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Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis

  1. Ruth Chinuck1,*,
  2. Jane Dewar2,
  3. David R Baldwin3,
  4. Elizabeth Hendron4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group

Published Online: 27 JUL 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 JUL 2014

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008190.pub2


How to Cite

Chinuck R, Dewar J, Baldwin DR, Hendron E. Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD008190. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008190.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Nottingham University Hospitals, City Campus, Adult CF Unit, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Therapy Services, Nottingham, UK

  2. 2

    Nottingham University Hospitals, City Campus, Adult Cystic Fibrosis Unit, Nottingham, UK

  3. 3

    Nottingham University Hospitals, City Campus, Respiratory Medicine Unit, Nottingham, UK

  4. 4

    Nottingham City Hospital Campus, PGEC Library, Nottingham, UK

*Ruth Chinuck, Adult CF Unit, Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, Therapy Services, Nottingham University Hospitals, City Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK. ruth.chinuck@nuh.nhs.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 27 JUL 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Eubanks 2002 {published data only}
  • Eubanks V, Atchison J, Arani R, Clancy JP, Sorscher EJ, Wooldridge N, et al. Effects of megestrol acetate on energy intake, weight gain, body composition and resting energy expenditure in cystic fibrosis patients [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2000;30 (Suppl 20):322-3.
  • Eubanks V, Koppersmith N, Wooldridge N, Clancy JP, Lyrene R, Arani RB, et al. Effects of megestrol acetate on weight gain, body composition, and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatrics 2002;140(4):439-44.
Homnick 2004 {published data only}
  • Homnick D, Marks JH, Hare KL, Bonnema SK. Long-term trial of cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology 2005;40(3):251-6.
  • Homnick DN, Homnick BD, Brooks CD, Reeves AJ, Hare KL, Marks JH, et al. The use of cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis patients [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2003;36 (Suppl 25):343.
  • Homnick DN, Homnick BD, Reeves AJ, Marks JH, Pimentel RS, Bonnema SK. Cyproheptadine is an effective appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004;38(2):129-34.
  • Homnick DN, Marks JH, Hare KL, Pimentel RS, Bonnema SK. Long-term trial of cyproheptadine as an appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004;38 (Suppl 27):330.
  • Homnick DN, Marks JH, Rubin BK. The effect of a first-generation antihistamine on sputum viscoelasticity in cystic fibrosis. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 2007;20(1):45-9.
Marchand 2000 {published data only}
  • Marchand V, Baker SS, Baker RD. Leptin level in children with cystic fibrosis, effect megestrol acetate treatment [abstract]. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 1999;29:512.
  • Marchand V, Baker SS, Stark TJ, Baker RD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of megestrol acetate in malnourished children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2000;31(3):264-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Alemzadeh 1998 {published data only}
Anstead 2003 {published data only}
  • Anstead MI, Kuhn RJ, Martyn D, Craigmyle L, Kanga JF. Dronabinol, an effective and safe appetite stimulant in cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2003;36 (Suppl 25):343.
Auerbach 1985 {published data only}
  • Auerbach HS, Williams M, Kirkpatrick JA, Colten HR. Alternate-day prednisone reduces morbidity and improves pulmonary function in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 1985;2(8457):686-8.
  • Donati MA, Haver K, Gerson W, Klein M, McLaughlin FJ, Wohl MEB. Long-term alternate day prednisone therapy in cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1990;9 (Suppl 5):322.
Ballmann 2013 {published data only}
  • Ballmann M, Hubert D, Assael BM, Mosnier-Pudar H, Barao Ocampo M, Scheunig N, et al. Repaglinide versus insulin in the treatment of CFRD diagnosed by screening: an open prospective randomized study [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2013;48 Suppl 26:421, Abstract no: 582. [CENTRAL: 962122; CFGD Register: CO53b; CRS: 5500125000000394]
