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Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents

  1. Tanya Walsh1,*,
  2. Helen V Worthington2,
  3. Anne-Marie Glenny2,
  4. Priscilla Appelbe1,
  5. Valeria CC Marinho3,
  6. Xin Shi4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Oral Health Group

Published Online: 20 JAN 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 25 AUG 2009

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007868.pub2


How to Cite

Walsh T, Worthington HV, Glenny AM, Appelbe P, Marinho VCC, Shi X. Fluoride toothpastes of different concentrations for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD007868. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007868.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Manchester, School of Dentistry, Manchester, UK

  2. 2

    School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Cochrane Oral Health Group, Manchester, UK

  3. 3

    Queen Mary University of London, Clinical and Diagnostic Oral Sciences, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK

  4. 4

    Manchester Metropolitan University Business School, Manchester, UK

*Tanya Walsh, School of Dentistry, The University of Manchester, Higher Cambridge Street, Manchester, M15 6FH, UK. tanya.walsh@manchester.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 20 JAN 2010

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abrams 1980 {published data only}
  • Abrams RG, Chambers DW. Caries-inhibiting effect of a stannous fluoride silica gel dentifrice: a three-year clinical study. Clinical Preventive Dentistry 1980;2:22-7.
Andlaw 1975 {published data only}
Ashley 1977 {published data only}
  • Ashley FP, Mainwaring PJ, Emslie RD, Naylor MN. Clinical testing of a mouthrinse and a dentifrice containing fluoride. A two-year supervised study in school children. British Dental Journal 1977;143:333-8.
Biesbrock 2001 {published data only}
  • Biesbrock AR, Gerlach RW, Bollmer BW, Faller RV, Jacobs SA, Bartizek RD. Relative anti-caries efficacy of 1100, 1700, 2200, and 2800 ppm fluoride ion in a sodium fluoride dentifrice over 1 year. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2001;29:382-9.
Blinkhorn 1983 {published data only}
Brudevold 1966 {published data only}
  • Brudevold F, Chilton NW. Comparative study of a fluoride dentifrice containing soluble phosphate and a calcium-free abrasive: second-year report. Journal of the American Dental Association 1966;72:889-94.
  • Brudevold F, Chilton NW, Wellock WD. A preliminary comparison of a dentifrice containing fluoride and soluble phosphate and employing a calcium-free abrasive with other types of fluoride dentifrices. First year report of a clinical study. Journal of Oral Therapeutics and Pharmacology 1964;56:1-6.
Buhe 1984 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Barlage B, Buhe H, Buttner W. A 3-year clinical dentifrice trial using different fluoride levels: 0.8 and 1.2% sodium monofluorophosphate. Caries Research 1981;15:185.
  • Buhe H, Buttner W, Barlage B. 3-year clinical tooth cream test with toothpastes of varying fluoride content: 0.8% and 1.2% sodium monofluorophosphate [Uber einen dreijahrigen klinischen Zahncremetest mit Zahnpasten unterschiedlicher Fluoridkonzentration: 0,8% und 1,2% Natriummonofluorphosphat]. Quintessenza 1984;35:103-11.
Cahen 1982 {published data only}
Chesters 2002 {published data only}
  • Chesters RK, Pitts NB, Matuliene G, Kvedariene A, Huntington E, Bendinskaite R, et al. An abbreviated caries clinical trial design validated over 24 months. Journal of Dental Research 2002;81(9):637-40.
Conti 1988 {published data only}
  • Conti AJ. The anticaries benefit of a higher fluoride content dentifrice in a Florida community. Compendium Supplement 1988;(11):s379-83.
  • Conti AJ, Lotzkar S, Daley R, Cancro L, Marks RG, McNeal DR. A 3-year clinical trial to compare efficacy of dentifrices containing 1.14% and 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1988;16:135-8.
  • Moorhead JE, Conti AJ, Marks RG, Cancro LP. The effect of supervised brushing on caries inhibition in school age children. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 1991;2(4):97-102.
Davies 2002 {published data only}
  • Davies GM, Worthington HV, Ellwood RP, Bentley EM, Blinkhorn AS, Taylor G, et al. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of providing free fluoride toothpaste from the age of 12 months on reducing caries in 5-6 year old children. Community Dental Health 2002;19:131-6.
  • Davies GM, Worthington HV, Ellwood RP, Blinkhorn AS, Taylor GO, Davies RM, et al. An assessment of the cost effectiveness of a postal toothpaste programme to prevent caries among 5 year old children in the North West of England. Community Dental Health 2003;20:207-10.
  • Ellwood RP, Davies GM, Worthington HV, Blinkhorn AS, Taylor GO, Davies RM. Relationship between area deprivation and the anticaries benefit of an oral health program providing free fluoride toothpaste to young children. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 2004;32:159-65.
  • Tavener JA, Davies GM, Davies RM, Ellwood RP. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis and other developmental defects of enamel in children who received free fluoride toothpaste containing either 440 or 1450 ppm F from the age of 12 months. Community Dental Health 2004;21:217-23.
Di Maggio 1980 {published data only}
  • Di Maggio M, Zuccarino L. Cariostatic effect of Fluocaril; controlled clinical research [Effetto cariostatico del Fluocaril; ricerca clinica controllata]. Minerva Stomatologica 1980;29:45-50.
Fan 2008 {published data only}
  • Fan X, Li X, Wan H, Hu D, Zhang YP, Volpe AR, et al. Clinical investigation of the anticaries efficacy of a 1.14% sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) calcium carbonate based dentifrice: a two-year caries clinical trial on children in China. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 2008;19(4):134-7.
Fanning 1968 {published data only}
  • Cellier KM, Fanning EA, Gotjamanos T, Vowles NJ. Some statistical aspects of a clinical study on dental caries in children. Archives of Oral Biology 1968;13:483-508.
  • Fanning EA, Cellier KM, Gotjamanos T, Vowles NJ. The effect of fluoride dentifrices on the caries incidence of individual tooth surfaces. Australian Dental Journal 1971;16:287-90.
  • Fanning EA, Gotjamanos T, Vowles NH, Wielen I. The effects of fluoride dentifrices on the incidence and distribution of stained tooth surfaces in children. Archives of Oral Biology 1968;13:467-9.
  • Fanning EA, Gotjamanos T, Vowles NJ. The use of fluoride dentifrices in the control of dental caries: methodology and results of a clinical trial. Australian Dental Journal 1968;13:201-6.
  • Fanning EA, Gotjamanos T, Vowles NJ, Cellier KM, Simmons DW. The use of fluoride dentifrices in the control of dental caries: a preliminary report of a clinical trial. Medical Journal of Australia 1967;1:383-5.
