Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Transtheoretical model stages of change for dietary and physical exercise modification in weight loss management for overweight and obese adults

  1. Nikolaos Mastellos1,
  2. Laura H Gunn2,
  3. Lambert M Felix3,
  4. Josip Car1,
  5. Azeem Majeed4,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group

Published Online: 5 FEB 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 17 DEC 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008066.pub3

How to Cite

Mastellos N, Gunn LH, Felix LM, Car J, Majeed A. Transtheoretical model stages of change for dietary and physical exercise modification in weight loss management for overweight and obese adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008066. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008066.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Imperial College London, Global eHealth Unit, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, London, Hammersmith, UK

  2. 2

    Stetson University, Integrative Health Science, DeLand, Florida, USA

  3. 3

    School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Global eHealth Unit, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, London, UK

  4. 4

    Imperial College London, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, London, UK

*Azeem Majeed, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, The Reynolds Building, Charing Cross Campus, St Dunstan's Road, London, W6 8RP, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 5 FEB 2014



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Johnson 2008 {published data only}
  • Johnson SS, Paiva AL, Cummins CO, Johnson JL, Dyment SJ, Wright JA, et al. Transtheoretical model-based multiple behavior intervention for weight management: effectiveness on a population basis. Preventive Medicine 2008;46(3):238-46. [: ISSN: 0091-7435]
Jones 2003 {published data only}
Logue 2005 {published data only}

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Albright 2012 {published data only}
  • Albright CL, Steffen AD, Novotny R, Nigg CR, Wilkens LR, Saiki K, et al. Baseline results from Hawaii's Na Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women. Women and Health 2012;52(3):265-91.
Annunziato 2009 {published data only}
  • Annunziato RA, Timko CA, Crerand CE, Didie ER, Bellace DL, Phelan S, et al. A randomized trial examining differential meal replacement adherence in a weight loss maintenance program after one-year follow-up. Eating Behaviors 2009;10(3):176-83. [: ISSN: 1471-0153]
Anton 2011 {published data only}
  • Anton SD, Manini TM, Milsom VA, Dubyak P, Cesari M, Cheng J, et al. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Interventions in Aging 2011; Vol. 6:141-9.
Arrebola 2011 {published data only}
  • Arrebola E, Gomez-Candela C, Fernandez-Fernandez C, Loria V, Munoz-Perez E, Bermejo L M. Evaluation of a lifestyle modification program for treatment of overweight and nonmorbid obesity in primary healthcare and its influence on health-related quality of life. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2011;26(3):316-21.
Bennett 2010 {published data only}
Bibeau 2008 {published data only}
  • Bibeau WS, Moore JB, Caudill P, Topp R. Case study of a transtheoretical case management approach to addressing childhood obesity. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 2008;23(2):92-100. [PUBMED: 18339335]
Blalock 2002 {published data only}
Bonner 1997 {published data only}
  • Bonner M. Stages of change, job satisfaction, weight, and activity at two work-site wellness programs. Southern Mississippi, USA: Univ. of Southern Mississippi, 1997.
Bourke 2011 {published data only}
  • Bourke L, Thompson G, Gibson DJ, Daley A, Crank H, Adam I, et al. Pragmatic lifestyle intervention in patients recovering from colon cancer: a randomized controlled pilot study. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2011;92(5):749-55.
Burke 2002 {published data only}
Carlson 2012 {published data only}
  • Carlson JA, Sallis JF, Ramirez ER, Patrick K, Norman GJ. Physical activity and dietary behavior change in Internet-based weight loss interventions: comparing two multiple-behavior change indices. Preventive Medicine 2012;54(1):50-4.
Chin 2002 {published data only}
  • Chin AP, de Jong N, Schouten EG, Van Staveren WA, Kok FJ. Physical exercise or micronutrient supplementation for the wellbeing of the frail elderly? a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2002;36(2):126-31. [DOI: 10.1136/bjsm.36.2.126]
Christensen 2011 {published data only}
  • Christensen JR, Faber A, Ekner D, Overgaard K, Holtermann A, Sogaard K. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:671.
Clark 2011 {published data only}
  • Clark PG, Blissmer BJ, Greene GW, Lees FD, Riebe DA, Stamm KE. Maintaining exercise and healthful eating in older adults: the SENIOR project II: study design and methodology. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2011; Vol. 32, issue 1:129-39.
Cleanthous 2011 {published data only}
  • Cleanthous X, Noakes M, Brinkworth GD, Keogh JB, Williams G, Clifton PM. A pilot comprehensive lifestyle intervention program (CLIP)--comparison with qualitative lifestyle advice and simvastatin on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight hypercholesterolaemic individuals. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 2011;21(3):165-72.
Coday 2002 {published data only}
  • Coday M, Klesges LM, Garrison RJ, Johnson KC, O'Toole M, Morris GS. Health opportunities with physical exercise (HOPE): social contextual interventions to reduce sedentary behavior in urban settings. Health Education Research 2002;17(5):637-47. [PUBMED: 12408208]
Coleman 2012 {published data only}
  • Coleman KJ, Farrell MA, Rocha DA, Hayashi T, Hernandez M, Wolf J, Lindsay S. Readiness to be physically active and self-reported physical activity in low-income Latinas, California WISEWOMAN, 2006-2007. Preventive Chronic Disease 2012;9:e87.
Collins 2011 {published data only}
  • Collins CE, Morgan PJ, Warren JM, Lubans DR, Callister R. Men participating in a weight-loss intervention are able to implement key dietary messages, but not those relating to vegetables or alcohol: the Self-Help, Exercise and Diet using Internet Technology (SHED-IT) study. Public Health Nutrition 2011;14(1):168-75.