Ballmann 2013a {published data only}
  • Ballmann M, Hubert D, Assael BM, Mosnier-Pudar H, Smaczny C, Kessler L, et al. Treatment of early diagnosed CFRD with oral drugs verus insulin: An open prospective randomized study [abstract]. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2013;12 Suppl 1:S32, Abstract no: WS16.1. [CENTRAL: 962115; CFGD Register: CO53a; CRS: 5500100000011659]
Berenstein 2005 {published data only}
Bucuvalas 2001 {published data only}
  • Bucuvalas JC, Chernausek SD, Alfaro MP, Krug S, Ritschel W, Wilmott RW. Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances linear growth in undernourished prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1998;26(Suppl 17):355.
  • Bucuvalas JC, Chernausek SD, Alfaro MP, Krug SK, Ritschel W, Wilmott RW. Effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment in children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001;33(5):576-81.
Canfield 1998 {published data only}
  • Canfield TM. The effect of megestrol on nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1998;26 (Suppl 17):359.
CF Trust 2002 {published data only}
  • CF Trust Nutrition Working Group. Nutritional Management of Cystic Fibrosis: A consensus report. UK CF Trust 2002:13. [ISBN 0-9540536-5-6]
Chinuck 2007 {published data only}
Chung 2006 {published data only}
  • Chung SH, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B, Avesani CM. Identifying and managing malnutrition stemming from different causes. Peritoneal Dialysis International 2006;27(Suppl 2):S239-44.
Cohen 2008 {published data only}
Cohen 2010 {published data only}
Cohen-Cymberknoh 2008 {published data only}
  • Cohen-Cymberknoh M, Shoseyov D, Efrati O, Armoni S, Kerem E. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy vs.oral prednisone for allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in CF [abstract]. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2008;7 (Suppl 2):S58.
Crawley 2003 {published data only}
  • Crawley J, Pandya S, Ledson MJ, Walshaw MJ. Use of megestrol acetate to improve body weight in malnourished adult cystic fibrosis patients [abstract]. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2003;2 (Suppl 1):S86, Abstract 336.
Darmaun 2004 {published data only}
  • Darmaun D, Hayes V, Schaeffer D, Welch S, Mauras N. Effects of glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone on protein metabolism in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2004;89(3):1146-52.
  • Schaeffer D, Darmaun D, Punati J, Mauras N, Hayes VY. Use of glutamine and recombinant human growth hormone in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2000;30 (Suppl 20):323.
Dhillo 2007 {published data only}
Dovey 2007 {published data only}
  • Dovey M, Aiken ML, Emerson J, McNamara S, Waltz DA, Gibson RL. Oral corticosteroids therapy in cystic fibrosis patients hospitalized for pulmonary exacerbation: a pilot study. Chest 2007;132(4):1212-8.
  • Dovey M, Aitken ML, Emerson J, McNamara S, Dorman D, Gibson RL. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral corticosteroid therapy in cystic fibrosis patients hospitalized for pulmonary exacerbations [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004;38 (Suppl 27):301.
Dowsett 1999 {published data only}
  • Dowsett J. The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of cachexia associated with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Netherlands Journal of Medicine 1999;54(Suppl):S83-84.
Durant 1998 {published data only}
  • Durant M, Farmer G. Megesterol acetate: treatment of growth failure in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonlogy 1998;26 (Suppl 17):360.
Eubanks 2000 {published data only}
  • Eubanks V, Wooldridge N, Clancy JP, Sorscher E, Lyrene R, Makris C. Megesterol acetate effects on weight in CF subject exhibiting growth failure: a case controlled study [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1998;26 (Suppl 17):360.
Greally 1992 {published data only}
  • Greally P, Hussain MJ, Vergani D, Price JF. Interleukin-1 alpha, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and IgG concentrations in cystic fibrosis treated with prednisolone. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1994;71(1):35-9.
