This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (19 FEB 2015)

Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission

  1. Patricia M Graves1,2,*,
  2. Hellen Gelband3,
  3. Paul Garner4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 12 SEP 2012

Assessed as up-to-date: 5 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008152.pub2


How to Cite

Graves PM, Gelband H, Garner P. Primaquine for reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD008152. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008152.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    EpiVec Consulting, Atlanta, USA

  2. 2

    James Cook University, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, Cairns, Queensland, Australia

  3. 3

    Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy, Washington, DC, USA

  4. 4

    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, International Health Group, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK

*Patricia M Graves, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, PO Box 6811, Cairns, Queensland, 4870, Australia. pgraves.work@gmail.com. patricia.graves@jcu.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 12 SEP 2012

SEARCH

This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (19 FEB 2015)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Chen 1994 {published data only}
  • Chen PQ, Li GQ, Guo XB. [The infectivity of gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum from patients treated with artemisinine]. Zhonghua yi xue za zhi [Chinese Medical Journal] 1994;74(4):209-10, 253-4.
  • Chen PQ, Li GQ, Guo XB, He KR, Fu YX, Fu LC, et al. The infectivity of gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum from patients treated with artemisinin. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl.) 1994;107(9):709-11.
El-Sayed 2007 {published data only}
  • El-Sayed B, El-Zaki SE, Babiker H, Gadalla N, Ageep T, Mansour F, et al. A randomized open-label trial of artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine with or without primaquine for elimination of sub-microscopic P. falciparum parasitaemia and gametocyte carriage in eastern Sudan. PLoS ONE 2007;2(12):e1311.
Kamtekar 2004 {published data only}
  • Kamtekar KD, Gogtay NJ, Dalvi SS, Karnad DR, Chogle AR, Aigal U, et al. A prospective study evaluating the efficacy of a single, 45-mg dose of primaquine, as a gametocytocidal agent, in patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mumbai, India. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2004;98(5):453-8.
Khoo 1981 {published data only}
Kolaczinski 2012 {published data only}
  • Kolaczinski K, Leslie T, Ali I, Durrani N, Lee S, Barends M, et al. Defining Plasmodium falciparum treatment in South West Asia: a randomized trial comparing artesunate or primaquine combined with chloroquine or SP. PLoS One 2012;7(1):e28957.
Ledermann 2006 {published data only}
  • Lederman ER, Maguire JD, Sumawinata IW, Chand K, Elyazar I, Estiana L, et al. Combined chloroquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine and primaquine against Plasmodium falciparum in Central Java, Indonesia. Malaria Journal 2006;5:108.
Pukrittayakamee 2004 {published data only}
  • Pukrittayakamee S, Chotivanich K, Chantra A, Clemens R, Looareesuwan S, White NJ. Activities of artesunate and primaquine against asexual- and sexual-stage parasites in falciparum malaria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2004;48(4):1329-34.
Shekalaghe 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Bousema T, Okell L, Shekalaghe S, Griffin JT, Omar S, Sawa P, et al. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs. Malar J 2010;9:136.
  • Shekalaghe S, Drakeley C, Gosling R, Ndaro A, van Meegeren M, Enevold A, et al. Primaquine clears submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes that persist after treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and artesunate. PLoS ONE 2007;2(10):e1023.
Singhasivanon 1994 {published data only}
  • Singhasivanon V, Chongsuphajaisiddhi T, Sabchareon A, Attanath P, Webster HK, Edstein MD, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of mefloquine in Thai children aged 5-12 years suffering from uncomplicated falciparum malaria treated with MSP or MSP plus primaquine. European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 1994;19(1):27-32.
Smithuis 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Smithuis F, Kyaw MK, Phe O, Win T, Aung PP, Oo AP, et al. Effectiveness of five artemisinin combination regimens with or without primaquine in uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an open-label randomised trial. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2010;10(10):673-81.
