Intervention Review

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Supported employment for adults with severe mental illness

  1. Yoshihiro Kinoshita1,*,
  2. Toshi A Furukawa2,
  3. Kuni Kinoshita3,
  4. Mina Honyashiki4,
  5. Ichiro M Omori5,
  6. Max Marshall6,
  7. Gary R Bond7,
  8. Peter Huxley8,
  9. Naoji Amano9,
  10. David Kingdon10

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 13 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 23 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008297.pub2


How to Cite

Kinoshita Y, Furukawa TA, Kinoshita K, Honyashiki M, Omori IM, Marshall M, Bond GR, Huxley P, Amano N, Kingdon D. Supported employment for adults with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD008297. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008297.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Shinshu University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Matsumoto, Japan

  2. 2

    Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine / School of Public Health, Departments of Health Promotion and Behavior Change and of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto, Japan

  3. 3

    Akitsu-kai Nanshin Hospital, Minami-minowa, Japan

  4. 4

    Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine / School of Public Health, Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, Kyoto, Japan

  5. 5

    Toyokawa City Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Aichi, Japan

  6. 6

    The Lantern Centre, University of Manchester, Preston., Lancashire, UK

  7. 7

    Dartmouth Medical School, Department of Psychiatry, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

  8. 8

    University of Swansea, Applied Social Studies, Swansea, UK

  9. 9

    Shinshu University, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Matsumoto, Japan