  • Greally P, Sampson AJ, Piper PJ, Price JF. Effect of prednisolone on airways obstruction in patients with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. The European Respiratory Journal 1992;5(Suppl 15):259s.
  • Greally P, Sampson AP, Piper PJ, Price JF. Prednisolone reduces airways obstruction in children with cystic fibrosis. Proceedings of the 11th International Cystic Fibrosis Congress, Dublin, Ireland. 1992:TS12.
Grover 2008 {published data only}
Guillot 2011 {published data only}
  • Guillot MV, Desforges AS, Voisin-Chiret AS, Schumann P, Launay A, Lecomte C. Evaluating the use of megesterol acetate in Caen and Lisieux CF Centers. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2011;10(1):7.
Hardin 1997 {published data only}
Hardin 2001 {published data only}
  • Hardin DS, Ellis K, McConnell RA, Seilheimer DK. Growth hormone improves lean body mass in prepubertal CF children [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1998;26 (Suppl 17):357. [CFGD Register: GN122a]
  • Hardin DS, Ellis KJ, Dyson M, Rice J, McConnell R, Seilheimer DK. Growth hormone decreases protein catabolism in children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2001;86(9):4424-8. [CFGD Register: GN122d]
  • Hardin DS, Ellis KJ, Dyson M, Rice J, McConnell R, Seilheimer DK. Growth hormone improves clinical status in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis: results of a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Pediatrics 2001;139(5):636-42. [CFGD Register: GN122e]
  • Hardin DS, Ellis KJ, McConnel R, Seilheimer DK. Growth hormone improves clinical status in cystic fibrosis children [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1999;28 (Suppl 19):297. [CFGD Register: GN122b]
  • Hardin DS, Stratton R, Kramer JC, Reyes de la Rocha S, Govaerts K, Wilson DP. Growth hormone improves weight velocity and height velocity in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis. Hormone and Metabolic Research 1998a;30(10):636-641.
Hardin 2004 {published data only}
  • Hardin DS, Rice J, Rosenblatt R. Use of growth hormone in adults with CF [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004;38 (S27):343.
Hardin 2005a {published data only}
  • Hardin DS, Ahn C, Prestige C, Seilheimer DK, Ellis KJ. Growth hormone improves bone mineral content in children with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2005;18(6):589-95.
Hardin 2005b {published data only}
  • Hardin DS, Rice J, Ahn C, Ferkol T, Howenstine M, Spears S, et al. Growth hormone treatment enhances nutrition and growth in children with cystic fibrosis receiving enteral nutrition. The Journal of Pediatrics 2005;146(3):324-8. [CFGD Register: GN122h]
Hardin 2005c {published data only}
Hardin 2006 {published data only}
  • Hardin D, Rice J, Ahn C, Brown D, Chatfield B, Dyson M, et al. Growth hormone improves bone mineralization in prepubertal children with CF - results of a multicenter study [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2004;38 (Suppl 27):343. [CFGD Register: GN122g]
  • Hardin DS, Adams-Huet B, Brown D, Chatfield B, Dyson M, Ferkol T, et al. Growth hormone treatment improves growth and clinical status in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis: results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2006;91(12):4925-9. [CFGD Register: GN122i]
  • Hardin DS, Chatfield B, Dyson M, Hicks D, Howenstine M, Lee P, et al. Multicentre trial of growth hormone in children with CF [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2001;32 (Suppl 22):338. [CFGD Register: GN122c]
  • Hardin DS, Rice J, Ahn C, Chatfield B, Dyson M, Howenstein M, et al. Growth hormone improves pulmonary function, weight, and height - results from a multicenter study [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2002;34 (Suppl 24):337. [CFGD Register: GN122f]
Hardin 2007 {published data only}
  • Hardin DS. A review of the management of two common clinical problems found in patients with cystic fibrosis: cystic fibrosis-related diabetes and poor growth. Hormone Research 2007;68(Suppl 5):113-6.
Hutler 2002 {published data only}
  • Hutler M, Schnabel D, Staab D, Tacke A, Wahn U, Boning D, et al. Effect of growth hormone on exercise tolerance in children with cystic fibrosis. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2002;34(4):567-72.
