This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows:
We will evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous techniques (PT) for tracheostomy.
We will compare these techniques (PDT, GWDF, and other) to standard surgical procedures (ST) commonly used for tracheostomy.
Where feasible, we will also assess:
1. in our subgroup analysis, whether these possible differences can be verified in all the collectives (patients and underlying disorders, experienced or inexperienced doctor who carried out the procedure), and settings (intensive care unit (ICU) or operation room, patient sedated or in narcosis);
2. whether the PTs for tracheostomy are equally effective and safe compared to ST; and
3. whether differences can be proven for PT procedures carried out with or without bronchoscopic guidance.