Fogels 1979 {published data only}
  • Fogels HR, Alman JE, Meade JJ, O'Donnell JP. The relative caries-inhibiting effects of a stannous fluoride dentifrice in a silica gel base. Journal of the American Dental Association 1979;99:456-9.
Fogels 1988 {published data only}
  • Fogels HR, Meads JJ, Griffith J, Miragliuolo R, Cancro LP. A clinical investigation of a high-level fluoride dentifrice. Journal of Dentistry for Children 1988;55(3):210-5.
Forsman 1974 {published data only}
Forsman 1974a {published data only}
Gish 1966 {published data only}
  • Gish CW, Muhler JC. Effectiveness of a stannous fluoride dentifrice on dental caries. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 1971;38:211-4.
  • Gish CW, Muhler JC. Effectiveness of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate (SnF2-Ca2P2O7) dentifrice on dental caries in children whose teeth calcified in a natural fluoride area. II. Results at the end of 24 months. Journal of the American Dental Association 1966;73:853-5.
  • Gish CW, Muhler JC, Stookey GK. Effectiveness of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate (SnF2-Ca2P2O7) dentifrice on dental caries in children whose teeth calcified in a natural fluoride area. I. Results at the end of 12 months. Journal of the American Dental Association 1965;71:60-5.
Glass 1978 {published data only}
  • Glass RL. Caries reduction by a dentifrice containing sodium monofluorophosphate in a calcium carbonate base. Partial explanation for diminishing caries prevalence. Clinical Preventive Dentistry 1981;3:6-8.
  • Glass RL, Shiere FR. A clinical trial of a calcium carbonate base dentifrice containing 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate. Caries Research 1978;12:284-9.
Glass 1983 {published data only}
Hanachowicz 1984 {published data only}
  • Hanachowicz L. Caries prevention using a 1.2% sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice in an aluminium oxide trihydrate base. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1984;12:10-6.
  • Hanachowicz L. Prevention of caries with a dentifrice containing a 1.2% concentration of sodium monofluorophosphate in an alumina base (a 3-year clinical trial) [Prevention des caries par un dentrifrice contenant du monofluorophosphate de sodium a la concentration de 1.2% dans une base alumine (Test clinique de 3 ans)]. Chirurgien Dentiste de France 1984;54:59-67.
Held 1968 {published data only}
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experimentation with a fluoridated dentifrice [Experimentation clinique d'une pate dentifrice fluoree]. Revue Francaise d'Odontostomatologie 1966;13:1109-20.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experimentation with a fluoridated toothpaste. SSO Schweiz Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1965;75:883-905.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experiments with a fluoridated toothpaste [Klinische versuche mit einer mit fluor versetzten zahnpasta]. DDZ (Das Deutsche Zahnarzteblatt) 1966;20:288-93.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Three years of clinical observations with fluoridated toothpastes [Trois ans d'observations cliniques avec des pates dentifrices fluorees]. Bulletin du Groupement International pour la Recherche Scientifique en Stomatologie 1968;11:539-70.
Held 1968a {published data only}
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experimentation with a fluoridated dentifrice [Experimentation clinique d'une pate dentifrice fluoree]. Revue Francaise d'Odontostomatologie 1966;13:1109-20.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experimentation with a fluoridated toothpaste. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1965;75:883-905.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experiments with a fluoridated toothpaste [Klinische versuche mit einer mit fluor versetzten zahnpasta]. DDZ (Das Deutsche Zahnarzteblatt) 1966;20:288-93.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Three years of clinical observations with fluoridated toothpastes [Trois ans d'observations cliniques avec des pates dentifrices fluorees]. Bulletin du Groupement International pour la Recherche Scientifique en Stomatologie 1968;11:539-70.
Held 1968b {published data only}
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experimentation with a fluoridated dentifrice [Experimentation clinique d'une pate dentifrice fluoree]. Revue Francaise d'Odontostomatologie 1966;13:1109-20.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experimentation with a fluoridated toothpaste. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1965;75:883-905.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Clinical experiments with a fluoridated toothpaste [Klinische versuche mit einer mit fluor versetzten zahnpasta]. DDZ (Das Deutsche Zahnarzteblatt) 1966;20:288-93.
  • Held AJ, Spirgi M. Three years of clinical observations with fluoridated toothpastes [Trois ans d'observations cliniques avec des pates dentifrices fluorees]. Bulletin du Groupement International pour la Recherche Scientifique en Stomatologie 1968;11:539-70.
Hodge 1980 {published data only}
  • Hodge HC, Holloway PJ, Davies TG, Worthington HV. Caries prevention by dentifrices containing a combination of sodium monofluorophosphate and sodium fluoride. Report of a 3-year clinical trial. British Dental Journal 1980;149:201-4.
Homan 1969 {published and unpublished data}
  • Homan BT, Messer HH. The comparative effect of three fluoride dentifrices on clinical dental caries in Brisbane schoolchildren. Preliminary report. Journal of Dental Research 1969;48:1094.
Howat 1978 {published data only}
Jackson 1967 {published data only}
  • Jackson D. Allocation to control and experimental groups in short-term clinical trials designed to test a caries preventive. In: Hardwick JL, Dustin JP, Held HR editor(s). Advances in Fluorine Research and Dental Caries Prevention. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1964:17-9.
  • Jackson D, Sutcliffe P. Clinical testing of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate children in Yorkshire school children. British Dental Journal 1967;123:40-8.
James 1967 {published data only}
  • James PM, Anderson RJ. Clinical testing of stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrices in Buckinghamshire school children. British Dental Journal 1967;123:33-9.
  • James PMC. Organization of a clinical trial. In: James PMC, Konig KG, Held HR editor(s). Advances in Fluorine Research and Dental Caries Prevention. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1966:33-9.
James 1977 {published data only}
Kinkel 1972 {published data only}
  • Kinkel HJ, Raich R. Caries prevention by means of a Na2FPO 3 toothpaste after 3 years of application [Die Karieshemmung einer Na2FPO3 -Zahnpasta nach 3 Jahren Applikation]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1972;82:1240-4.
