Phenylketonuria results from a deficiency of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. Dietary restriction of phenylalanine keeps blood phenylalanine concentration low. Most natural foods are excluded from diet and supplements are used to supply other nutrients. Recent publications report a decrease in blood phenylalanine concentration in some patients treated with sapropterin dihydrochloride. We examined the evidence for the use of sapropterin dihydrochloride to treat phenylketonuria.