Vasquez 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Vasquez AM, Sanin F, Alvarez LG, Tobon A, Rios A, Blair S. [Therapeutic efficacy of a regimen of artesunate-mefloquine-primaquine treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria and treatment effects on gametocytic development]. Biomedica 2009;29(2):307-19.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Arango 2012 {published data only}
  • Arango EA, Upegui UA, Carmona-Fonseca J. Efficacy of different primaquine-based antimalarial regimens against Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia. Acta Tropica 2012;122(2012):177-182.
Baird 2002 {published data only}
  • Baird JK, Wiady I, Sutanihardja A, Suradi, Purnomo, Basri H, et al. Short report: therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine combined with primaquine against Plasmodium falciparum in northeastern Papua, Indonesia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2002; Vol. 66, issue 6:659-60.
Bunnag 1980 {published data only}
Che 1987 {published data only}
  • Che LG, Huang KG, Yang HL, Yu L, Lin ZL, Huang R. [Combined use of pyronaridine, sulfadoxine and primaquine in areas with chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi (Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases) 1987;5(3):194-6.
Clyde 1971 {published data only}
  • Clyde DF, Miller RM, Music SI, McCarthy VC. Prophylactic and sporontocidal treatment of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum from Vietnam. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1971;20(1):1-5.
da Silva 1984 {published data only}
  • da Silva AR, Carneiro EW, dos Santos HJ. Response of human Plasmodium to antimalarials on the island of Saint Louis, State of Maranhao, Brazil. Revista do Instituto de Medecina Tropical de Sao Paulo 1984;26(3):139-46.
Doi 1989 {published data only}
  • Doi H, Kaneko A, Panjaitan W, Ishii A. Chemotherapeutic malaria control operation by single dose of Fansidar plus primaquine in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1989;20(3):341-9.
Giao 2004 {published data only}
  • Giao PT, de Vries PJ, Hung le Q, Binh TQ, Nam NV, Kager PA. CV8, a new combination of dihydroartemisinin, piperaquine, trimethoprim and primaquine, compared with atovaquone-proguanil against falciparum malaria in Vietnam. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2004;9(2):209-16.
Gogtay 1999 {published data only}
  • Gogtay NJ, Chogle AR, Sorabjee JS, Marathe SN, Kshirsagar NA. Poor gametocytocidal activity of 45 mg primaquine in chloroquine-treated patients with acute, uncomplicated, Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Mumbai (Bombay): an issue of public-health importance. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 1999;93(8):813-6.
Gogtay 2004 {published data only}
  • Gogtay NJ, Kamtekar KD, Dalvi SS, Chogle AR, Aigal U, Kshirsagar NA. Preliminary report of the evaluation of the gametocytocidal action of bulaquine, in adult patients with acute, Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 2004;98(5):525-8.
Gogtay 2006 {published data only}
  • Gogtay NJ, Kamtekar KD, Dalvi SS, Mehta SS, Chogle AR, Aigal U, et al. A randomized, parallel study of the safety and efficacy of 45 mg primaquine versus 75 mg bulaquine as gametocytocidal agents in adults with blood schizonticide-responsive uncomplicated falciparum malaria [ISCRTN50134587]. BMC Infectious Diseases 2006;6:16.
Hii 1987 {published data only}
Huang 2001 {published data only}
  • Huang JR, Gao YQ, Elie N. [A study of artemether combined with primaquine in the treatment of falciparum malaria]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi (Chinese journal of parasitology & parasitic diseases) 2001;19(5):308-9.
Kaneko 1989 {published data only}
  • Kaneko A, Kamei K, Suzuki T, Ishii A, Siagian R, Panjaitan W. Gametocytocidal effect of primaquine in a chemotherapeutic malaria control trial in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 1989;20(3):351-9.
Karbwang 1992 {published data only}
Santana 2007 {published data only}
  • Santana MS, da Rocha MA, Arcanjo AR, Sardinha JF, Alecrim WD, Alecrim MG. [Association of methemoglobinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients treated with primaquine]. Revista da Sociedade de Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 2007;40(5):533-6.
Shekalaghe 2010 {published data only}
  • Shekalaghe SA, ter Braak R, Daou M, Kavishe R, van den Bijllaardt W, van den Bosch S, et al. In Tanzania, hemolysis after a single dose of primaquine coadministered with an artemisinin is not restricted to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PD A-) individuals. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2010;54(5):1762-8.