  • Kinkel HJ, Raich R. Caries-inhibiting properties of Na2FPO3 toothpaste after 5-year evaluation studies [Die Karieshe-mung einer Na2FPO3-Zahnpasta nach 5 Jahren Applikation]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1974;84:1245-7.
  • Kinkel HJ, Raich R. Effectiveness of a Na2FP03 toothpaste on caries in children [Zur Wirkung einer Na2FPO3-Zahnpasta auf die Karies bei Kindern]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1972;82:169-75.
  • Kinkel HJ, Raich R. The caries-inhibiting property of a Na2FPO3 toothpaste after 4-year use [Die Karieshemmung einer Na2FPO3-Zahnpasta nach 4 Jahren Applikation]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1974;84:226-9.
  • Kinkel HJ, Raich R, Muller M. Caries prevention by means of a Na2FPO3-toothpaste after 7 year's application [Die Karieshemmung durch eine Na2FPO3-Zahnpasta nach 7 Jahren Applikation]. Deutsche Zahnarztliche Zeitschrift 1977;32:859-60.
  • Kinkel HJ, Raich R, Muller M. Caries prevention by the use of a Na2FPO3 containing toothpaste, after 7 years [Die Karieshemmung einer Na2FPO3-Zahnpasta nach 7 Jahren Applikation]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1977;87:1218-20.
Kleber 1996 {published data only}
  • Kleber CJ, Putt MS, Smith CE, Gish CW. Effect of supervised use of an alum mouthrinse on dental caries incidence in caries-susceptible children: a pilot study. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 1996;63:393-402.
Koch 1990 {published data only}
  • Bjarnason S. On dental health in Icelandic children. Swedish Dental Journal Supplement 1989;57:1-40.
  • Koch G, Bergmann-Arnadottir I, Bjarnason S, Finnbogason S, Hoskuldsson O, Karlsson R. Caries-preventive effect of fluoride dentifrices with and without anticalculus agents: A 3-year controlled clinical trial. Caries Research 1990;24:72-9.
Lima 2008 {published data only}
  • Lima TJ, Ribeiro CC, Tenuta LM, Cury JA. Low-fluoride dentifrice and caries lesion control in children with different caries experience: a randomized clinical trial. Caries Research 2008;42(1):46-50.
Lind 1974 {published data only}
  • Lind OP, Larsen MJ, Moller IJ, von der Fehr FR. A 2% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste's caries preventive effect in a Danish fluoride area [En 2% natrium monofluorfosfattandpasta's cariesforebyggende effekt i et dansk fluoromrade]. Tandlaegebladet 1975;79:793-9.
  • Lind OP, Moller IJ, von der Fehr FR, Larsen MJ. Caries-preventive effect of a dentifrice containing 2 percent sodium monofluorophosphate in a natural fluoride area. Results after 3 years. Helvetica Odontologica Acta 1974;18:53.
  • Lind OP, Moller IJ, von der Fehr FR, Larsen MJ. Caries-preventive effect of dentifrice containing 2 percent sodium monofluorophosphate in a natural fluoride area in Denmark. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1974;2:104-13.
  • Lind OP, von der Fehr FR, Larsen MJ, Moller IJ. Anti-caries effect of a 2% Na2PO3F-dentifrice in a Danish fluoride area. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1976;4:7-14.
Lu 1987 {published data only}
  • Lu KH, Ruhlman CD, Chung KL, Sturzenberger OP, Lehnhoff RW. A three-year clinical comparison of a sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice with sodium fluoride dentifrices on dental caries in children. Journal of Dentistry for Children 1987;54(4):241-4.
Mainwaring 1978 {published data only}
  • Mainwaring PJ, Naylor MN. A three-year clinical study to determine the separate and combined caries-inhibiting effects of sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste and an acidulated phosphate-fluoride gel. Caries Research 1978;12:202-12.
Mainwaring 1983 {published data only}
  • Mainwaring PJ, Naylor MN. A four-year clinical study to determine the caries-inhibiting effect of calcium glycerophosphate and sodium fluoride in calcium carbonate base dentifrices containing sodium monofluorophosphate. Caries Research 1983;17:267-76.
  • Mainwaring PJ, Naylor MN. Anti-caries effects of NaMFP/CaCO3 toothpastes containing calcium glycerohosphate (CaGP) or sodium fluoride (NaF) - A 4 year clinical study. Journal of Dental Research 1981;60:1091.
Marks 1994 {published data only}
  • Marks RG, Conti AJ, Moorhead JE, Cancro L, D'Agostino RB. Results from a three year caries clinical trial comparing NaF and SMFP fluoride formulations. International Dental Journal 1994;44:275-85.
  • Marks RG, D'Agostino R, Moorhead JE, Conti AJ, Cancro L. A fluoride dose response evaluation in an anticaries clinical trial. Journal of Dental Research 1992;71(6):1286-91.
Marthaler 1965 {published data only}
  • Konig KG, Muhlemann HR. Caries inhibiting effect of aminfluoride containing dentifrices tested in an animal experiment and in a clinical study. In: Muhlemann HR, Konig KG editor(s). The Present Status of Caries Prevention by Fluorine-Containing Dentifrices. Caries Symposium Zurich. Berne and Stuttgart: Hans Huber, 1961:30.
  • Marthaler T. The caries inhibiting effect of amine fluoride dentifrices in children during three years of unsupervised use. British Dental Journal 1965;119:153-63.
  • Marthaler TM. Caries control with the use of an amine fluoride dentifrice for 5 years. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1965;75:509-15.
  • Marthaler TM. Caries inhibition with amino fluoride toothpastes following a 7-year-long study [Karieshemmung durch Aminfluoridzahnpasten nach 7 jahriger Studiendauer]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1968;78:134-47.
  • Marthaler TM. Caries-inhibition after seven years of unsupervised use of an amine fluoride dentifrice. British Dental Journal 1968;124:510-5.
  • Marthaler TM. The cariostatic effect of amine fluoride containing dentifrices in an unsupervised clinical study. In: Muhlemann HR, Konig KG editor(s). The Present Status of Caries Prevention by Fluorine-Containing Dentifrices. Caries Symposium Zurich. Berne and Stuttgart: Hans Huber, 1961:14-25.
Marthaler 1965a {published data only}
  • Konig KG, Muhlemann HR. Caries inhibiting effect of aminfluoride containing dentifrices tested in an animal experiment and in a clinical study. In: Muhlemann HR, Konig KG editor(s). The Present Status of Caries Prevention by Fluorine-Containing Dentifrices. Caries Symposium Zurich. Berne and Stuttgart: Hans Huber, 1961:30.
  • Marthaler T. The caries inhibiting effect of amine fluoride dentifrices in children during three years of unsupervised use. British Dental Journal 1965;119:153-63.
  • Marthaler TM. Caries control with the use of an amine fluoride dentifrice for 5 years. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1965;75:509-15.
  • Marthaler TM. Caries inhibition with amino fluoride toothpastes following a 7-year-long study [Karieshemmung durch Aminfluoridzahnpasten nach 7 jahriger Studiendauer]. SSO Schweizerische Monatsschrift Fuer Zahnheilkund 1968;78:134-47.
  • Marthaler TM. Caries-inhibition after seven years of unsupervised use of an amine fluoride dentifrice. British Dental Journal 1968;124:510-5.