  10. 10

    University of Southampton, Mental Health Group, Southampton, UK

*Yoshihiro Kinoshita, Department of Psychiatry, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan. ykino@joy.hi-ho.ne.jp.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 13 SEP 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Bond 2007 {published data only}
  • Bond GR, Salyers MP, Dincin J, Drake RE, Becker DR, Fraser VV, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing two vocational models for persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2007;75(6):968-82.
  • Fraser VV, Jones AM, Frounfelker R, Harding B, Hardin T, Bond GR. VR closure rates for two vocational models. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2008;31(4):332-9.
  • Harding B, Torres-Harding S, Bond GR, Salyers MP, Rollins AL, Hardin T. Factors associated with early attrition from psychosocial rehabilitation programs. Community Mental Health Journal 2008;44(4):283-8.
  • Kukla M, Bond GR. The working alliance and employment outcomes for people with severe mental illness enrolled in vocational programs. Rehabilitation Psychology 2009;54(2):157-63.
  • Kukla ME. The relationship between employment status and non vocational outcomes for persons with severe mental illness enrolled in vocational programs: a longitudinal study [dissertation]. Indianapolis, Indiana: University of Purdue, 2010.
Burns 2007 {published data only}
  • Burns T. Increasing access to work for longer term community mental health team clients: the impact of a work-placement training intervention. National Research Register 2001; Vol. 1.
  • Burns T, Catty J, Becker T, Drake RE, Fioritti A, Knapp M, et al. EQOLISE Group. The effectiveness of supported employment for people with severe mental illness: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370(9593):1146-52.
  • Burns T, Catty J, EQOLISE Group. IPS in Europe: the EQOLISE trial. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2008;31(4):313-7.
  • Burns T, Catty J, White S, Becker T, Koletsi M, Fioritti A, et al. EQOLISE Group. The impact of supported employment and working on clinical and social functioning: Results of an international study of individual placement and support. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2009;35(5):949-58.
  • Burns T, White SJ, Catty J, EQOLISE group. Individual placement and support in Europe: the EQOLISE trial. International Review of Psychiatry 2008;20(6):498-502.
  • Catty J, Lissouba P, White S, Becker T, Drake RE, Fioritti A, et al. EQOLISE Group. Predictors of employment for people with severe mental illness: results of an international six-centre randomised controlled trial.. British Journal of Psychiatry 2008;192(3):224-31.
Drake 1996 {published data only}
  • Becker DR, Drake RE, Bond GR, Xie H, Dain BJ, Harrison K. Job terminations among persons with severe mental illness participating in supported employment. Community Mental Health Journal 1998;34(1):71-82.
  • Clark RE. Supported employment and managed care: can they coexist?. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 1998;22(1):62-8.
  • Clark RE, Xie H, Becker DR, Drake RE. Benefits and costs of supported employment from three perspectives. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research 1998;25(1):22-34.
  • Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Becker DR, Anthony WA, Clark RE. The New Hampshire study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 1996;64(2):391-9.
  • Mueser KT, Becker DR, Torrey WC, Xie H, Bond GR, Drake RE, et al. Work and non-vocational domains of functioning in persons with severe mental illness: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1997;185(7):419-26.
  • Torrey WC, Mueser KT, McHugo GH, Drake RE. Self-esteem as an outcome measure in studies of vocational rehabilitation for adults with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2000;51(2):229-33.
Drake 1999 {published data only}
  • Dixon L, Hoch JS, Clark R, Bebout R, Drake R, McHugo G, Becker D. Cost-effectiveness of two vocational rehabilitation programs for persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services 2002;53(9):1118-24.
  • Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Bebout RR, Becker DR, Harris M, Bond GR, et al. A randomized clinical trial of supported employment for inner-city patients with severe mental disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry 1999;56(7):627-33.
Gold 2006 {published data only}
  • Gold JM, Goldberg RW, McNary SW, Dixon LB, Lehman AF. Cognitive correlates of job tenure among patients with severe mental illness. American Journal of Psychiatry 2002;159(8):1395-402.
  • Gold PB, Meisler N, Santos AB, Carnemolla MA, Williams OH, Keleher J. Randomized trial of supported employment integrated with assertive community treatment for rural adults with severe mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2006;32(2):378-95.
  • Meisler N. Rural-based supported employment approaches: results from the South Carolina site of the employment intervention demonstration project. Proceedings of the155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2002 May18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.
Howard 2010 {published data only}
  • Heslin M, Howard L, Leese M, McCrone P, Rice C, Jarrett M, et al. Randomized controlled trial of supported employment in England: 2 year follow-up of the supported work and needs (SWAN) study. World Psychiatry 2011;10(2):132-7.
  • Howard LM, Heslin M, Leese M, McCrone P, Rice C, Jarrett M, et al. Supported employment: randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2010;196(5):404-11.
