomes trial (SCOUT). Diabetes, obesity & metabolism 2009;11(3):239-50. [PUBMED: 18671798]
Sjostrom 1998 {published data only}
  • Sjostrom L, Rissanen A, Andersen T, Boldrin M, Golay A, Koppeschaar HP, et al. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of orlistat for weight loss and prevention of weight regain in obese patients. European Multicentre Orlistat Study Group.see comment]. Lancet 1998;352(9123):167-72.
Suyog 2011 {published data only}
  • Suyog J, Milind P, Karuna R. Comparison of efficacy and safety of rimonabant with orlistat in obese and overweight patients. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2011;2(1):179-87.
Svendsen 2008 {published data only}
Swinburn 2005 {published data only}
Tambascia 2003 {published data only}
Tiikkainen 2004 {published data only}
  • Tiikkainen M, Bergholm R, Rissanen A, Aro A, Salminen I, Tamminen M, et al. Effects of equal weight loss with orlistat and placebo on body fat and serum fatty acid composition and insulin resistance in obese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;79(1):22-30.
Triay 2012 {published data only}
  • Triay J, Mundi M, Klein S, Toledo F G, Smith S R, Abu-Lebdeh H, et al. Does rimonabant independently affect free fatty acid and glucose metabolism?. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97(3):819-27.
Van Gaal 2005 {published data only}
  • Van Gaal LF, Rissanen AM, Scheen AJ, Ziegler O, Rossner S, RIO-Europe Study Group. Effects of the cannabinoid-1 receptor blocker rimonabant on weight reduction and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight patients: 1-year experience from the RIO-Europe study.see comment]erratum appears in Lancet. 2005 Jul 30-Aug 5;366(9483):370]. Lancet 2005;365(9468):1389-97.
Van Gaal 2008 {published data only}
  • Van Gaal LF, Scheen AJ, Rissanen AM, Rossner S, Hanotin C, Ziegler O, et al. Long-term effect of CB1 blockade with rimonabant on cardiometabolic risk factors: two year results from the RIO-Europe Study. European Heart Journal 2008;29(14):1761-71.
Wirth 2001 {published data only}
Zannad 2002 {published data only}
  • Zannad F, Gille B, Grentzinger A, Bruntz JF, Hammadi M, Boivin JM, et al. Effects of sibutramine on ventricular dimensions and heart valves in obese patients during weight reduction. American heart journal 2002;144(3):508-15.
Zavoral 1998 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Abbott 2010
  • Abbott Germany. Theobald F. Press release: [Abbott setzt Vertrieb seiner Medikamente mit dem Wirkstoff Sibutramin zur Behandlung von Adipositas in den Ländern der Europäischen Union aus.] 2010 [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://www.abbott.de/press/show/e7340/e19695/e18095/Sibutramin_210110_Theobald_de.pdf.
Aucott 2005
  • Aucott L, Poobalan A, Smith WC, Avenell A, Jung R, Broom J. Effects of weight loss in overweight/obese individuals and long-term hypertension outcomes: a systematic review. Hypertension 2005;45(6):1035-41. [PUBMED: 15897373]
CHEP 2012
  • Daskalopoulou SS, Khan NA, Quinn RR, Ruzicka M, McKay DW, Hackam DG, et al. The 2012 Canadian hypertension education program recommendations for the management of hypertension: blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, and therapy. Can J Cardiol 2012;28(3):270-87.
COCHRANE 2011
  • The Cochrane Collaboration. Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated 2011 March; cited 2013 Jan 14]. Available from: http://handbook.cochrane.org/. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
CRESCENDO 2010
  • Topol E J, Bousser M G, Fox K A, Creager M A, Despres J P, Easton J D, et al. Rimonabant for prevention of cardiovascular events (CRESCENDO): a randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010;376(9740):517-23. [PUBMED: 20709233]
Derosa 2005
EMA 2008
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA). Questions and answers on the recommendation to suspend the marketing authorisation of Acomplia (rimonabant) [updated 2008 Oct 23; cited 2012 Dec 17]. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Medicine_QA/2009/11/WC500014779.pdf. European Medicines Agency, Post-authorisation Evaluation of Medicines for Human Use.