  • Marthaler TM. The cariostatic effect of amine fluoride containing dentifrices in an unsupervised clinical study. In: Muhlemann HR, Konig KG editor(s). The Present Status of Caries Prevention by Fluorine-Containing Dentifrices. Caries Symposium Zurich. Berne and Stuttgart: Hans Huber, 1961:14-25.
Marthaler 1970 {published data only}
  • Marthaler TM, Konig KG, Muhlemann HR. The effect of a fluoride gel used for supervised toothbrushing 15 or 30 times per year. Helvetica Odontologica Acta 1970;14:67-77.
Marthaler 1970a {published data only}
  • Marthaler TM, Konig KG, Muhlemann HR. The effect of a fluoride gel used for supervised toothbrushing 15 or 30 times per year. Helvetica Odontologica Acta 1970;14:67-77.
Marthaler 1974 {published data only}
  • Marthaler TM. Caries-inhibition by an amine fluoride dentifrice. Results after 6 years in children with low caries activity. Helvetica Odontologica Acta 1974;18(Suppl VIII):35-44.
Mergele 1968 {published data only}
  • Mergele M. Report II. An unsupervised brushing study on subjects residing in a community with fluoride in the water. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 1968;14:251-5.
Mitropolous 1984 {published data only}
  • Mitropoulos CM, Holloway PJ, Davies TGH, Worthington HV. Relative efficacy of dentifrices containing 250 or 1000 ppm F- in preventing dental caries - report of a 32-month clinical trial. Community Dental Health 1984;1:193-200.
Muhler 1955 {published data only}
  • Muhler JC, Radike AW, Nebergall WH, Day HG. A comparison between the anticariogenic effects of dentifrices containing stannous fluoride and sodium fluoride. Journal of the American Dental Association 1955;51:556-9.
Muhler 1962 {published data only}
  • Muhler JC. Effect of a stannous fluoride dentifrice on caries reduction in children during a three year study period. Journal of the Americal Dental Association 1962;64:216-24.
  • Muhler JC. The effect of a stannous fluoride dentifrice on caries reduction in children during a three-year study period (Summary). In: Muhlemann HR, Konig KG editor(s). Caries Symposium Zurich. Berne and Stuttgart: Hans Huber, 1961:9-13.
Muhler 1970 {published data only}
  • Muhler JC. A clinical comparison of fluoride and antienzyme dentifrices. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 1970;37:501.
  • Muhler JC. A clinical comparison of fluoride and antienzyme dentifrices. Journal of Dental Research 1967;IADR Abstr. No 273:105.
Naylor 1967 {published data only}
  • Ashley FP, Naylor MN, Emslie RD. Stannous fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrices. Clinical testing in London school children--radiological findings. British Dental Journal 1969;127:125-8.
  • Naylor MN, Emslie RD. Clinical testing of stannous fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrices in London school children. British Dental Journal 1967;123:17-23.
Naylor 1979 {published data only}
O'Mullane 1997 {published data only}
  • O'Mullane DM, Kavanagh D, Ellwood RP, Chesters RK, Schafer F, Huntington E, et al. A three-year clinical trial of a combination of trimetaphosphate and sodium fluoride in silica toothpastes. Journal of Dental Research 1997;76(11):1776-81.
Peterson 1967 {published data only}
  • Peterson JK, Williamson L. Comparative effectiveness of a sodium fluoride-acid orthophosphate-insoluble metaphosphate dentifrice on caries reduction in children. Journal of Dental Research 1966;IADR Abstr. No 249:100.
  • Peterson JK, Williamson L. Field test of a sodium fluoride dentifrice containing acid orthophosphate and an insoluble metaphosphate abrasive--second year report. Journal of Oral Therapeutics and Pharmacology 1967;4:1-4.
  • Peterson JK, Williamson L. Three-years caries inhibition of a sodium fluoride acid orthophosphate dentifrice compared with a stannous fluoride dentifrice and a non-fluoride dentifrice. Journal of Dental Research 1968;IADR Abstr. No 255:101.
Peterson 1979 {published data only}
Piccione 1979 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Piccione N. Controlled clinical study of the caries prophylactic activity of a new bifluoride toothpaste (sodium monofluorophosphate + sodium fluoride) [Studio clinico controllato sull'attivita carioprofilattica di una nuova pasta dentifricia bifluorurata (monofluorofosfato di sodio + fluoruro di sodio)]. Minerva Stomatologica 1979;28:325-7.
Powell 1981 {published data only}
  • Powell KR, Barnard PD, Craig GG. Effect of stannous fluoride treatments on the progression of initial lesions in approximal surfaces of permanent posterior teeth. Journal of Dental Research 1981;60:1648-54.
Reed 1973 {published data only}
Reed 1975 {published data only}
  • Reed MW, King JD. A clinical evaluation of a sodium fluoride dentifrice. Journal of Dental Research 1970;IADR Abstr. No 340:133.
  • Reed MW, King JD. A clinical evaluation of a sodium fluoride dentifrice. Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 1975;2:77-82.
Ringelberg 1979 {published data only}
  • Ringelberg ML, Webster DB. Effects of an amine fluoride mouthrinse and dentifrice on the gingival health and the extent of plaque of school children. Journal of Periodontology 1977;48:350-3.
  • Ringelberg ML, Webster DB, Dixon DO. Effects of an amine fluoride dentifrice and mouthrinse on the dental caries of school children after 18 months. Journal of Preventive Dentistry 1978;5:26-30.
  • Ringelberg ML, Webster DB, Dixon DO, Fairchild S, Driscoll WS. Results of gingival, plaque, and stain assessments after 30 months use of amine fluorides and their inorganic counterparts. Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 1979;4:27-31.
  • Ringelberg ML, Webster DB, Dixon DO, LeZotte DC. The caries-preventive effect of amine fluorides and inorganic fluorides in a mouthrinse or dentifrice after 30 months of use. Journal of the American Dental Association 1979;98:202-8.
Ripa 1988 {published data only}
  • Ripa LW, Leske GS, Sposato A, Varma A. Clinical comparisom of the caries inhibition of two mixed NaF-Na2PO3F dentifrices containing 1,000 and 2,500 ppm F compared to a conventional Na2PO3F dentifrice containing 1,000 ppm F: results after two years. Caries Research 1987;21:149-57.
  • Ripa LW, Leske, GS, Sposato A, Varma A. Clinical comparisom of the caries inhibition of two mixed NaF-Na2PO3F dentifrices containing 1,000 and 2,500 ppm F compared to a conventional Na2PO3F dentifrice containing 1,000 ppm F: 3-year results. Journal of the American Dental Association 1988;116:69-73.
Rule 1984 {published data only}
  • Rule J, Smith M, Truelove R, Macko D, Castaldi C. Anticaries properties of a 0.78% sodium monofluorophosphate-silica base dentifrice. Journal of Dental Research 1982;61:281.
  • Rule JT, Smith MR, Truelove RB, Macko DJ, Castaldi CR. Caries inhibition of a dentifrice containing 0.78% sodium monofluorophosphate in a silica base. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1984;12:213-7.
Segal 1967 {published data only}
  • Segal AH, Stiff RH, George WA. Caries inhibiting effectiveness of a stannous fluoride-insoluble sodium metaphosphate (IMP) dentifrice in children. Two year results. Journal of Dental Research 1966;IADR Abstr. No 250:101.