Craigie 2011a {published data only}
  • Craigie AM, Barton KL, Macleod M, Williams B, van Teijlingen E, Belch JJ, Anderson AS, HealthForce Team. A feasibility study of a personalised lifestyle programme (HealthForce) for individuals who have participated in cardiovascular risk screening. Preventive Medicine 2011;52(5):387-9.
Craigie 2011b {published data only}
  • Craigie AM, Caswell S, Paterson C, Treweek S. Study protocol for BeWEL: The impact of a body weight and physical activity intervention on adults at risk of developing colorectal adenomas. BMC Public Health 2011;11:184.
Dallow 2003 {published data only}
  • Dallow CB, Anderson J. Using self-efficacy and a transtheoretical model to develop a physical activity intervention for obese women. American Journal of Health Promotion 2003;17(6):373-81. [: ISSN:0890-1171]
Dekkers 2011 {published data only}
  • Dekkers JC, van Wier MF, Ariens GA, Hendriksen IJ, Pronk NP, Smid T, et al. Comparative effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on cardiovascular risk factors among a Dutch overweight working population: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11(1):49.
Demark-Wahnefried 2008 {published data only}
  • Demark-Wahnefried W, Case LD, Blackwell K, Marcom PK, Kraus W, Aziz N, et al. Results of a diet/exercise feasibility trial to prevent adverse body composition change in breast cancer patients on adjuvant chemotherapy. Clinical Breast Cancer 2008;8(1):70-9. [: ISSN: 1526-8209]
Demark-Wahnefried 2012 {published data only}
  • Demark-Wahnefried W, Morey MC, Sloane R, Snyder DC, Miller PE, Hartman TJ, et al. Reach out to enhance wellness home-based diet-exercise intervention promotes reproducible and sustainable long-term improvements in health behaviors, body weight, and physical functioning in older, overweight/obese cancer survivors. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2012;30(19):2354-61.
Desouza 2012 {published data only}
De Vet 2007 {published data only}
Digenio 2009 {published data only}
  • Digenio AG, Mancuso JP, Gerber RA, Dvorak RV. Comparison of methods for delivering a lifestyle modification program for obese patients: a randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009;150(4):255-62. [: ISSN:1539-3704 ]
Dinger 2007 {published data only}
  • Dinger MK, Heesch KC, Cipriani G, Qualls M. Comparison of two email-delivered,pedometer-based interventions to promote walking among insufficiently active women. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 2007;10:297-302.
Donnelly 2008 {published data only}
DPPRG 2009 {published data only}
Drieling 2011 {published data only}
  • Drieling RL, Ma J, Stafford RS. Evaluating clinic and community-based lifestyle interventions for obesity reduction in a low-income Latino neighborhood: Vivamos Activos Fair Oaks Program. BMC Public Health 2011;11:98.
Eriksson 2009 {published data only}
Estabrook 2012 {published data only}
  • Estabrook B, Zapka J, Lemon SC. Evaluating the implementation of a hospital work-site obesity prevention intervention: applying the RE-AIM framework. Health Promotion Practice 2012;13(2):190-7.
Feldman 2000 {published data only}
Fernandez 2009 {published data only}
  • Fernandez RS, Davidson P, Griffiths R, Juergens C, Stafford B, Salamonson Y. A pilot randomised controlled trial comparing a health-related lifestyle self-management intervention with standard cardiac rehabilitation following an acute cardiac event: implications for a larger clinical trial. Australian Critical Care 2009;22(1):17-27. [: ISSN:1036-7314]
Ferrara 2011 {published data only}
  • Ferrara A, Hedderson MM, Albright CL, Ehrlich SF, Quesenberry Jr CP, Peng T, et al. A pregnancy and postpartum lifestyle intervention in women with gestational diabetes mellitus reduces diabetes risk factors: a feasibility randomized control trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1519-25.
Ferre 2012 {published data only}
  • Ferre R, Plana N, Merino J, Aragones G, Girona J, Heras M, et al. Effects of therapeutic lifestyle changes on peripheral artery tonometry in patients with abdominal obesity. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 2012;22(2):95-102.
Finckenor 2000 {published data only}
Fitch 2012 {published data only}
  • Fitch K, Abbara S, Lee H, Stavrou E, Sacks R, Michel T, et al. Effects of lifestyle modification and metformin on atherosclerotic indices among HIV-infected patients with the metabolic syndrome. AIDS 2012;26(5):587-97.
Folta 2009 {published data only}
  • Folta SC, Lichtenstein AH, Seguin RA, Goldberg JP, Kuder JF, Nelson ME. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program: reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in rural sedentary, overweight, and obese midlife and older women. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(7):1271-7. [: ISSN: 1541-0048]
Fortier 2011 {published data only}
  • Fortier MS, Hogg W, O'Sullivan TL, Blanchard C, Sigal RJ, Reid RD, et al. Impact of integrating a physical activity counsellor into the primary health care team: physical activity and health outcomes of the Physical Activity Counselling randomized controlled trial. Applied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism 2011;36(4):503-14.
Fox 2009 {published data only}
Foy 2011 {published data only}
Frisch 2009 {published data only}
  • Frisch S, Zittermann A, Berthold HK, Gotting C, Kuhn J, Kleesiek K, et al. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of carbohydrate-reduced or fat-reduced diets in patients attending a tele-medically guided weight loss program. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2009;8(36):1-10. [DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-8-36]
Gill 1998 {published data only}
  • Gill DS. Testing a biopsychosocial model of health behavior: a community intervention for reducing obesity in Mexican-American women. Los Angeles, USA: University of California, 1998. [: ISSN: 0419-4217]
Glanz 1994 {published data only}
  • Glanz K, Patterson RE, Kristal AR, DiClemente CC, Heimendinger JL, McLerran DF. Stages of change in adopting healthy diets: fat, fiber, and correlates of nutrient intake. Health Education Quarterly 1994;21(4):499-519. [: ISSN: 0195-8402]
Gögebakan 2011 {published data only}
  • Gögebakan O, Kohl A, Osterhoff MA, van Baak MA, Jebb SA, Papadaki A, et al. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors: the diet, obesity, and genes (DiOGenes) study: a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 2011; Vol. 124, issue 25:2829-38.