  • ISRCTN96677673. RCT of individual placement and support (IPS) to improve the occupational outcomes for people with severe mental illness in South London.. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN96677673/SWAN (accessed 06 July 2009).
  • Thornicroft G. Employment programme for patients with severe mental illness operated by status employment. National Research Register 2004; Vol. 4.
Killackey 2008 {published data only}
  • Killackey E, Jackson HJ, McGorry PD. Vocational intervention in first-episode psychosis: individual placement and support v. treatment as usual. British Journal of Psychiatry 2008;193(2):114-20.
Latimer 2006 {published data only}
  • Latimer EA, Lecomte T, Becker DR, Drake RE, Duclos I, Piat M, et al. Generalisability of the individual placement and support model of supported employment: results of a Canadian randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry 2006;189:65-73.
Lehman 2002 {published data only}
  • Lehman AF, Goldberg R, Dixon LB, McNary S, Postrado L, Hackman A, et al. Improving employment outcomes for persons with severe mental illnesses. Archives of General Psychiatry 2002;59(2):165-72.
Macias 2006 {published data only}
  • Macias C, DeCarlo LT, Wang Q, Frey J, Barreira P. Work interest as a predictor of competitive employment: policy implications for psychiatric rehabilitation. Administration and Policy in Mental Health 2001;28(4):279-97.
  • Macias C, Rodican CF, Hargreaves WA, Jones DR, Barreira PJ, Wang Q. Supported employment outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of ACT and clubhouse models. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(10):1406-15.
  • Schonebaum AD, Boyd JK, Dudek KJ. A comparison of competitive employment outcomes for the clubhouse and PACT models. Psychiatric Services 2006;57(10):1416-20.
Mueser 2004 {published data only}
  • Mueser KT, Becker DR, Wolfe R. Supported employment, job preferences, job tenure and satisfaction. Journal of Mental Health 2001;10(4):411-7.
  • Mueser KT, Clark RE, Haines M, Drake RE, McHugo GJ, Bond GR, et al. The Hartford study of supported employment for persons with severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2004;72(3):479-90.
  • Mueser KT, Essock SM, Haines M, Wolfe R, Xie H. Posttraumatic stress disorder, supported employment, and outcomes in people with severe mental illness. CNS spectrums 2004;9(12):913-25.
Tsang 2009 {published data only}
  • Tsang HW, Chan A, Wong A, Liberman RP. Vocational outcomes of an integrated supported employment program for individuals with persistent and severe mental illness. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry 2009;40(2):292-305.
Twamley 2008 {published data only}
  • Twamley EW, Narvaez JM, Becker DR, Bartels SJ, Jeste DV. Supported employment for middle-aged and older people with schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 2008;11(1):76-89.
Wong 2008 {published data only}
  • Wong K, Chiu R, Tang B, Mak D, Liu J, Chiu SN. A randomized controlled trial of a supported employment program for persons with long-term mental illness in Hong Kong. Psychiatric Services 2008;59(1):84-90.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Alverson 1998 {published data only}
  • Alverson H, Vincente E. An ethnographic study of vocational rehabilitation for Puerto Rican Americans with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 1998;22:69-72.
Bayer 2008 {published data only}
  • Bayer W, Koster M, Salize HJ, Hohl W, Machleidt W, Wiedl KH, et al. Longer-term effects of inpatient vocational and ergotherapeutic measures on the vocational integration of patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatrische Praxis 2008;35(4):170-3.
Bell 1993 {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Milstein RM, Lysaker PH. Pay as an incentive in work participation by patients with severe mental illness. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1993;44(7):684-6.
Bell 1993b {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Milstein RM, Lysaker PH. Pay and participation in work activity: clinical benefits for clients with schizophrenia. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1993;17(2):173-6.
Bell 1995 {published data only}
  • Bell M, Lysaker P. Paid work activity in schizophrenia: program costs offset by costs of rehospitalizations. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1995;18(4):25-34.
Bell 1996 {published data only}
Bell 1997 {published data only}
Bell 2001 {published data only}
  • Bell M, Bryson G, Greig T, Corcoran C, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy: effects on neuropsychological test performance. Archives of General Psychiatry 2001;58:763-8.
Bell 2001b {published data only}
  • Bell MD. Effects of work activity augmented by cognitive training. CRISP database 2001.
Bell 2002 {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Bryson G, Wexler BE. Remediating working memory in impaired and less-impaired schizophrenia.. Proceedings of the155th Annual Meeting of the American PsychiatricAssociation; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.
Bell 2003 {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Bryson G, Greig T, Wexler B. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy in schizophrenia: durability of effects on neuropsychological test performance six months after training. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research; 2003 Mar 29-Apr 2; Colorado Spings, Colorado, USA. 2003.
Bell 2003b {published data only}