  • Segal AH, Stiff RH, George WA, Picozzi A. Cariostatic effect of a stannous fluoride-containing dentifrice on children: two-year report of a supervised toothbrushing study. Journal of Oral Therapeutics and Pharmacology 1967;4:175-80.
Slack 1964 {published data only}
  • Slack GL, Martin WJ. The use of a dentifrice containing stannous fluoride in the control of dental caries. Report of an unsupervised clinical trial. British Dental Journal 1964;117:275-80.
Slack 1967 {published data only}
  • Slack GL, Berman DS, Martin WJ, Young J. Clinical testing of stannous fluoride-insoluble metaphosphate dentifrice in Kent girls. British Dental Journal 1967;123:9-16.
Slack 1967a {published data only}
  • Slack GL, Berman DS, Martin WJ, Hardie JM. Clinical testing of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice in Essex school girls. British Dental Journal 1967;123:26-33.
Slack 1971 {published data only}
Sonju Clasen 1995 {published data only}
  • Sonju Clasen AB, Ogaard B, Sonju T. A comparison of the anticaries effect on the primary dentition of two dentifrices containing 250 pppm and 1450 ppm fluoride. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 1995;5:3-8.
Stephen 1988 {published data only}
Stephen 1994 {published data only}
  • Chestnutt IG, Schaefer F, Jacobson APM, Stephen KW. The influence of toothbrushing frequency and post-brushing rinsing on caries experience in a clinical trial. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1998;26:406-11.
  • Stephen KW, Chestnutt IG, Jacobson AP, McCall DR, Chesters RK, Huntington E, et al. The effect of NaF and SMFP toothpastes on three-year caries increments in adolescents. Indian Dental Journal 1994;33(3 Suppl 1):287-95.
Stookey 2004 {published data only}
  • Stookey GK, Mau MS, Isaacs RL, Gonzalez-Gierbolini C, Bartizek RD, Biesbrock AR. The relative anticaries effectiveness of three fluoride-containing dentifrices in Puerto Rico. Caries Research 2004;38(6):542-50.
Thomas 1966 {published data only}
  • Thomas AE, Jamison HC. Effect of SnF2 dentrifices on caries in children: two-year clinical study of supervised brushing in children's homes. Journal of the American Dental Association 1966;73:844-52.
Torell 1965 {published data only}
  • Torell P. The Goteborg studies of methods of applying fluorides topically. In: Hardwick JL, Held HR, Konig KG editor(s). Advances in Fluorine Research and Dental Caries Prevention. Vol. 3, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1965:255-8.
  • Torell P, Ericsson Y. Two-year clinical tests with different methods of local caries-preventive fluorine application in Swedish school-children (Part I: The Goteborg study). Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1965;23:287-312.
Torell 1965a {published data only}
  • Torell P, Ericsson Y. Two-year clinical tests with different methods of local caries-preventive fluorine application in Swedish school-children (Part II: The Sodertalje study). Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1965;23:313-22.
Torell 1965b {published data only}
  • Torell P, Ericsson Y. Two-year clinical tests with different methods of local caries-preventive fluorine application in Swedish school-children (Part II: The Sodertalje study). Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 1965;23:313-22.
Weisenstein 1972 {published data only}
Winter 1989 {published data only}
  • Holt RD, Morris CE, Winter GB, Downer MC. Enamel opacities and dental caries in children who used a low fluoride toothpaste between 2 and 5 years of age. International Dental Journal 1994;44:331-41.
  • Winter GB, Holt RD, Williams BF. Clinical trial of a low fluoride toothpaste for young children. International Dental Journal 1989;39:227-35.
Zacherl 1970 {published data only}
  • Zacherl WA, McPhail CW. Evaluation of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1965;31:174-80.
  • Zacherl WA, McPhail CW. Final report on the efficacy of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1970;36:262-4.
Zacherl 1970a {published data only}
  • Zacherl WA, McPhail CW. Evaluation of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1965;31:174-80.
  • Zacherl WA, McPhail CW. Final report on the efficacy of a stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1970;36:262-4.
Zacherl 1972 {published data only}
  • Zacherl WA. Clinical evaluation of an aged stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1972;38:155-7.
Zacherl 1972a {published data only}
  • Zacherl WA. A clinical evaluation of a sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride dentifrices. Journal of Dental Research 1968;IADR Abstr. No 253:101.
  • Zacherl WA. Clinical evaluation of neutral sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, sodium monofluorophosphate and acidulated fluoride-phosphate denifrices. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 1972;38:35-8.
Zacherl 1973 {published data only}
  • Zacherl WA. A clinical evaluation of a stannous fluoride and a sarcosinate dentifrice. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 1973;40:451-3.
  • Zacherl WA. Clinical evaluation of a sarcosinate dentifrice. Journal of Dental Research 1970;IADR Abstr. No 339:133.
Zacherl 1981 {published data only}
  • Biesbrock AR, Faller RV, Bartizek RD, Court LK, McClanahan SF. Reversal of incipient and radiographic caries through the use of sodium and stannous fluoride dentifrices in a clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 1998;9:5-10.
  • Caplan DJ, Slade GD, Biesbrock AR, Bartizek RD, McClanahan SF, Beck JD. A comparison of increment and incidence density analyses in evaluating the anticaries effects of two dentifrices. Caries Research 1999;33:16-22.
  • Zacherl WA. A three-year clinical caries evaluation of the effect of a sodium fluoride-silica abrasive dentifrice. Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 1981;6:1-7.
  • Zacherl WA. Clinical evaluation of a sodium fluoride-silica abrasive dentifrice. Journal of Dental Research 1981;60:577.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Andlaw 1983 {published data only}
Baysan 2001 {published data only}
Beiswanger 1981 {published data only}
  • Beiswanger BB, Gish CW, Mallatt ME. A three-year study of the effect of a sodium fluoride-silica abrasive dentifrice on dental caries. Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Dentistry 1981;6(1-2):9-16.
Beiswanger 1989 {published data only}
  • Beiswanger BB, Lehnhoff RW, Mallatt ME, Mau MS, Stookey GK. A clinical evaluation of the relative cariostatic effect of dentifrices containing sodium fluoride or sodium monofluorophosphate. Journal of Dentistry for Children 1989;56(4):270-6.
Bibby 1945 {published data only}
Biesbrock 2003 {published data only}
  • Biesbrock AR, Bartizek RD, Gerlach RW, Jacobs SA, Archila L. Effect of three concentrations of sodium fluoride dentifrices on clinical caries. American Journal of Dentistry 2003;16(2):99-104.