Greene 1998 {published data only}
Groeneveld 2011a {published data only}
  • Groeneveld IF, Proper KI, van der Beek AJ, Hildebrandt VH, van Mechelen W. Short and long term effects of a lifestyle intervention for construction workers at risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:836.
Groeneveld 2011b {published data only}
  • Groeneveld IF, van Wier MF, Proper KI, Bosmans JE, van Mechelen W, van der Beek AJ. Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of a lifestyle intervention for workers in the construction industry at risk for cardiovascular disease. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011;53(6):610-7.
Gusi 2008 {published data only}
Hageman 2011 {published data only}
  • Hageman PA, Pullen CH, Hertzog M, Boeckner LS, Walker SN. Web-based interventions for weight loss and weight maintenance among rural midlife and older women: protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:521.
Heideman 2011 {published data only}
  • Heideman WH, Nierkens V, Stronks K, Middelkoop BJ, Twisk JW, Verhoeff AP, et al. DiAlert: a lifestyle education programme aimed at people with a positive family history of type 2 diabetes and overweight, study protocol of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:751.
Hersberger 2006 {published data only}
  • Hersberger KE, Botomino A, Mancini M, Bruppacher R. Sequential screening for diabetes-evaluation of a campaign in Swiss community pharmacies. Pharmacy World and Science 2006;28(3):171-9. [: ISSN:0928-1231]
Hughes 2011 {published data only}
  • Hughes SL, Seymour RB, Campbell RT, Shaw JW, Fabiyi C, Sokas R. Comparison of two health-promotion programs for older workers. American Journal of Public Health 2011;101(5):883-90.
Hui 2012 {published data only}
Huisman 2009 {published data only}
  • Huisman S, De GV, Maes S, Schroevers M, Chatrou M, Haak H. Self-regulation and weight reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes: a pilot intervention study. Patient Education and Counseling 2008;75(1):84-90. [: ISSN:0738-3991]
Hussien 2007 {published data only}
  • Hussien SM. Impact of a culturally-sensitive lifestyle intervention on reducing risk factors for type 2 diabetes in arab Canadian muslim women. London, Ontario: Univ. of Western Ontario, 2007. [: ISSN: 0419-4209]
Imayama 2011 {published data only}
  • Imayama I, Alfano CM, Kong A, Foster-Schubert KE, Bain CE, Xiao L, et al. Dietary weight loss and exercise interventions effects on quality of life in overweight/obese postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011;8:118.
Irvine 2011 {published data only}
  • Irvine AB, Philips L, Seeley J, Wyant S, Duncan S, Moore RW. Get moving: a web site that increases physical activity of sedentary employees. American Journal of Health Promotion 2011;25(3):199-206.
Irwin 2004 {published data only}
  • Irwin ML, Tworoger SS, Yasui Y, Rajan B, McVarish L, LaCroix K, et al. Influence of demographic, physiologic, and psychosocial variables on adherence to a yearlong moderate-intensity exercise trial in postmenopausal women. Preventive Medicine 2004;39(6):1080-6. [: ISSN: 0091-7435]
Jackson 2011 {published data only}
  • Jackson RA, Stotland NE, Caughey AB, Gerbert B. Improving diet and exercise in pregnancy with Video Doctor counseling: a randomized trial. Patient Education and Counseling 2011;83(2):203-9.
Jacobs 2011a {published data only}
  • Jacobs N, Clays E, De Bacquer D, De Backer G, Dendale P, Thijs H, et al. Effect of a tailored behavior change program on a composite lifestyle change score: a randomized controlled trial. Health Edcuation Research 2011;26(5):886-95.
Jacobs 2011b {published data only}
  • Jacobs N, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Thijs H, Dendale P, Claes N. Effect of a cardiovascular prevention program on health behavior and BMI in highly educated adults: a randomized controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling 2011;85(1):122-6.
Jakicic 2012 {published data only}
  • Jakicic JM, Tate DF, Lang W, Davis KK, Polzien K, Rickman AD, et al. Effect of a stepped-care intervention approach on weight loss in adults: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 2012;307(24):2617-26.
Jeffery 1999 {published data only}
Jeffery and French 1999 {published data only}
Jimmy 2005 {published data only}
Johnson 2006 {published data only}
  • Johnson SS, Driskell MM, Johnson JL, Dyment SJ, Prochaska JO, Prochaska JM, et al. Transtheoretical model intervention for adherence to lipid-lowering drugs. Disease Management 2006;9(2):102-14. [DOI: 10.1089/dis.2006.9.102]
Jones 2005 {published data only}
Jonsson 2009 {published data only}
Kallings 2009 {published data only}
  • Kallings LV, Leijon ME, Kowalski J, Hellenius ML, Stahle A. Self-reported adherence: a method for evaluating prescribed physical activity in primary health care patients. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2009;6(4):483-92. [: ISSN: 1543-3080]
Katula 2011 {published data only}
  • Katula JA, Vitolins MZ, Rosenberger EL, Blackwell CS, Morgan TM, Lawlor MS, et al. One-year results of a community-based translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program: Healthy-Living Partnerships to Prevent Diabetes (HELP PD) Project. Diabetes Care 2011;34(7):1451-7.
