|Study||Reason for exclusion|
|Boylan 1980||Open and double-blind study.|
Participants: unclear whether nullips or multips; also in a subgroup, labour was induced.
Interventions: intravenous bolus of glucose versus Hartmann's.
Outcome: fetal breathing; no maternal outcomes.
|Caspi 1979||Method: appears to be a case-controlled study.|
There is no evidence that women were randomly assigned to the 2 groups.
Participants: 22 primips.
Intervention: sodium bicarbonate infusion.
|Cerri 2000||Participants: 81 women but no distinction between nullips and multips.|
Intervention: 43 women received 5% glucose and 38 women did not receive any fluids.
|Cheek 1996||Prospective randomised controlled trial.|
Participants: 34 labouring women (no clear distinction in outcomes between nullips and multips).
Interventions: extradural normal saline and glucose.
|Fisher 1997||Abstract only, so limited information.|
Participants: multips and nullips.
|Haesslein 1975||Participants: all low-risk labouring women (nullips and multips).|
Interventions: 5% dextrose in water versus 5% dextrose in saline.
Outcome: maternal hypertension.
|Higgins 1996||Randomised controlled trial.|
Interventions; oxytocin in Hartmann's solution compared with the standard 5% dextrose regimen for induction or augmentation in labour.
Outcomes: maternal serum sodium.
Good study with clear randomisation method; reason for exclusion was non-spontaneous labour.
|Hofmann 2001||Participants: labouring women in their first or second pregnancy (no distinction between nullips and multips).|
Interventions: glucose was compared with a glucose substitute treatment (Xylit) and an electrolyte treatment (Sterofundin).
|Jamal 2007||Randomised controlled trial.|
Participants: 178 women but all were multiparous (at least para 1).
Intervention: 120 mL/hour of 5% dextrose was compared with the same volume of Ringer's lactate.
Outcomes: primary outcome was fetal acid-base status.
|Kenepp 1985||Randomised trial.|
Participants: 31 term labourers; unclear whether nullips or multips or both.
Intervention: different concentrations of dextrose solutions.
Limited information about duration of labour and other outcomes as published as abstract only.
|Loong 1987||Prospective randomised trial.|
Participants: 48 women (nullips and multips).
Interventions: 5% dextrose solution or Hartmann's solution.
Outcomes: maternal and cord blood glucose.
Reason for exclusion: although there was a distinction between nullips and multips in the demographics, there was no distinction in the outcomes in terms of parity.
|Menigaux 1993||Randomised controlled trial.|
Participants: 20 labouring women having epidurals (study does not specify whether nullips or multips).
Interventions: 50% dextrose versus Ringer's lactate in women who were given a basal infusion of 100 mL/hour Ringer's lactate before an epidural.
Outcome: maternal and neonatal hypoglycaemia.
|Navarette,1982||Randomised controlled trial.|
Participants: insufficient information on parity.
Outcome: intrapartum metabolic control.
|Nordstrom 1995||All participants were on average para 1 therefore excluded.|
|Omigbodun 1989||Participants: all women who required oxytocin for induction of labour or augmentation (so non-spontaneous labours). Furthermore, no distinction regarding parity.|
Intervention: normal saline or 5% glucose with oxytocin.
Outcomes: maternal postpartum blood pressure.
|Omigbodun 1991||Participants: all women who required oxytocin for induction of labour or augmentation (so non-spontaneous labours). Furthermore, no distinction regarding parity.|
Intervention: normal saline or 5% glucose with oxytocin.
Outcomes: maternal postpartum sodium levels; cord sodium levels.
|Omigbodun 1993||Interventions: all women received oxytocin.|
|Oral 2003||Participants: nullips and multips included; control group comprised entirely of multiparous women.|
Interventions: oxytocin for augmentation.
Outcomes: neonatal bilirubin levels.
|Rooth 1967||Limited information available, published as abstract only.|
Participants: 60 labouring women; unclear whether nulliparous or not; no details of randomisation.
Interventions: sodium bicarbonate given to half the participants.
|Rosenberg 2006||Participants: all women in this study were insulin requiring gestational diabetics therefore excluded.|
|Simpson 2005||Participants: 42 women were randomised to either a 500 mL or 1000 mL intravenous fluid bolus over 20 minutes. All women were either being induced or having this bolus as a preload for epidurals.|
51 women were randomised to 1 of 6 position sequences including supine with the head elevated 30°, left lateral and right lateral for 15 minutes each in succession.
|Singhi 1982||Study published as part of Letter-to-the Editor.|
Participants: no mention of parity; so difficult to interpret results.
|Thaler 2007||Participants: 85 women; unclear whether nullips or multips.|
Interventions: 10% glucose versus Ringer's lactate.
Abstract only; limited information.
|Watson 2012||Randomised controlled trial.|
Participants: nulliparous or multiparous women requesting epidurals and who intended to breastfeed.
Interventions: different volumes of epidural preload.
Outcome measures: effect on weight loss on the newborn.
|Wells-Brooks 2001||Methods: quasi-experimental research design.|
Participants: labouring women receiving combined spinal epidural anaesthesia.
Interventions: different volumes of intravenous fluids in women receiving combined spinal epidural anaesthesia.
Outcome measures: frequency of uterine contractions.
|Wright 2000||Prospective randomised double-blind study.|
Participants: 32 insulin requiring diabetic women randomised to 2 different dextrose infusions.