Bixler 1966 {published data only}
  • Bixler D, Muhler JC. Effectiveness of a stannous fluoride-containing dentifrice in reducing dental caries in children in a boarding school environment. Journal of the American Dental Association 1966;72:653-8.
Blinkhorn 1988 {published data only}
  • Blinkhorn AS, Kay EJ. A clinical study in children: comparing the anticaries effect of three fluoride dentifrices. Clinical Preventive Dentistry 1988;10(3):14-6.
Curnow 2002 {published data only}
  • Curnrow MMT, Pine CM, Burnside G, Nicholson JA, Chesters RK, Huntington E. A randomised trial of the efficacy of supervised toothbrushing in high caries risk children. Caries Research 2002;36:294-300.
  • Pine CM, Curnrow MMT, Burnside G, Nicholson JA, Roberts AJ. Caries prevalence four years after the end of a randomised controlled trial. Caries Research 2007;41:431-6.
Cutress 1992 {published data only}
  • Cutress T, Tahiati Howell P, Finidori C, Abdullah F. Caries preventive effect of high fluoride and xylitol containing dentifrices. Journal of Dentistry for Children 1992;59(4):313-8.
De Paola 1993 {published data only}
  • DePaola PF, Soparkar PM, Triol C, Volpe AR, Garcia L, Duffy J, et al. The relative anticaries effectiveness of sodium monofluorophosphate and sodium fluoride as contained in currently available dentifrice formulations. American Journal of Dentistry 1993;6:S7-S12.
Dolles 1980 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dolles OK, Eriksen HM, Gjermo P. Tooth stain during 2 years' use of chlorhexidine - and fluoride-containing dentifrices. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1979;87:268-74.
  • Dolles OK, Gjermo P. Caries increment and gingival status during 2 years' use of chlorhexidine- and fluoride-containing dentifrices. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1980;88:22-7.
Downer 1976 {published data only}
Edlund 1977 {published data only}
  • Edlund K, Koch G. Effect on caries of daily supervised toothbrushing with sodium monofluorophosphate and sodium fluoride dentifrices after 3 years. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research 1977;85:41-5.
Ennever 1980 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Feng 2007 {published data only}
  • Feng Y, Yin W, Hu D, Zhang YP, Ellwood RP, Pretty IA. Assessment of autofluoressence to detect the remineralization capabilities of sodium fluoride monofluorophosphate and non-fluoride dentifrices. Caries Research 2007;41:358-64.
Finn 1963 {published data only}
  • Finn SB, Jamison HC. A comparative clinical study of three dentifrices. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 1963;30:17-25.
Frankl 1968 {published data only}
  • Frankl SN, Alman JE. Report of a three-year clinical trial comparing a toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate with two marketed products. Journal of Oral Therapeutics and Pharmacology 1968;4(6):443-50.
Gerdin 1972 {published data only}
  • Gerdin P. Studies in dentifrices VI: The inhibitory effect of some grinding and non-grinding fluoride dentifrices on dental caries. Swedish Dental Journal 1972;65:521-32.
Gish 1965 {published data only}
  • Gish CW, Muhler JC. Effect on dental caries in children in a natural fluoride area of combined use of three agents containing stannous fluoride: a prophylactic paste, a solution and a dentifrice. Journal of the American Dental Association 1965;70:914-20.
Hargreaves 1973 {published data only}
  • Hargreaves JA, Chester CG. Clinical trial among Scottish children of an anti-caries dentifrice containing 2 percent sodium monofluorophosphate. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 1973;1:47-57.
Heidmann 1997 {published data only}
Hill 1959 {published data only}
  • Hill TJ. Fluoride dentifrices. Journal of the American Dental Association 1959;59:1121-7.
Horowitz 1966 {published data only}
  • Horowitz HS, Chamberlin SR. Evaluation of a stannous fluoride dentifrice for use in dental public health programs. II. Operational procedures. Journal of the American Dental Association 1966;73:1090-4.
  • Horowitz HS, Law FE, Thompson MB, Chamberlain SR, Shirley R. Evaluation of a stannous fluoride dentifrice for use in dental public health programs. I. Basic findings. Journal of the American Dental Association 1966;72:408-21.
  • Horowitz HS, Thompson MB, Mary B. Evaluation of a stannous fluoride dentifrice for use in dental public health programs. III. Supplementary findings. Journal of the American Dental Association 1967;74:979-86.
Horowitz 1966a {published data only}
  • Horowitz HS, Lucye HS. A clinical study of stannous fluoride in a prophylaxis paste and as a solution. Journal of Oral Therapeutics and Pharmacology 1966;3(1):17-25.
Jordan 1959 {published data only}
  • Jordan WA, Peterson JK. Caries-inhibiting value of a dentifrice containing stannous fluoride: final report of a two year study. Journal of the American Dental Association 1959;58:42-4.
  • Jordan WA, Peterson JK. Caries-inhibiting value of a dentifrice containing stannous fluoride: first year report of a supervised toothbrushing study. Journal of the American Dental Association 1957;54:589-94.
Koch 1967 {published data only}
  • Hollender L, Koch G. Influence of topical application of fluoride on rate of progress of carious lesions in children. A long-term roentgenographic follow-up. Odontologisk Revy 1969;20:37-41.
  • Koch G. Effect of sodium fluoride in dentifrice and mouthwash on dental caries in school children. 8. Effect of daily supervised toothbrushing with a sodium fluoride dentifrice. A 3-year double-blind clinical test. Odontologisk Revy 1967;18:48-66.
  • Koch G. Effect of sodium fluoride in dentifrice and mouthwash on incidence of dental caries in school children. 9. Effect of unsupervised toothbrushing at home with sodium fluoride dentifrice. A 2-year double-blind clinical test. Odontologisk Revy 1967;18:67-71.
  • Koch G. Long-term study of effect of supervised toothbrushing with a sodium fluoride dentifrice. Caries Research 1970;4:149-57.
  • Koch G, Lindhe J. The effect of supervised oral hygiene on the gingiva of children. The effect of sodium fluoride. Journal of Periodontal Research 1967;2:64-9.
  • Koch G, Lindhe J. The state of the gingivae and the caries-increment in school-children during and after withdrawal of various prophylactic measures. In: McHugh WD editor(s). Dental Plaque. A Symposium Held at the University of Dundee, 22 to 24 September, 1969. Edinburgh and London: E & S Livingstone, 1970:271-81.
Koch 1972 {published data only}
  • Koch G. Comparison and estimation of effect on caries of daily supervised toothbrushing with a dentifrice containing sodium fluoride and a dentifrice containing potassium fluoride and manganese chloride. Odontologisk Revy 1972;23:341-54.
Koch 1982 {published data only}
Kunzel 1977 {published data only}