EMA 2008a
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA). Press Release - The European Medicines Agency recommends suspension of the marketing authorisation of Acomplia [updated 2008 Oct 23; cited 2012 Dec 17]. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Press_release/2009/11/WC500014774.pdf. European Medicines Agency, Press office.
EMA 2009
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA). Public Statement on Acomplia (rimonabant) - Withdrawal of the marketing authorisation in the European Union [updated 2009 Jan 30; cited 2012 Dec 17]. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Public_statement/2009/11/WC500012189.pdf. European Medicines Agency, Post-authorisation Evaluation of Medicines for Human Use.
EMA 2010
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA). Press Release - European Medicines Agency recommends suspension of marketing authorisations for sibutramine [updated 2010 Jan 21; cited 2012 Dec 17]. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Press_release/2010/01/WC500069995.pdf 2010.
EMA 2010a
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA). Questions and answers on the suspension of medicines containing sibutramine [updated 2010 Aug 06; cited 2012 Dec 17]. Available from: http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Referrals_document/Sibutramine_107/WC500094238.pdf 2010.
ESH-ESC 2007
  • Mancia G, De BG, Dominiczak A, Cifkova R, Fagard R, Germano G, et al. 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2007;25(6):1105-87. [PUBMED: 17563527]
FDA 2007
  • Food, Drug Administration. Egan AG. Colman EG. FDA Rimonabant Briefing Document. Endocrine and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee. 2007 [updated 2007 Jun 13; cited 2012 Dec 18]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/AC/07/briefing/2007-4306b1-fda-backgrounder.pdf. Food and Drug Administration, Endocrine and Metabolic Drugs Advisory Committee.
FDA 2010
  • US Food, Drug Administration (FDA). Recommendation on a regulatory decision for Meridia (sibutramine) [updated 2010 Oct 07; cited 2012 Dec 18]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/DrugSafety/UCM228795.pdf 2010.
FDA 2010a
  • US Food, Drug Administration (FDA). FDA News Release: Abbott Laboratories agrees to withdraw its obesity drug Meridia [updated 2010 Oct 08; cited 2012 Dec 18]. Available from: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2010/ucm228812.htm 2010.
Horvath 2008
  • Horvath K, Jeitler K, Siering U, Stich AK, Skipka G, Gratzer TW, et al. Long-term effects of weight-reducing interventions in hypertensive patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of internal medicine 2008;168(6):571-80. [PUBMED: 18362248]
IQWiG 2006
  • Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG). Evaluation of the benefits and harms of non-drug weight-reducing treatment strategies in patients with essential hypertension [Nutzenbewertung nichtmedikamentöser Behandlungsstrategien bei Patienten mit Bluthochdruck: A-Gewichtsreduktion]. Available from: http://iqwig.de/download/A05-21A_Abschlussbericht_Gewichtsreduktion_bei_Bluthochdruck_neu.pdf. Köln: Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWiG), 2006:19-119.
JNC 2003
  • Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL, et al. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;289(19):2560-72. [PUBMED: 12748199]
Kim 2003
NICE 2011
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Hypertension - The clinical management of primary hypertension in adults; Clinical Guideline 127. 2011 [updated 2011 Aug; cited 2012 Dec 18]. Available from: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/13561/56007/56007.pdf. Newcastle: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.
Padwal 2007
PRISMA 2009
  • Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman D G. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. Ann Intern Med 2009;151(4):264-9, W64. [PUBMED: 19622511]
Rucker 2007
Scheen 2006
  • Scheen AJ, Finer N, Hollander P, Jensen MD, Van Gaal LF. Efficacy and tolerability of rimonabant in overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised controlled study. Lancet 2006;368(9548):1660-72. [PUBMED: 17098084]
Siebenhofer 2009
  • Siebenhofer A, Horvath K, Jeitler K, Berghold A, Stich A K, Matyas E, et al. Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007654.pub2; PUBMED: 19588440]
WHO 2005
  • World Health Organization [homepage on the internet]. Khatib OMN, El-Guindy MS, editors. Clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension. WHO EMRO Technical publication series, 29. 2005 [cited 2013 Jan 14]. Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. Available from: http://www.emro.who.int/dsaf/dsa234.pdf. Cairo: World Health Organization.Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean.
WHO 2011
  • World Health Organization [homepage on the Internet]. Fact Sheet 317 - Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) 2011 [cited 2012 Dec 18]. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/index.html. WHO.