Kelly 2005 {published data only}
  • Kelly CW. Commitment to health scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement 2005;13(3):219-29. [: ISSN:1061-3749]
Kennedy 2009 {published data only}
  • Kennedy BM, Champagne CM, Ryan DH, Newton Jr, Conish BK, Harsha DW, et al. The "Rolling Store": an economical and environmental approach to the prevention of weight gain in African American women. Ethnicity and Disease 2009;19(1):7-12. [: ISSN:1049-510X]
Keranen 2009 {published data only}
  • Keranen AM, Savolainen MJ, Reponen AH, Kujari ML, Lindeman SM, Bloigu RS, et al. The effect of eating behavior on weight loss and maintenance during a lifestyle intervention. Preventive Medicine 2009;49(1):32-8. [: ISSN: 1096-0260]
Kim 2011 {published data only}
  • Kim CJ, Kim DJ, Park HR. Effects of a cardiovascular risk reduction intervention with psycho-behavioral strategies for Korean adults with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2011;26(2):117-28.
Kim 2013 {published data only}
  • Kim CJ, Kang S. Development and a pilot test of an internet-based cardiovascular risk reduction program for Korean male workers with metabolic syndrome. CIN - Computers Informatics Nursing 2013;31(4):157-66.
Kirk 2003 {published data only}
Korpi-Hyovalti 2011 {published data only}
  • Korpi-Hyovalti EA, Laaksonen DE, Schwab US, Vanhapiha TH, Vihla KR, Heinonen ST, et al. Feasibility of a lifestyle intervention in early pregnancy to prevent deterioration of glucose tolerance. BMC Public Health 2011;11:179.
Kraschnewski 2011 {published data only}
  • Kraschnewski JL, Stuckey HL, Rovniak LS, Lehman EB, Reddy M, Poger JM, et al. Efficacy of a weight-loss website based on positive deviance. A randomized trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011;41(6):610-4.
Kris-etherton 2002 {published data only}
  • Kris-Etherton PM, Taylor DS, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, Berkhuis TC, Olson BH, et al. High-soluble-fiber foods in conjunction with a telephone-based, personalized behavior change support service result in favorable changes in lipids and lifestyles after 7 weeks. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2002;102(4):503-10. [: ISSN:0002-8223]
Kumanyika 2011 {published data only}
  • Kumanyika S, Fassbender J, Phipps E, Tan-Torres S, Localio R, Morales KH, et al. Design, recruitment and start up of a primary care weight loss trial targeting African American and Hispanic adults. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2011; Vol. 32, issue 2:215-24.
Laforge 1994 {published data only}
Latka 2009 {published data only}
Lee 1996 {published data only}
  • Lee AC. Predictors of behavioural risk factors modification in patients recovering from acute coronary heart disease. Ottawa, Canada: University of Ottawa, 1996.
Lee 2009 {published data only}
Lee 2012 {published data only}
  • Lee RE, O'Connor DP, Smith-Ray R, Mama SK, Medina AV, Reese-Smith JY, et al. Mediating effects of group cohesion on physical activity and diet in women of color: health is power. American Journal of Health Promotion 2012;26(4):e116-25.
Leichtle 2011 {published data only}
  • Leichtle AB, Helmschrodt C, Ceglarek U, Shai I, Henkin Y, Schwarzfuchs D, et al. Effects of a 2-y dietary weight-loss intervention on cholesterol metabolism in moderately obese men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011;94(5):1189-95.
Lim 2011 {published data only}
  • Lim SS, Norman RJ, Clifton PM, Noakes M. The effect of comprehensive lifestyle intervention or metformin on obesity in young women. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 2011;21(4):261-8.
Luley 2011 {published data only}
  • Luley C, Blaik A, Reschke K, Klose S, Westphal S. Weight loss in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of telemonitoring plus a diet combination - the Active Body Control (ABC) Program. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 2011;91(3):286-92.
Luoto 2011 {published data only}
  • Luoto R, Kinnunen TI, Aittasalo M, Kolu P, Raitanen J, Ojala K, et al. Primary prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus and large-for-gestational-age newborns by lifestyle counseling: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLOS Medicine 2011;8:e1001036.
Ma 2009 {published data only}
  • Ma J, King AC, Wilson SR, Xiao L, Stafford RS. Evaluation of lifestyle interventions to treat elevated cardiometabolic risk in primary care (E-LITE): a randomized controlled trial. BioMed Central Family Practice 2009;10(71):1-12. [PUBMED: 19909549]
Macrodimitris 2005 {published data only}
  • Macrodimitris SD. Predicting motivational readiness to change lifestyle practices in individuals at risk for heart disease. Predicting motivational readiness to change lifestyle practices in individuals at risk for heart disease. Toronto Ontario, Canada: University of York, 2005.
Mardones 2009 {published data only}
  • Mardones H, MaOlivares CS, Araneda FJ, Gomez FN. Stages of change related to fruit and vegetables consumption, physical activity, and weight control in Chilean university students [Etapas del cambio relacionadas con el consumo de frutas y verduras, actividad física y control del peso en estudiantes universitarios chilenos]. Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutricion 2009;59(3):304-9. [: ISSN: 0004-0622]
Martin 2007 {published data only}
  • Martin MY, Prayor-Patterson H, Kratt P, Kim Y, Person S. Characteristics of insufficiently active hypertensive black women who volunteer to be in a physical activity promotion intervention: an application of social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical model. Ethnicity and Disease 2007;17(4):604-10. [: ISSN: 1049-510X]
McDermott 2012 {published data only}
  • McDermott S, Whitner W, Thomas-Koger M, Mann JR, Clarkson J, Barnes TL, et al. An efficacy trial of 'Steps to Your Health', a health promotion programme for adults with intellectual disability. Health Education Journal 2012;71(3):278-90.
McTiernan 1999 {published data only}
  • McTiernan A, Ulrich CM, Yancey D, Slate S, Nakamura H, Oestreicher N, et al. The Physical Activity for Total Health (PATH) study: rationale and design. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 1999;31(9):1307-12. [: ISSN:0195-9131]
Merriam 2009 {published data only}
  • Merriam PA, Ma Y, Olendzki BC, Schneider KL, Li W, Ockene IS, et al. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality. BioMed Central Medical Research Methodology 2009;9(87):1-10. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2288-9-87]
Methapatara 2011 {published data only}
  • Methapatara W, Srisurapanont M. Pedometer walking plus motivational interviewing program for Thai schizophrenic patients with obesity or overweight: a 12-week, randomized, controlled trial. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 2011; Vol. 65, issue 4:374-80.