Bell 2005 {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Bryson G, Greig TC, Fiszdon JM, Wexler BE. Functional outcomes from a RCT of cognitive training and work therapy: 12 month follow-up. Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research; 2005 Apr 2-6; Savannah, Georgia, USA. 2005.
Bell 2005b {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Bryson GJ, Greig TC, Fiszdon JM, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy: Productivity outcomes at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2005;42(6):829-38.
Bell 2007 {published data only}
  • NCT00339170. Computer-based cognitive training program to improve productivity and work performance in individuals with schizophrenia. http://clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
Bell 2007b {published data only}
  • NCT00430560. Work activity augmented by cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia. http://clinicaltrials.gov 2007.
Bell 2007c {published data only}
  • Bell M, Fiszdon J, Greig T, Wexler B, Bryson G. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy with work therapy in schizophrenia: 6-month follow-up of neuropsychological performance. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2007;44(5):761-70.
Bell 2007d {published data only}
  • Bell MD, Greig TC, Zito W, Wexler BW. An RCT of neurocognitive enhancement therapy with supported employment: employment outcomes at 24 months. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):420-1.
Bell 2008 {published data only}
Bell 2008b {published data only}
  • Bell M, Zito W, Greig T, Wexler BE. Neurocognitive enhancement therapy and competitive employment in schizophrenia: Effects on clients with poor community functioning. American Journal of Psychiatric Rehabilitation 2008;11:109-22.
Bell 2009 {published data only}
  • NCT00829400. Cognitive training to enhance VA work program outcomes. http://clinicaltrials.gov 2009.
Blankertz 1997 {published data only}
  • Blankertz LE, Keller C. The provision of long-term vocational supports for individuals with severe mental illness. American Sociological Association 1997.
Bond 1986 {published data only}
  • Bond GR, Dincin J. Accelerating entry into transitional employment in a psychosocial rehabilitation agency. Rehabilitation Psychology 1986;31(3):143-54.
Bond 1995 {published data only}
  • Bond GR, Dietzen LL, McGrew JH, Miller LD. Accelerating entry Into supported employment for persons with severe psychiatric disabilities. Rehabilitation Psychology 1995;40(2):75-94.
Briggs 1966 {published data only}
Bryson 2002 {published data only}
Bryson 2005 {published data only}
  • Bryson GJ, Bell MD, Greig TC, Wexler BE. Neuropsychological outcomes from a RCT of cognitive training and work therapy: 12 month follow-up. Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research; 2005 Apr 2-6; Savannah, Georgia, USA. 2005.
Buchain 2003 (SE155) {published data only}
  • Buchain PC, Vizzotto AD, Henna Neto J, Elkis H. Randomized controlled trial of occupational therapy in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 2003;25(1):26-30.
Chandler 1996 (SE156) {published data only}
  • Chandler D, Meisel J, McGowen M, Mintz J, Madison K. Client outcomes in two model capitated integrated service agencies. Psychiatric Services 1996;47(2):175-80.
Chandler 1996 (SE159) {published data only}
  • Chandler D, Meisel J, Hu TW, McGowen M, Madison K. Client outcomes in a three-year controlled study of an integrated service agency model. Psychiatric Services 1996;47(12):1337-43.
Chandler 1997 (SE157) {published data only}
  • Chandler D, Hu TW, Meisel J, McGowen M, Madison K. Mental health costs, other public costs, and family burden among mental health clients in capitated integrated service agencies. Journal of Mental Health Administration 1997;24(2):178-88.
Chandler 1997 (SE160) {published data only}
  • Chandler D, Meisel J, Hu T, McGowen M, Madison K. A capitated model for a cross-section of severely mentally ill clients: employment outcomes. Community Mental Health Journal 1997;33(6):501-16.
Chandler 1998 (SE158) {published data only}
  • Chandler D, Meisel J, Hu T, McGowen M, Madison K. A capitated model for a cross-section of severely mentally ill clients: hospitalization. Community Mental Health Journal 1998;34(1):13-26.
Collier 2006 {published data only}
  • NCT00333177. Effectiveness of psychosocial therapy plus risperidone treatment improving work or school performance in people with recent-onset schizophrenia. http://clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 6 July 2009).
Cook 2005 {published data only}
  • Cook JA, Leff HS, Blyler CR, Gold PB, Goldberg RW, Mueser KT, et al. Results of a multi site randomized trial of supported employment interventions for individuals with severe mental illness. Archives of General Psychiatry 2005;62(5):505-12.
  • Cook JA, Lehman AF, Drake R, McFarlane WR, Gold PB, Leff HS, et al. Integration of psychiatric and vocational services: a multi site randomized, controlled trial of supported employment. American Journal of Psychiatry 2005;162(10):1948-56.
  • Cook JA, Razzano LA, Burke-Miller JK, Blyler CR, Leff HS, Mueser KT, et al. Effects of co-occuring disorders on employment outcomes in a multi site randomized study of supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2007;44(6):837-50.
Davis 2010 {published data only}
  • Davis LL, Drebing C, Parker PE, Leon AC. Occupational recovery in persons with PTSD:? Results from clinical investigations. Proceedings of the International Society of Traumatic Stress Studies; 2010 Nov 3-5 ; Montreal, Quebec. 2010.
Drebing 2007 (SE164) {published data only}