Linnane 2001 {published data only}
  • Linnane SJ, Thin AG, Keatings VM, Moynihan JB, Mc Loughlin P, Fitzgerald MX. Glucocorticoid treatment reduces exhaled nitric oxide in cystic fibrosis patients. European Respiratory Journal 2001;17(6):1267-70.
Lopez 2004 {published data only}
  • López AP, Figuls RM, Cuchi GU, Berenstein EG, Pasies BA, Alegre MB, et al. Systematic review of megestrol acetate in the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2004;27(4):360-9.
Loprinzi 1993 {published data only}
  • Loprinzi CL, Schaid DJ, Dose AM, Burnham NL, Jensen MD. Body-composition changes in patients who gain weight while receiving megestrol acetate. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 1993;11(1):152-4.
Minicucci 2012 {published data only}
  • Minicucci L. New diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) [abstract]. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2008;7 Suppl 3:S6, Abstract no: R25. [CFGD Register: CO42a]
  • Minicucci L, Casciaro R, De Alessandri A, Haupt M, Caso M, Lucidi V, et al. Efficacy of slow release insulin in patients with cystic fibrosis and glucide intolerance [abstract]. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2009;8 Suppl 2:S82, Abstract no: 331. [CFGD Register: CO42b]
  • Minicucci L, Haupt M, Casciaro R, De Alessandri A, Bagnasco F, Lucidi V, et al. Slow-release insulin in cystic fibrosis patients with glucose intolerance: a randomized clinical trial. Pediatric Diabetes 2012;13(2):197-202. [CFGD Register: CO42c]
Moran 2001 {published data only}
  • Milla CE, Phillips J, Moran A. Insulin and glucose excursion following pre-meal insulin lispro or repaglinide in CFRD [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2001;32(Suppl 22):335.
  • Moran A, Phillips J, Milla C. Insulin and glucose excursion following premeal insulin lispo or repaglinide in cystic fibrosis-related diabetes. Diabetes Care 2001;24(10):1706-10.
Moran 2009 {published data only}
  • Moran A, Pekow P, Grover P, Zorn M, Slovis B, Pilewski J, et al. Insulin therapy to improve BMI in cystic fibrosis related diabetes without fasting hyperglycemia: Results of the CFRDT Trial. Diabetes Care 2009;32(10):1783-8. [CFGD Register: CO43]
Nasr 1999 {published data only}
Nasr 2008 {published data only}
Nasrallah 2003 {published data only}
Newkirk 2000 {published data only}
  • Newkirk M, Martine JC, Ewig J, Kriseman T, Gondor M, Fariello A. Adrenal suppression in children with cystic fibrosis treated with megesterol acetate [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2000;30 (Suppl 20):323.
Nyamugunduru 1998 {published data only}
  • Nyamugunduru G, Desai M, Rayner RJ, Simmonds E, Weller PH, Spencer DA. A CFRD double-blind parallel placebo controlled randomised study of oral prednisolone in acute respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Thorax 1998;53(Suppl 4):A61.
  • Nyamugunduru G, Desai M, Spencer D, Clarke J, Weller P. A double-blind parallel placebo-controlled randomised study of the addition of short-course oral prednisolone in treatment of acute respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Proceedings of the 22nd European Cystic Fibrosis Conference; 1998 June 13-19; Berlin, Germany. 1998:79.
  • Nyamugunduru G, Desai M, Weller PH, Spencer DA. The effect of oral prednisolone on serum interleukin-8 concentrations in acute respiratory exacerbations in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Proceedings of the 13th International Cystic Fibrosis Congress; 2000 June 4-8; Stockholm, Sweden. 2000:183.
Ohnhaus 1974 {published data only}
Pantin 1986 {published data only}
  • Pantin F, Stead RJ, Hodson M, Batten J. Prednisolone in the treatment of airflow obstruction in adults with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1986;41(1):34-8.
  • Stead RJ, Pantin CFA, Hodson ME, Batten JC. Prednisolone in the treatment of airflow obstruction in adults with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting of the European Working Group for Cystic Fibrosis; 1985 Nov 3-8; Jerusalem, Israel. 1985:112.
Parsons 2009 {published data only}
  • Parson, B Allison, DB Loebel, A Williams, K Giller, E Romano, S Siu, C. Weight effetcs associated with antipsychotics:A comprehensive database analysis. Schizophrenia Research 2009;110:103-110.
Paterson 2010 {published data only}