Monteiro 2011 {published data only}
  • Monteiro SM, Jancey J, Howat P, Burns S, Jones C, Dhaliwal SS, et al. The protocol of a randomized controlled trial for playgroup mothers: Reminder on Food, Relaxation, Exercise, and Support for Health (REFRESH) Program. BMC Public Health 2011;11:648.
Morgan 2009 {published data only}
Morgan 2011 {published data only}
  • Morgan PJ, Lubans DR, Callister R, Okely AD, Burrows TL, Fletcher R, et al. The 'Healthy Dads, Healthy Kids' randomized controlled trial: efficacy of a healthy lifestyle program for overweight fathers and their children. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35(3):436-47.
Munakata 2011 {published data only}
  • Munakata M, Honma H, Akasi M, Araki T, Kawamura T, Kubota M, et al. Repeated counselling improves the antidiabetic effects of limited individualized lifestyle guidance in metabolic syndrome: J-STOP-METS final results. Hypertension Research 2011;34(5):612-6.
Nakade 2012 {published data only}
  • Nakade M, Aiba N, Suda N, Morita A, Miyachi M, Sasaki S, Watanabe S. Behavioral change during weight loss program and one-year follow-up: Saku Control Obesity Program (SCOP) in Japan. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2012;21(1):22-34.
Nakata 2011 {published data only}
  • Nakata Y, Okada M, Hashimoto K, Harada Y, Sone H, Tanaka K. Comparison of education-only versus group-based intervention in promoting weight loss: a randomised controlled trial. Obesity Facts 2011;4(3):222-8.
Nanchahal 2009 {published data only}
  • Nanchahal K, Townsend J, Letley L, Haslam D, Wellings K, Haines A. Weight-management interventions in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice 2009;59(562):e157-66. [: ISSN:1478-5242]
Nicklas 2012 {published data only}
  • Nicklas BJ, Gaukstern JE, Legault C, Leng I, Rejeski WJ. Intervening on spontaneous physical activity to prevent weight regain in older adults: design of a randomized, clinical trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2012;33(2):450-5.
Nilsen 2011 {published data only}
  • Nilsen V, Bakke PS, Gallefoss F. Effects of lifestyle intervention in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus - results from a randomised, controlled trial. BMC Public Health 2011;11:893.
Oden 2005 {published data only}
  • Oden MP. The relationship between awareness of cardiac risk factors, physical activity level, telephone intervention, and health behavior change in African-American women. Ohio, USA: Union Institute and University Graduate College, 2005. [: ISBN:97804969430510]
Ostbye 2009 {published data only}
Ostbye 2011 {published data only}
  • Ostbye T, Zucker NL, Krause KM, Lovelady CA, Evenson KR, Peterson BL, et al. Kids and Adults Now! Defeat Obesity (KAN-DO): rationale, design and baseline characteristics. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2011;32(3):461-9.
Ostendorf 1998 {published data only}
  • Ostendorf WR. Use of behavioral stage-of-change and preference for weight loss interventions as a system for client-matching treatment of obesity. Sarasota, USA: University of Sarasota, 1998. [: ISSN:0419-4209]
O’Connell 1988 {published data only}
  • O'Connell D, Velicer WF. A decisional balance measure and the stages of change model for weight loss. International Journal of the Addictions 1988;23(7):729-50. [: ISSN:0020-773X]
Pace 2013 {published data only}
  • Pace WD, Lanigan AM, Staton EW, Graham DG, Manning BK, Dickinson LM, et al. Effectiveness of 2 methods of promoting physical activity, healthy eating, and emotional well-being with the Americans in motion-healthy interventions approach. Annals of Family Medicine 2013;11(4):371-80.
Parikh 2012 {published data only}
  • Parikh M, Dasari M, McMacken M, Ren C, Fielding G, Ogedegbe G. Does a preoperative medically supervised weight loss program improve bariatric surgery outcomes? A pilot randomized study. Surgical Endoscopy 2012;26(3):853-61.
Parra 2010 {published data only}
  • Parra-Medina D, Wilcox S, Wilson DK, Addy CL, Felton G, Poston MB. Heart Healthy and Ethnically Relevant (HHER) lifestyle trial for improving diet and physical activity in underserved African American women. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2010;31(1):92-104. [DOI: 10.1016/j.cct.2009.09.006]
Partick 2009 {published data only}
Pekmezi 2009 {published data only}
Pellegrini 2012 {published data only}
Petrofsky 2011 {published data only}
  • Petrofsky J, Batt J, Berk L, Bains G, Wong J, Radabaugh S, et al. A video exercise and diet program using a nutritional meal replacement shake for weight loss. The Journal of Applied Research 2011;11(1):29-36.
Petry 2011 {published data only}
  • Petry NM, Barry D, Pescatello L, White WB. A low-cost reinforcement procedure improves short-term weight loss outcomes. The American Journal of Medicine 2011; Vol. 124, issue 11:1082-5.
Pett 2013 {published data only}
  • Pett M, Clark L, Eldredge A, Cardell B, Jordan K, Chambless C, et al. Effecting healthy lifestyle changes in overweight and obese young adults with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2013;118(3):224-43.