  • Drebing CE, Van Ormer EA, Mueller L, Hebert M, Penk WE, Petry NM, et al. Adding contingency management intervention to vocational rehabilitation: outcomes for dually diagnosed veterans. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2007;44(6):851-66.
Gervey unpublished {published data only}
  • Gervey R, Bedell JR. Supported employment in vocational rehabilitation. Psychological assessment and treatment of persons with severe mental illness. Washington, DC, USA: Taylor & Francis, 1994:1151-75.
  • Gervey RG, Bedell JR, Parrish A. Supported employment versus paid pre-employment training for persons with psychiatric disabilities: A controlled study. Data on file.
Glynn 2005 {published data only}
  • NCT00261716. Motivational interviewing to improve work outcomes in schizophrenia. http://clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 6 July 2009).
Greig 2007 {published data only}
  • Greig TC, Zito W, Wexler BE, Fiszdon J, Bell MD. Improved cognitive function in schizophrenia after one year of cognitive training and vocational services. Schizophrenia Research 2007;96(1-3):156-61.
Hu 1998 (SE166) {published data only}
  • Hu TW, Jerrell JM. Estimating the cost impact of three case management programmes for treating people with severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry 1998;173(Suppl 34):26-32.
Jones 2005 (SE143) {published data only}
  • Jones PB. Improving social recovery in early affective and non-affective psychosis: a randomised controlled trial of social recovery orientated cognitive behaviour (SRCBT). National Research Register 2005, issue 3.
Katz 2009 (SE144) {published data only}
  • Katz N, Keren N. Effectiveness of an occupational goal intervention (OGI) in schizophrenia for executive dysfunction and occupational outcomes: a randomized controlled trial.. Proceedings of the World Psychiatric Association International Congress; 2009 April 1-4th; Florence Italy. 2009.
Lysaker 2004 (SE170) {published data only}
  • Lysaker PH, Davis LW. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and work outcome in schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 157th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2004 May 1-6; NewYork, USA. 2004.
Lysaker 2005 (SE169) {published data only}
  • Lysaker PH, Bond G, Davis LW, Bryson GJ, Bell MD. Enhanced cognitive-behavioral therapy for vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia: Effects on hope and work. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development 2005;42(5):673-82.
Lysaker 2006 (SE168) {published data only}
  • Lysaker PH, Davis LW, Beattie N. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy and vocational rehabilitation on meta-cognition and coping in schizophrenia. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy 2006;36(1):25-30.
Lysaker 2009 (SE167) {published data only}
  • Lysaker PH, Davis LW, Bryson GJ, Bell MD. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on work outcomes in vocational rehabilitation for participants with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Schizophrenia Research 2009;107:186-91.
Malm 2003 (SE172) {published data only}
Mangrum 2006 (SE173) {published data only}
  • Mangrum LF, Spence RT, Lopez M. Integrated versus parallel treatment of co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 2006;30(1):79-84.
Marder 2005 (SE145) {published data only}
  • NCT00183625. The effectiveness of supplementing supported employment with behavioral skills training in schizophrenia patients taking risperidone or olanzapine. http://clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 6 July 2009).
McFarlane 2002 (SE175) {published data only}
  • McFarlane WR, Cook W, Balser R, Boyak C, Leavitt R. Effects of fact and an employers consortium on employment in severe mental illness. Proceedings of the 155th Annual Meeting of the American PsychiatricAssociation; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.
McGurk 2005 (SE18) {published data only}
  • McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Pascaris A. Cognitive training and supported employment for persons with severe mental illness: one-year results from a randomized controlled trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31(4):898-909.
McGurk 2007 (SE19) {published data only}
  • McGurk SR, Mueser KT, Feldman K, Wolfe R, Pascaris A. Cognitive training for supported employment: 2-3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry 2007;164(3):437-41.
McGurk 2009 (SE176) {published data only}
  • McGurk SR, Mueser KT, DeRosa TJ, Wolfe R. Work, recovery, and comorbidity in schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial of cognitive remediation. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2009;35(2):319-35.
Mueser 2005 (SE178) {published data only}
  • Mueser KT, Aalto S, Becker DR, Ogden JS, Wolfe RS, Schiavo D, et al. The effectiveness of skills training for improving outcomes in supported employment. Psychiatric Services 2005;56(10):1254-60.
Mueser 2008 (SE180) {published data only}
  • Mueser KT, Rosenberg SD, Xie H, Jankowski MK, Bolton EE, Lu W, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder in severe mental illness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2008;76(2):259-71.
Mueser u1 (SE179) {published data only}
  • Mueser KT, McGurk SR. 2-3 year outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of cognitive training and supported employment for people with severe mental illness. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):448-9.
Okpaku 1997 (SE181) {published data only}