  • Paterson I, Taylor M, Ross E, Bicknell S, MacGregor G. Promoting weight gain with olanzapine in underweight adults with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2010;9 Suppl 1:S90, Abstract no.: 349.
Phung 2010 {published data only}
  • Phung OJ, Coleman CI, Baker EL, Scholle JM, Girotto JE, Makanji SS, et al. Recombinant human growth hormone in the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics 2010;125(5):e1211-e1226.
Rogan 2010 {published data only}
  • Rogan MP, Reznikov LR, Pezzulo AA, Gansemer ND, Samuel M, Prather RS, et al. Pigs and humans with cystic fibrosis have reduced insulin-like growth factor (IGF1) levels at birth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107(47):20571-5.
Rosenstein 1991 {published data only}
  • Eigen H, Rosenstein BJ, FitzSimmons S, Schidlow DV. A multicenter study of alternate-day prednisone therapy in patients with cystic fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Prednisone Trial Group. Journal of Pediatrics 1995;126(4):515-23.
  • Hsu J, Kuhns LR. Longitudinal study in bone absorptiometry in children with cystic fibrosis enrolled in steroid therapy [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1991;10 (Suppl 6):313.
  • Lai HC, FitzSimmons SC, Allen DB, Kosorok MR, Rosenstein BJ, Campbell PW, et al. Risk of persistent growth impairment after alternate-day prednisone treatment in children with cystic fibrosis. New England Journal of Medicine 2000;342(12):851-9.
  • Lai HC, Kosorok MR, Allen DB, FitzSimmons SC, Rosenstein BJ, Campbell PW, et al. Long-term growth evaluation in children with cystic fibrosis with history of regular use of alternate-day prednisone therapy [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 1999;28 (Suppl 19):297.
  • Rosenstein BJ, Eigen H. Risks of alternate-day prednisone in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics 1991;87(2):245-6.
Ross 2005 {published data only}
  • Ross E, Davidson S, Sriram S, Hempsey S, Jane Y, Margaret K, Bicknell S. Weight gain associated with low dose olanzapine therapy in severely underweight adults with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology 2005;40:350.
Sackey 1995 {published data only}
Safai 1991 {published data only}
  • Safai KS, Selin E, Larsson S, Jagenburg R, Denfors I, Sten G, et al. Zinc therapy in children with cystic fibrosis. Beitrage zur Infusiontherapie 1991;27:104-14.
Schibler 2003 {published data only}
  • Schibler A, von der Heiden R, Birrer P, Mullis PE. Moderate improved exercise capacity in patients with cystic fibrosis after treatment with recombinant human growth hormone [abstract]. Proceedings of 12th European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sept 14-18; Stockholm. 2002:P3287.
  • Schibler A, von der Heiden R, Birrer P, Mullis PE. Prospective randomised treatment with recombinant human growth hormone in cystic fibrosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2003;88(12):1078-81.
  • von der Heiden R, Kraemer R, Birrer P, Waldegg G, Mullis PE. Effect of growth hormone (r-hGH) treatment on working capacity, body composition, lung function and immunological parameters in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) [abstract]. Proceedings of 21st European Cystic Fibrosis Conference; 1997 June 1-6; Davos, Switzerland. 1997:132.
Schnabel 2007 {published data only}
  • Grasemann C, Ratjen F, Schnabel D, Reutershahn E, Vester U, Grasemann H. Effect of growth hormone therapy on nitric oxide formation in cystic fibrosis patients. European Respiratory Journal 2008;4:815-21.
  • Grasemann H, Grasemann C, Schnabel D, Ratjen F. Growth hormone therapy results in increased L-arginine and nitrate concentrations in serum but decreased exhaled nitric oxide in patients with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2006;41 (S29):335.
  • Grasemann H, Grasemann C, Schnabel F, Ratjen F. Recombinant human growth hormone therapy results in increased systemic nitric oxide (NO) formation but decreased exhaled NO in patients with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference, San Diego, CA 2006;Poster:A408p.
  • Schnabel D, Graseman C, Staab D, Wollman H, Ratjen F, and for the German Cystic Fibrosis Growth Hormone Study Group. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the metabolic and respiratory effects of growth hormone in children with cystic fibrosis. Paediatrics 2007;119(6):e1230-8.