Pettman 2009 {published data only}
  • Pettman TL, Buckley JD, Misan GMH, Coates AM, Howe PRC. Health benefits of a 4-month group-based diet and lifestyle modification program for individuals with metabolic syndrome. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice 2009;3(4):221-35. [: ISSN: 1871-403X]
Pinto 2002 {published data only}
  • Pinto BM, Friedman R, Marcus BH, Kelley H, Tennstedt S, Gillman MW. Effects of a computer-based, telephone-counseling system on physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2002;23(2):113-20. [PUBMED: PUBMED 12121799]
Pinto 2005 {published data only}
  • Pinto BM, Frierson GM, Rabin C, Trunzo JJ, Marcus BH. Home-based physical activity intervention for breast cancer patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2005;23(15):3577-87. [: ISSN: 0732-183X]
Prestwich 2010 {published data only}
Prochaska 2008 {published data only}
Provencher 2009 {published data only}
Rejeski 2011 {published data only}
  • Rejeski WJ, Mihalko SL, Ambrosius WT, Bearon LB, McClelland JW. Weight loss and self-regulatory eating efficacy in older adults: the cooperative lifestyle intervention program. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 2011;66(3):279-86.
Retterstol 2009 {published data only}
  • Retterstol K, Hennig CB, Iversen PO. Improved plasma lipids and body weight in overweight/obese patients with type III hyperlipoproteinemia after 4 weeks on a low glycemic diet. Clinical Nutrition 2009;28(2):213-5. [: ISSN:0261-5614]
Rimmer 2009 {published data only}
Robinson 2007 {published data only}
  • Robinson J. Dimensions of wellness, specifically cardiovascular endurance activity (aerobics) using faith-based principles in at-risk, economically disadvantaged Black American communities. Minnesota, USA: University of Walden, 2007. [: ISBN: 9780549368069]
Roesch 2010 {published data only}
  • Roesch SC, Norman GJ, Villodas F, Sallis JF, Patrick K. Intervention-mediated effects for adult physical activity: a latent growth curve analysis. Social Science and Medicine 2010;71(3):494-501. [: ISSN:0277-9536]
Ross 2009 {published data only}
  • Ross R, Blair SN, Godwin M, Hotz S, Katzmarzyk PT, Lam M, et al. Prevention and Reduction of Obesity through Active Living (PROACTIVE): rationale, design and methods. British Journal of Sports Medicine 2009;43(1):57-63. [: ISSN: 1473-0480]
Ross 2011 {published data only}
  • Ross LJ, Tapsell LC, Probst Y. Optimizing dietary fat in a weight-loss trial requires advice based on a structured "whole-of-diet" model. Nutrition Research 2011;31(9):683-90.
Ross 2012 {published data only}
  • Ross R, Lam M, Blair SN, Church TS, Godwin M, Hotz SB, et al. Trial of prevention and reduction of obesity through active living in clinical settings: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2012;172(5):414-24.
Ruusunen 2012 {published data only}
Saito 2011 {published data only}
  • Saito T, Watanabe M, Nishida J, Izumi T, Omura M, Takagi T, et al. Lifestyle modification and prevention of type 2 diabetes in overweight Japanese with impaired fasting glucose levels: a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011;171(15):1352-60.
Salinero-Fort 2011 {published data only}
  • Salinero-Fort MA, Carrillo-de Santa PE, Arrieta-Blanco FJ, Abanades-Herranz JC, Martin-Madrazo C, Rodes-Soldevila B, et al. Effectiveness of PRECEDE model for health education on changes and level of control of HbA1c, blood pressure, lipids, and body mass index in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. BMC Public Health 2011;11:267.
Sarkin 2001 {published data only}
Schelling 2009 {published data only}
Schlenk 2011 {published data only}
Schumann 2006 {published data only}
  • Schumann A, John U, Rumpf HJ, Hapke U, Meyer C. Changes in the "stages of change" as outcome measures of a smoking cessation intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Preventative Medicine 2006;43(2):101-6. [PUBMED: 16709427]
Shahnazari 2013 {published data only}
  • Shahnazari M, Ceresa C, Foley S, Fong A, Zidaru E, Moody S. Nutrition-focused wellness coaching promotes a reduction in body weight in overweight US veterans. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics 2013;113(7):928-35.
Shuger 2011 {published data only}
  • Shuger SL, Barry VW, Sui X, McClain A, Hand GA, Wilcox S, et al. Electronic feedback in a diet- and physical activity-based lifestyle intervention for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011;8:41.
Siegel 2010 {published data only}
  • Siegel JM, Prelip ML, Erausquin JT, Kim SA. A worksite obesity intervention: results from a group-randomized trial. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(2):327-33. [PUBMED: 20019316]
Silva 2008 {published data only}
  • Silva MN, Markland D, Minderico CS, Vieira PN, Castro MM, Coutinho SR, et al. A randomized controlled trial to evaluate self-determination theory for exercise adherence and weight control: rationale and intervention description. BioMed Central Public Health 2008;8:234. [DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-234]
Silva 2010 {published data only}
  • Silva MN, Vieira PN, Coutinho SR, Minderico CS, Matos MG, Sardinha LB, et al. Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: a randomized controlled trial in women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine 2010;33(2):110-22. [DOI: 10.1007/s10865-009-9239-y]
Silva 2011 {published data only}
  • Silva MN, Markland D, Carraca EV, Vieira PN, Coutinho SR, Minderico CS, et al. Exercise autonomous motivation predicts 3-yr weight loss in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2011;43(4):728-37.
Smith 2007 {published data only}
  • Smith SS, Doyle G, Pascoe T, Douglas JA, Jorgensen G. Intention to exercise in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 2007;3(7):689-94. [: ISSN: 1550-9389]
Soureti 2011 {published data only}
  • Soureti A, Murray P, Cobain M, Chinapaw M, van Mechelen W, Hurling R. Exploratory study of web-based planning and mobile text reminders in an overweight population. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2011;13(4):e118.
Staudter 2011 {published data only}
  • Staudter M, Dramiga S, Webb L, Hernandez D, Cole R. Effectiveness of pedometer use in motivating active duty and other military healthcare beneficiaries to walk more. US Army Medical Department Journal 2011;Jul-Sep:108-19.