  • Franke W, Kunzel W, Treide A, Bluthner K. Caries prevention by means of aminofluoride after 7 years of collectively conducted oral hygiene [Karieshemmung durch Aminfluorid nach 7 Jahren kollektiv angeleiteter Mundhygiene]. Stomatologie der DDR 1977;27:13-6.
  • Franke W, Kunzel W, Treide A, Bluthner K. Longitudinal studies on the inhibition of caries by amine fluoride within the framework of guided and supervised oral hygiene actions [Langsschnittstudien zur Karieshemmung durch Aminfluorid im Rahmen angeleiteter und uberwachter Mundhygiene-Aktionen]. Stomatologie der DDR 1976;26:532-7.
  • Franke W, Kunzel W, Treide A, Bluthner K. Wirkungsweise und effwktivitat lokal applizierter aminofluoride zur kariespravention. Medicamentum 1975;16:362.
  • Geiger L, Kunzel W, Treide A. Comparative clinical-radiological studies on the increase of caries after controlled mouth hygiene with aminofluoride [Vergleichende klinisch-rontgenologische Untersuchungen uber den Karieszuwachs nach kontrollierter Mundhygiene mit Aminfluorid]. Deutsch Stomatologie 1971;21:132-5.
  • Kunzel W. Comparative clinical and x-ray study of the cariostatic effectiveness of aminofluorides [Sravnitel'noe kliniko-rentgenologicheskoe issledovanie protivokarioznoi effektivnosti aminoftoridov]. Stomatologiia Mosk 1980;59:67-70.
  • Kunzel W, Franke W, Treide A. Clinical-radiological parallel control of a longitudinal study of the anti-caries effect of aminofluoride applied locally for 7 years in a double-blind test [Klinisch-rontgenologische Paralleluberwachung einer Langsschnittstudie zum Nachweis der Karieshemmenden Effektivitat 7 Jahre lokal angewandten Aminfluorids im Doppelblindtest]. Zahn Mund und Kieferheilkund mit Zentralblatt 1977;65:626-37.
Kyes 1961 {published data only}
Lu 1985 {published data only}
  • Lu KH, Yen DJ, Zacherl WA, Ruhlman CD, Sturzenberger OP, Lehnhoff RW. The effect of a fluoride dentifrice containing an anticalculus agent on dental caries in children. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children 1985;52:449-51.
Mergele 1968a {published data only}
  • Mergele M. A supervised brushing study in state institution schools. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 1968;14:247-50.
Moller 1968 {published data only}
  • Bay I, Moller IJ. The effect of a sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice on the gingiva. Journal of Periodontal Research 1969;4:103-8.
  • Moller IJ, Holst JJ, Sorensen E. Caries reducing effect of a sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice. British Dental Journal 1968;124:209-13.
  • Moller IJ, Holst JJ, Sorensen E. Effect of a toothpaste containing sodium monofluorophosphate with controlled toothbrushing [Effekten af en natriummonofluorfosfatholdig tandpasta ved kontrolleret tandborstning]. Tandlaegebladet 1968;72:705-17.
Muhler 1958 {published data only}
  • Muhler JC. The effect of a modified stannous fluoride-calcium pyrophosphate dentifrice on dental caries in children. Journal of Dental Research 1958;37:448-50.
Muhler 1960 {published data only}
  • Muhler JC. Combined anticariogenic effect of a single stannous fluoride solution and the unsupervised use of a stannous fluoride-containing dentifrice II. Results at the end of three years. Journal of Dental Research 1960;39:955-8.
  • Muhler JC. The combined anticariogenic effect of a single stannous fluoride treatment and the unsupervised use of a stannous fluoride-containing dentifrice. Journal of Dental Research 1959;38:994-7.
Murray 1980 {published data only}
Onisi 1970 {published data only}
  • Onisi M, Tani H. Clinical trial on the reduction of caries incidence by use of two different fluoride dentifrices. Koku Eisei Gakkai Zasshi 1970;20:105-11.
Patz 1970 {published data only}
  • Patz J, Naujoks R. The caries prophylactic effect of an aminofluoride containing toothpaste in adolescents after 3 years of controlled use [Die kariesprophylaktische Wirkung einer aminfluoridhaltigen Zahnpaste bei Jugendlichen nach dreijahrigem unuberwachten Gebrauch]. Deutsche Zahnarztliche Zeitschrift 1970;25:617-25.
Peffley 1960 {published data only}
  • Peffley GE, Muhler JC. Effect of a commercial stannous fluoride dentifrice under controlled bruhing habits on dental caries incidence in children: preliminary report. Journal of Dental Research 1960;39:871-4.
Petersson 1991 {published data only}
  • Petersson LG, Borkhed D, Gleerup A, Johansson M, Jonsson G. Caries-preventive effect of dentifrices containing various types and concentrations of fluorides and sugar alcohols. Caries Research 1991;25:74-9.
Ran 1991 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Riethe 1975 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Riethe P, Schubring G. Clinical studies on a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste in school children [Klinische Prufung einer Natriummonofluorphosphat-Zahnpaste an Schulkindern]. Deutsche Zahnarztliche Zeitschrift 1975;30:513-7.
Ripa 1990 {published data only}
  • Ripa LW, Leske GS, Triol CW, Volpe AR. Clinical study of the anticaries efficacy of three fluoride dentifrices containing anticalculus ingredients: Three year (final) results. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 1990;2(2):29-33.
  • Triol CW, Ripa LW, Leske GS, Volpe AR. A clinical study of the anticaries efficacy of three fluoride dentifrices containing anticalculus ingredients: one and two-year results. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 1988;1:48-50.
Saporito 2000 {published data only}
  • Saporito RA, Boneta ARE, Feldman CA, Cinotti W, Sintes JL, Stewart B, et al. Comparative anticaries efficacy of sodium fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrices. A two-year clinical trial on children in New Jersey and Puerto Rico. American Journal of Dentistry 2000;13(4):221-6.
Sjorgren 1995 {published data only}
Stookey 1975 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
Tavener 2006 {published data only}
  • Tavener JA, Davies GM, Davies RM, Ellwood RP. The prevalence and severity of fluorosis in children who received toothpaste containing either 440 or 1450 ppm F from the age of 12 months in deprived and less deprived communities. Caries Research 2006;40:66-72.
Thomas 1970 {published data only}
  • Thomas AE, Jamison HC. Effect of a combination of two cariostatic agents in children: two-year clinical study of supervised brushing in children's homes. Journal of the American Dental Association 1970;81(1):118-24.
Triol 1987 {published data only}
  • Triol CW, Mandanas BY, Juliano GF, Yraolo B, Cano-Arevalo M, Volpe AR. A clinical study of children comparing anticaries effect of two fluoride dentifrices. A 31-month study. Clinical Preventive Dentistry 1987;9(2):22-4.
You 2002 {published data only}
  • You BJ, Jian WW, Sheng RW, Jun Q, Wa WC, Bartizek RD, et al. Caries prevention in Chinese children with a sodium fluoride dentifrice delivered through a kindergarten-based oral health program in China. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 2002;13:179-84.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Horowitz 1976 {published data only}