  • Schnabel D, Grasemann C, Staab D, Wollmann H, Ratjen F. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating the metabolic and respiratory effects of growth hormone in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2006;41 (Suppl 29):393.
Stalvey 2008 {published data only}
  • Stalvey MS, Torrez DM, Hillan J, Gonzalez-Peralta, Haafiz A, Rosenbloom AL. Growth hormone therapy improves growth in children with cystic fibrosis-related liver disease. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2008;21(8):793-7.
Stalvey 2011 {published data only}
  • Geller DE, Anbar RD, Konstan MW, Stalvey MS, Jacobs JR, Bakker B. Growth hormone effects on pulmonary function in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2008;43 (Suppl 31):368. [CFGD Register: GN128b]
  • Stalvey MS, Anbar RD, Konstan MW, Jacobs JR, Bakker B, Lippe B, et al. A multi-center controlled trial of growth hormone treatment in children with cystic fibrosis. Pediatric Pulmonology 2012;47(3):252-63. [CFGD Register: GN128c]
  • Stalvey MS, Geller DE, Anbar RD, Konstan MW, Jacobs JR, Bakker B. Growth hormone (GH) increases height, weight and lean body mass (LBM) in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis (CF): results of a multicenter randomized control trial [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2007;42 (Suppl 30):393. [CFGD Register: GN128a]
Stylianou 2007 {published data only}
  • Stylianou C, Galli-Tsinopoulou A, Koliakos G, Fotoulaki M, Nousia-Arvanitakis S. Ghrelin and leptin levels in young adults with cystic fibrosis: relationship with body fat. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis 2007;6(4):293-6.
Switzer 2009 {published data only}
  • Switzer M, Rice J, Rice M, Hardin DS. Insulin-like growth factor-1 levels predict weight, height and protein catabolism in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism 2009;22(5):417-24.
Sykes 2006 {published data only}
  • Sykes R, Kittell F, Marcus M, Tarter E, Schroth M. Mirtazapine for appetite stimulation in children with cystic fibrosis [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2006;41 (Suppl 29):389.
Taylor 1997 {published data only}
  • Taylor AM,  Bush A,  Thomson A,  Oades PJ,  Marchant JL,  Bruce-Morgan C, et al. Relation between insulin-like growth factor-I, body mass index and clinical status in cystic fibrosis. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1997;76(4):304-9.
Teeter 2004 {published data only}
  • Teeter JG, The Exubera Phase 3 study Group, Pfizer Global Research and Development GCU. One-year pulmonary safety and efficacy of inhaled insulin as adjunctive therapy in type 2 diabetes patients poorly controlled on oral agent monotherapy [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):P3773.
Tongudai 1971 {published data only}
  • Tongudai S, Braverman S, Kirkpatrick JA, Huang NN. Evaluation of oxandrolone in patients with cystic fibrosis. Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting-Cystic Fibrosis Club Abstracts; April 28; Atlantic City, New Jersey. 1971:54.
Varness 2009 {published data only}
  • Varness T, Seffrood EE, Connor EL, Rock MJ, Allen DB. Oxandrolone improves height velocity and BMI in patients with cystic fibrosis. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 2010 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print]. [DOI: 10.1155/2009/826895]
von Haehling 2009 {published data only}
Weisberg 2002 {published data only}
Young 2000 {published data only}
  • Young J, Danduran MJ, McColley SA, Boar SR. The role of mirtazapine as an appetite stimulant in malnourished individuals with CF [abstract]. Pediatric Pulmonology 2000;30 (Suppl 20):326.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Epifanio 2012 {published data only}
  • Epifanio M, Marostica P, Mattiello R, Feix L, Nejedlo R, Fischer G, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of cyproheptadine for appetite stimulation in cystic fibrosis. Journal of Pediatrics (Rio J) 2012;88(2):155-60.
Kissner 2000 {published data only}

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Abbott 2011
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Curtin 2002b
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EMC 2014a
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EMC 2014b
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