Shekalaghe 2011 {published data only}
  • Skekalaghe SA, Drakeley C, van den Bosch S, ter Braak R, van den Bijllhaardt W, Mwanziva C, et al. A cluster-randomized trial of mass drug administration with a gametocytocidal drug combination to interrupt malaria transmission in a low endemic area in Tanzania. Malaria Journal 2011;10:247.
Suputtamongkol 2003 {published data only}
  • Suputtamongkol Y, Chindarat S, Silpasakorn S, Chaikachonpatd S, Lim K, Chanthapakajee K, et al. The efficacy of combined mefloquine-artesunate versus mefloquine-primaquine on subsequent development of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2003;68(5):620-3.
Tangpukdee 2008 {published data only}
  • Tangpukdee N, Krudsood S, Srivilairit S, Phophak N, Chonsawat P, Yanpanich W, et al. Gametocyte clearance in uncomplicated and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria after artesunate-mefloquine treatment in Thailand. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 2008;46(2):65-70.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Ishii 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • Ishii A, Ohta N, Owhashi M, Kawabata M, Chung D, Bobogare A, et al. Trials of transmission blocking of P. falciparum with single dose primaquine in villages of Solomon Islands. MIM conference October 2009 MIM 16723361.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Eziefula ongoing {unpublished data only}
  • Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of PQ in uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Uganda. Ongoing study December 2011.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Arnold 1955
  • Arnold J, Alving AS, Hockwald RS, Clayman CB, Dern RJ, Beutler E, et al. The antimalarial action of primaquine against the blood and tissue stages of falciparum malaria (Panama, P-F-6 strain). Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 1955;46:391-7.
Baird 2011
Barnes 2005
Barnes 2008
  • Barnes, KI, Little F, Mabuza A, Mngomezulu N, Govere J, Durrheim D, et al. Increased gametocytemia after treatment: an early parasitological indicator of emerging sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in falciparum malaria. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2008;197(11):1605-13.
Bhasin 1984
  • Bhasin VK, Trager W. Chapter XI: Gametocytocidal effects in vitro of primaquine and related compounds on Plasmodium falciparum. In: Wernsdorfer WH, Trigg PI editor(s). Primaquine: pharmacokinetics, metabolism, toxicity and activity. UNDP/World Bank/WHO, 1984.
Bousema 2010
  • Bousema T, Okell L, Shekalaghe S, Griffin J T, Omar S, Sawa P, et al. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs. Malaria Journal 2010;9:136.
Bousema 2011
  • Bousema T, Drakeley C. Epidemiology and Infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax gametocytes in relation to malaria control and eradication. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 2011;24(2):377-410.
Burgess 1961
  • Burgess RW, Bray RS. The effect of a single dose of primaquine on the gametocytes, gametogony and sporogony of Laverania falciparum. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1961;24:451-6.
Carter 1988
  • Carter R, Graves PM. Gametocytes. In: Wernsdorfer, MacGregror editor(s). Malaria: principles and practice of malariology. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1988.
Carter 2011
  • Carter N, Pamba A, Duparc S, Waitumbi JN. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials. Malaria Journal 2011;10:241.
Chotivanich 2006
  • Chotivanich K, Sattabongkot J, Udomsangpetch U, Looareesuwan S, Day NPJ, Coleman RE, et al. Transmission blocking activities of quinine, primaquine and artesunate. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2006;50(6):1927-30.
Clyde 1962
  • Clyde DF. Mass administration of an antimalarial drug combining 4-aminoquinoline and 8-aminoquinoline in Tanganyika. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1962;27:203-12.
Clyde 1981
  • Clyde DF. Clinical problems associated with the use of primaquine as a tissue schizonticidal and gametocytocidal drug. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1981;59(3):391-5.
Drakeley 2006
  • Drakeley, Sutherland C, Bousema JT, Sauerwein RW, Targett GA. The epidemiology of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: weapons of mass dispersion. Trends in Parasitology 2006;22:424-30.
Dunyo 2006
  • Dunyo S, Milligan P, Edwards T, Sutherland C, Targett G, Pinder M. Gametocytaemia after drug treatment of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum. PLoS Clinical Trials 2006;e20.