  • Okpaku SO, Anderson KH, Sibulkin AE, Butler JS, Bickman L. The effectiveness of a multidisciplinary case management intervention on the employment of SSDI applicants and beneficiaries. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 1997;20(3):34-41.
Toprac 2002 {published data only}
  • Toprac M, Hoppe SK, Daggett P, Wambach K, OnkenS, Burek S, et al. The Texas earns supported employment demonstration project. Proceedings of the 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association; 2002 May 18-23; Philadelphia, PA, USA. 2002.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
McFarlane 2000 {published data only}
Michon 2010 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN87339610. SCION - Study on cost-effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS regarding open employment in the Netherlands). http://www.controlled-trials.com (accessed 6 July 2009).
  • Michon H, van Busschbach J, van Vugt M, Stant, Kroon H, Wiersma D, et al. Effectiveness of the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model of vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illnesses in the Netherlands. Psychiatr Prax. 2011; Vol. 38. [DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1277830]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Bejerholm 2009 (SE142) {published data only}
  • NCT00960024. Supported employment in a Swedish context. http://clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 6 July 2009).
McFarlane 2008 (SE147) {published data only}
  • NCT00531518. Early detection and intervention for the prevention of psychosis, a multi-site study (EDIPP). http://clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 6 July 2009).
Nuechterlein 2008 {published data only}
  • NCT00203788. Antipsychotic therapy plus a behavioral Intervention for improving work outcome in people with recent-onset schizophrenia. http://clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 06 July 2009).
  • Nuechterlein KH, Subotnik KL, Turner LR, Ventura J, Becker DR, Drake RE. Individual placement and support for individuals with recent-onset schizophrenia: integrating supported education and supported employment. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2008;31(4):340-9.
  • Nuechterlein KH, Subotnik KL, Ventura J, Gitlin MJ, Green MF, Wallace CJ, et al. Advances in improving and predicting work outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia. Proceedings of the 20th International Congress on Schizophrenia Research; 2005 Apr 2-6; Savannah, Georgia, USA. 2005.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Altman 1996
Anthony 1987
  • Anthony WA, Blanch A. Supported employment for persons who are psychiatrically disabled: an historical and conceptual perspective. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1987;11:5-23.
Becker 1994
  • Becker DR, Drake RE, Knoedler W, Anthony WA. Individual placement and support: A community mental health center approach to vocational rehabilitation. Community Mental Health Journal 1994;30(2):193-212.
Becker 2001
  • Becker DR, Drake RE. A Working Life for People with Severe Mental Illness (Innovations in Practice and Service Delivery with Vulnerable Populations). New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Bilby 1992
  • Bilby R. A response to the criticisms of transitional employment. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1992;18:69-82.
Bland 1997
Bond 1991
  • Bond GR, McDonel EC. Vocational rehabilitation outcomes for persons with psychiatric disabilities: An update. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation 1991;1(3):9-20.
Bond 1992
  • Bond GR. Vocational rehabilitation. In: Lieberman RP editor(s). Handbook of Psychiatric Rehabilitation. New York: Macmillan, 1992:244-75.
Bond 1997a
Bond 1997b
  • Bond GR, Becker DR, Drake RE, Vogler KM. A fidelity scale for the individual placement and support model of supported employment. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin 1997;40(4):265-84.
Bond 1999
  • Bond GR, Drake RE, Becker DR, Mueser KT. Effectiveness of psychiatric rehabilitation approaches for employment of people with severe mental illness. Journal of Disability Policy Studies 1999;10(1):18-52.
Bond 2001
Bond 2004
Bond 2008a
Bond 2008b
Bond 2008c
  • Bond GR, McHugo GJ, Becker DR, Rapp CA, Whitley R. Fidelity of supported employment: lessons learned from the national evidence-based practice project. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal 2008;31(4):300-5.
Boutron 2004
  • Boutron I, Tubach F, Giraudeau B, Ravaud P. Blinding was judged more difficult to achieve and maintain in nonpharmacologic than pharmacologic trials. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2004;57(6):543-50.
Cook 2006
Crowther 2001
  • Crowther R, Marshall M, Bond G, Huxley P. Vocational rehabilitation for people with severe mental illness. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003080]
Divine 1992
Donner 2002
Drake 2008
Egger 1997
EIDP website
  • Employment intervention demonstration program (EIDP). http://www.psych.uic.edu/eidp/default.htm (accessed 18 June 2011).
Endicott 1976
Furukawa 2002
  • Furukawa TA, Guyatt GH, Griffith LE. Can we individualize the 'number needed to treat'? An empirical study of summary effect measures in meta-analyses. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(1):72-6.
Furukawa 2007
  • Furukawa TA, Watanabe N, Omori IM, Montori VM, Guyatt GH. Association between unreported outcomes and effect size estimates in Cochrane meta-analyses. JAMA 2007;297(5):468-70.
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