 

Kinkel 1968 {published data only}
  • Kinkel HJ, Stolte G. On the effect of a sodium monofluorophosphate-bromochlorophenol containing toothpaste in a chronic animal experiment and on caries in children during a 2-year long unsupervised use [Xur Wirkung einer natriummonofluorophosphat- und bromchlorophenhaltigen Zahnpasta im chronischen Tierexperiment und auf die Karies bei Kindern wahrend eines zqei Jahre langen, unuberwachten Gebrauches]. Deutsche Zahnarzteblatt 1968;22:455-60.
Takeuchi 1968 {published data only}
  • Takeuchi M, Shimizu T, Kawasaki T, Kizu T. A field study effect of a dentifrice containing sodium monofluorophosphate in caries prevention. Koku Eisei Gakkai Zasshi 1968;18:26-38.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abrams 1972
Ammari 2003
  • Ammari AB, Bloch-Zupan A, Ashley PF. Systematic review of studies comparing the anti-caries efficacy of children's toothpaste containing 600 ppm of fluoride or less with high fluoride toothpastes of 1,000 ppm or above. Caries Research 2003;37(2):85-92.
Bartizek 2001
  • Bartizek RD, Gerlach RW, Faller RV, Jacobs SA, Bollmer BW, Biesbrock AR. Reduction in dental caries with four concentrations of sodium fluoride in a dentifrice: a meta-analysis evaluation. Journal of Clinical Dentistry 2001;12(3):57-62.
Clarkson 1993
  • Clarkson JE, Ellwood RP, Chandler RE. A comprehensive summary of fluoride dentifrice caries clinical trials. American Journal of Dentistry 1993;6 Spec No:S59-106.
Cooper 2006
  • Cooper NJ, Sutton AJ, Lu G, Khunti K. Mixed comparison of stroke prevention treatments in individuals with nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. Archives of Internal Medicine 2006;166(12):1269-75.
Davies 2002
  • Davies GM, Worthington HV, Ellwood RP, Bentley EM, Blinkhorn AS, Taylor GO, et al. A randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of providing free fluoride toothpaste from the age of 12 months on reducing caries in 5-6 year old children. Community Dental Health 2002;19(3):131-6.
DoH 2007
  • Department of Health/British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. Delivering better oral health: An evidence-based toolkit for prevention. Department of Health 2007.
EAPD 2009
  • European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. EAPD guidelines on early childhood caries (ECC). www.eapd.gr 2009.
FDI World Dental Federation 2006
  • FDI World Dental Federation. Oral health through fluoride. www.fdiworldental.org/public_health/3_2fluoride.html. 2006.
Higgins 2008
  • Higgins J, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 5.0.1 (updated September 2008). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from: www.cochrane-handbook.org.
IADR/WHO/BASCD 2005
  • IADR/WHO/BASCD. The Liverpool declaration: promoting oral health in the 21st century. www.who.int/oral_health/events/liverpool_declaration/en/index.html 2005.
Jansen 2006
Lancet 2009
  • Editorial. Oral health: prevention is key. Lancet 2009;373(9657):1.
Marinho 2002
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride varnishes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002279]
Marinho 2003
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels or varnishes) for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002782]
Marinho 2004
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Sheiham A, Logan S. Combinations of topical fluoride (toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, varnishes) versus single topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002781.pub2]
Marinho a 2002
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride gels for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2002, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002280]
Marinho a 2003
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Logan S, Sheiham A. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002284]
Marinho a 2004
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Sheiham A, Logan S. One topical fluoride (toothpastes, or mouthrinses, or gels, or varnishes) versus another for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002780.pub2]
Marinho b 2003
  • Marinho VCC, Higgins JPT, Sheiham A, Logan S. Fluoride toothpastes for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2003, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002278]
Petersen 2003
Petersen 2009
Steiner 2004
  • Steiner M, Helfenstein U, Menghini G. Effect of 1000 ppm relative to 250 ppm fluoride toothpaste. A meta-analysis. American Journal of Dentistry 2004;17(2):85-8.
Twetman 2003
  • Twetman S, Axelsson S, Dahlgren H, Holm AK, Kallestal C, Lagerlof F, et al. Caries-preventive effect of fluoride toothpaste: a systematic review. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 2003;61(6):347-55.
Wong 2010