Steptoe 2001 {published data only}
  • Steptoe A, Kerry S, Rink E, Hilton S. The impact of behavioral counselling on stage of change in fat intake, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in adults at increased risk of coronary heart disease. American Journal of Public Health 2001;91(2):265-9.
Stewart 2011a {published data only}
  • Stewart T, Han H, Allen RH, Bathalon G, Ryan DH, Newton RL Jr, et al. H.E.A.L.T.H.: efficacy of an Internet/population-based behavioral weight management program for the U.S. Army. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology 2011;5(1):178-87.
Stewart 2011b {published data only}
Straznicky 2012 {published data only}
Surkan 2012 {published data only}
  • Surkan PJ, Gottlieb BR, McCormick MC, Hunt A Peterson KE. Impact of a health promotion intervention on maternal depressive symptoms at 15 months postpartum. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2012;16(1):139-48.
Sutton 2003 {published data only}
ter Bogt 2011a {published data only}
  • ter Bogt NC, Bemelmans WJ, Beltman FW, Broer J, Smit AJ, van der Meer K. Preventing weight gain by lifestyle intervention in a general practice setting: three-year results of a randomized controlled trial. Archives of Internal Medicine 2011;171(4):306-13.
ter Bogt 2011b {published data only}
  • ter Bogt NC, Milder IE, Bemelmans WJ, Beltman FW, Broer J, Smit AJ, et al. Changes in lifestyle habits after counselling by nurse practitioners: 1-year results of the Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle study. Public Health Nutrition 2011;14(6):995-1000.
Turner 2011 {published data only}
  • Turner-McGrievy G, Tate D. Tweets, Apps, and Pods: Results of the 6-month mobile pounds off digitally (mobile POD) randomized weight-loss intervention among adults. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2011;13(4):e120.
Unick 2011 {published data only}
  • Unick JL, Beavers D, Jakicic JM, Kitabchi AE, Knowler WC, Wadden TA, et al. Effectiveness of lifestyle interventions for individuals with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes: results from the Look AHEAD trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34(10):2152-7.
Vallis 2003 {published data only}
  • Vallis M, Ruggiero L, Greene G, Jones H, Zinman B, Rossi S, et al. Stages of change for healthy eating in diabetes: relation to demographic, eating-related, health care utilization, and psychosocial factors. Diabetes Care 2003;26(5):1468-74. [PUBMED: 12716806]
Van der Vee 2002 {published data only}
  • Van der Vee J, Bakx C, Van den Hoogen H, Verheijden M, Van den Bosch W, Van Weel C, et al. Stage-matched nutrition guidance for patients at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease: a randomized intervention study in family practice. Journal of Family Practice 2002;51(9):751-8. [: ISSN: 0094-3509]
van Genugten 2012 {published data only}
  • van Genugten L, van Empelen P, Boon B, Borsboom G, Visscher T, Oenema A. Results from an online computer-tailored weight management intervention for overweight adults: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2012;14(2):e44.
van Wier 2011 {published data only}
  • van Wier MF, Dekkers JC, Hendriksen IJ, Heymans MW, Ariëns GA, Pronk NP, et al. Effectiveness of phone and e-mail lifestyle counseling for long term weight control among overweight employees. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2011; Vol. 53, issue 6:680-6.
Vazquez 2009 {published data only}
  • Vazquez C, Montagna C, Alcaraz F, Balsa JA, Zamarron I, Arrieta F, et al. Meal replacement with a low-calorie diet formula in weight loss maintenance after weight loss induction with diet alone. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(10):1226-32. [DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.48]
Verheijden 2004 {published data only}
  • Verheijden MW, Van der Veen JE, Bakx JC, Akkermans RP, Van den Hoogen HJ, Van Staveren WA, et al. Stage-matched nutrition guidance: stages of change and fat consumption in Dutch patients at elevated cardiovascular risk. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2004;36(5):228-37. [DOI: 10.1016/S1499-4046(06)60385-03509]
Vermunt 2011 {published data only}
  • Vermunt PW, Milder IE, Wielaard F, de Vries JH, van Oers HA, Westert GP. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years. Diabetes Care 2011;34(9):1919-25.
Veverka 2003 {published data only}
  • Veverka DV, Anderson J, Auld GW, Coulter GR, Kennedy C, Chapman PL. Use of the stages of change model in improving nutrition and exercise habits in enlisted air force men. Military Medicine 2003;168(5):373-9. [: ISSN:0026-4075]
Vinter 2011 {published data only}
  • Vinter CA, Jensen DM, Ovesen P, Beck-Nielsen H, Jorgensen JS. The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study: a randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention in 360 obese pregnant women. Diabetes Care 2011;34(12):2502-7.
Waddden 2009 {published data only}
Wadden 2011 {published data only}
  • Wadden TA, Volger S, Sarwer DB, Vetter ML, Tsai AG, Berkowitz RI, et al. A two-year randomized trial of obesity treatment in primary care practice. The New England Journal of Medicine 2011; Vol. 365:1969-79.
Watson 2012 {published data only}
  • Watson A, Bickmore T, Cange A, Kulshreshtha A, Kvedar J. An Internet-based virtual coach to promote physical activity adherence in overweight adults: randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2012;14(1):e1.
Webber 2010 {published data only}
  • Webber KH, Tate DF, Ward DS, Bowling JM. Motivation and its relationship to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week internet behavioral weight loss intervention. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 2010;42(3):161-7. [: ISSN: 1499-4046]
Weber 2012 {published data only}
  • Weber MB, Ranjani H, Meyers GC, Mohan V, Narayan KM. A model of translational research for diabetes prevention in low and middle-income countries: The Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program (D-CLIP) trial. Primary Care Diabetes 2012;6(1):3-9.