Eichner 2001
  • Eichner M, Diebner HH, Molineaux L, Collins WE, Jeffery GM, Dietz K. Genesis, sequestration and survival of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: parameter estimates from fitting a model to malariotherapy data. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2001;95:497-501.
Galappaththy 2007
GMAP 2008
  • Roll Back Malaria Partnership. Global malaria action plan. RBM/WHO, 2008.
Graves 1988
  • Graves PM, Burkot TR, Carter R, Cattani JA, Lagog M, Parker J, et al. Measurement of malarial infectivity of human populations to mosquitoes in the Madang area, Papua New Guinea. Parasitology 1988;96(2):251-63.
Graves 1990
  • Graves PM, Burkot TR, Saul AJ, Hayes RJ, Carter R. Estimation of anopheline survival rate, vectorial capacity and mosquito infection probability from malaria infection rates in villages near Madang, Papua New Guinea. Journal of Applied Ecology 1990;27:134-47.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DH, Sterne JAC. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Killeen 2006
  • Killeen GF, Ross A, Smith T. Infectiousness of malaria-endemic human populations to vectors. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006;75(Suppl 2):38-45.
Lawpoolsri 2009
  • Lawpoolsri S, Klein EY, Singhasivanon P, Yimsamran S, Thanyavanich N, Maneeboonyang W, et al. Optimally timing primaquine treatment to reduce Plasmodium falciparum transmission in low endemicity Thai-Myanmar border populations. Malaria Journal 2009;8:159.
Lefebvre 2011
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic reviews of interventions Version 5.0.1. (updated March 2011). The  Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Lines 1991
  • Lines JD, Wilkes TJ, Lyimo EO. Human malaria infectiousness measured by age-specific sporozoite rates in Anopheles gambiae in Tanzania.. Parasitology 1991;102(2):167-77.
Mendez 2006
  • Mendez F, Munoz A, Plowe CV. Use of area under the curve to characterize transmission potential after antimalarial treatment. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2006;75(4):640-4.
Mendis 2009
Okell 2008
  • Okell LC, Drakeley CJ, Ghani AC, Bousema T, Sutherland CJ. Reduction of transmission from malaria patients by artemisinin therapies: a pooled analysis of six randomized trials. Malaria Journal 2008;7:125.
Price 1996
Pukrittayakamee 1994
  • Pukrittatakamee S, Vanijanonta S, Chantra A, Clemens R, White NJ. Blood stage antimalarial efficacy in Plasmodium vivax malaria. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1994;169:932-5.
Pukrittayakamee 2004
  • Pukrittayakamee S, Chotivanich K, Chantra A, Clemens R, Looareesuwan S, White NJ. Activities of artesunate and primaquine against asexual and sexual stage parasites in falciparum malaria. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2004;48:1329-34.
Reeve 1992
  • Reeve PA,  Toaliu H,  Kaneko A,  Hall JJ,  Ganczakowski M. Acute intravascular haemolysis in Vanuatu following a single dose of primaquine in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1992;95(5):349-51.
Review Manager (RevMan) 5.1
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre. The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Rieckmann 1968
  • Rieckmann, KH, McNamara JV, Frischer H, Stockert TA, Carson PE, Powell RD. Gametocytocidal and sporonticidal effects of primaquine and of sulfadiazine with pyrimethamine in a chloroquine resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1968;38:625-32.
Rieckmann 1969
  • Rieckmann KH, McNamara JV, Kass L, Powell RD. Gametocytocidal and sporontocidal effects of primaquine upon two strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Military Medicine 1969;134:802-19.
Rosenberg 1990
  • Rosenberg R, Wirtz RA, Schneider I, Burge R. An estimation of the number of sporozoites ejected by a salivating mosquito. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 1990;84:209-12.
Rosenberg 2008
Shekalaghe 2010
  • Shekalaghe SA, ter Braak R, Daou M, Kavishe R, van den Bijllaardt W, van den Bosch S, et al. In Tanzania, hemolysis after a single dose of primaquine coadministered with an artemisinin is not restricted to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (G6PD A-) individuals. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2010;54(5):1762-8.
Smalley 1977
von Seidlein 2003
Wells 2010
  • Wells TNC, Burrows JN, Baid KJ. Targeting the hypnozoite reservoir of Plasmodium vivax: the hidden barrier to malaria elimination. Trends in Parasitology 2010;26(3):145-51.
White 1992
White 2008
WHO 2010
  • WHO. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria, second edition. Guidelines for the treatment of malaria, second edition. Geneva: WHO, 2010.