Wee 2005 {published data only}
West 2011a {published data only}
  • West DS, Bursac Z, Cornell CE, Felix HC, Fausett JK, Krukowski RA, et al. Lay health educators translate a weight-loss intervention in senior centers: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2011;41(4):385-91.
West 2011b {published data only}
  • West DS, Gorin AA, Subak LL, Foster G, Bragg C, Hecht J, et al. A motivation-focused weight loss maintenance program is an effective alternative to a skill-based approach. International Journal of Obesity 2011;35(2):259-69.
White 2004 {published data only}
Wijesuriya 2011 {published data only}
  • Wijesuriya M, Gulliford M, Vasantharajah L, Viberti G, Gnudi L, Karalliedde J. DIABRISK-SL prevention of cardio-metabolic disease with life style modification in young urban Sri Lankan's--study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2011;12:209.
Wilcox 2011 {published data only}
  • Wilcox S, Sharpe PA, Parra-Medina D, Granner M, Hutto B. A randomized trial of a diet and exercise intervention for overweight and obese women from economically disadvantaged neighborhoods: Sisters Taking Action for Real Success (STARS). Contemporary Clinical Trials 2011;32(6):931-45.
Williamson 2010 {published data only}
Wing 2010 {published data only}
  • Wing RR, Crane MM, Thomas JG, Kumar R, Weinberg B. Improving weight loss outcomes of community interventions by incorporating behavioral strategies. American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(12):2513-9. [: ISSN: 1541-0048]
Wright 2011 {published data only}
  • Wright JL, Sherriff JL, Dhaliwal SS, Mamo JC. Tailored, iterative, printed dietary feedback is as effective as group education in improving dietary behaviours: results from a randomised control trial in middle-aged adults with cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2011; Vol. 8:43.
Yassine 2009 {published data only}
  • Yassine HN, Marchetti CM, Krishnan RK, Vrobel TR, Gonzalez F, Kirwan JP. Effects of exercise and caloric restriction on insulin resistance and cardiometabolic risk factors in older obese adults--a randomized clinical trial. Journals of Gerontology Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2009;64(1):90-5. [DOI: 10.1093/gerona/gln032]
Yoo 2012 {published data only}
  • Yoo S, Kim H, Cho HI. Improvements in the metabolic syndrome and stages of change for lifestyle behaviors in Korean older adults. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives 2012;3(2):85-93.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Auld 1997
  • Auld GW, Nitzke SA, McNulty J. A stage-of-change classification system based on actions and beliefs regarding dietary fat and fibre. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997;12:192-201.
Banegas 2003
Brønnum-Hansen 2007
Campbell 2004
Cohen 1960
Curry 1992
Di Noia 2008
  • Di Noia J, Contento IR, Prochaska JO. Computer-mediated intervention tailored on transtheoretical model stages and processes of change increases fruit and vegetable consumption among urban African-American adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 2008;22(5):336-41. [DOI: 10.4278/ajhp.22.5.336]
DiClemente 1985
Douketis 2005
Finkelstein 2009
  • Finkelstein AE, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW, Dietz W. Annual medical spending attributed to obesity: payer- and service-specific estimates. Health Affairs 2009;28(5):w822-31.
Flegal 2005
Foresight 2007
  • Foresight. Tackling Obesities: Future Choices – Modelling Future Trends in Obesity and the Impact on Health. London: The Stationery Office. (accessed 3 September 2012).
Greene 1994
  • Greene GW, Rossi SR, Reed GR, Willey C, Prochaska JO. Stages of change for reducing dietary fat to 30% of energy or less. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 1994;94(10):1105-10. [: ISSN:0002-8223]
Greene 1999
  • Greene GW, Rossi SR, Rossi JS, Velicer WF, Fava JL, Prochaska JO. Dietary applications of the stages of change model. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1999;99(6):673-8. [: ISSN: 0002-8223]
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2009
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009. Available from
Higgins 2011a
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Higgins 2011b
  • Higgins JP, Altman DG, Gotzsche PC, Juni P, Moher D, Oxman AD, et al. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias in randomised trials. BMJ 2011;343:d5928.
Jain 2005
Lamb 1996
Liberati 2009
  • Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Medicine 1999;6(7):1-28. [DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100]
London Health Observatory 2011
  • London Health Observatory. Overweight and obesity. (accessed 3 August 2011).
NHS Information Centre 2011
  • NHS Information Centre. Statistics on Obesity, Physical Activity and Diet: England, 2011. (accessed 3 September 2012).
Ni Mhurchu 1997
Nield 2007
Ogden 2012a
  • Ogden LC, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity in the United States. NCHS Data Brief 2012;82:1-8.
Ogden 2012b
  • Ogden LC, Carrol MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA 2012;307(5):483-90.
Prochaska 1992
Prochaska 1997
Prochaska 2008a
Prochaska 2008b
  • Prochaska J, Redding C, Evers KE. The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In: Glanz K, Rimer BK, Viswanath K editor(s). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. 4th Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008:501-92.
Pryke 2008
Read 1996
Shaw 2006
Steptoe 1996
  • Steptoe A, Wijetunge S, Doherty S, Wardle J. Stages of change for dietary reduction: associations with food intake, decisional balance and motives for food choice. Health Education Journal 1996;55(1):108-22. [DOI: 10.1177/001789699605500111]
Sterne 2011
  • Sterne JA, Sutton AJ, Ioannidis JP, Terrin N, Jones DR, Lau J, et al. Recommendations for examining and interpreting funnel plot asymmetry in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. BMJ 2011;343:d4002.
Tuah 2011
Velicer 1998
  • Velicer WF, Prochaska JO, Fava JL, Norman GJ, Redding CA. Smoking cessation and stress management: applications of the transtheoretical model of behaviour change. Homeostasis in Health and Disease 1998;38(5-6):216-33.
World Health Organization 2012
  • World Health Organization. Fact sheet no. 311. Obesity and overweight. Geneva: World Health Organization, (accessed 3 September 2012).