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Intervention Review

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Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age

  1. Aamer Imdad1,
  2. Kurt Herzer2,
  3. Evan Mayo-Wilson3,
  4. Mohammad Yawar Yakoob1,
  5. Zulfiqar A Bhutta1,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 8 DEC 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 26 OCT 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008524.pub2


How to Cite

Imdad A, Herzer K, Mayo-Wilson E, Yakoob MY, Bhutta ZA. Vitamin A supplementation for preventing morbidity and mortality in children from 6 months to 5 years of age. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD008524. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008524.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Aga Khan University Hospital, Division of Women and Child Health, Karachi, Pakistan

  2. 2

    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

  3. 3

    University of Oxford, The Centre for Evidence-Based Intervention, Oxford, UK

*Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Division of Women and Child Health, Aga Khan University Hospital, Stadium Road, PO Box 3500, Karachi, 74800, Pakistan. zulfiqar.bhutta@aku.edu.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 8 DEC 2010

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This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (11 MAR 2017)

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Agarwal 1995 {published data only}
  • Agarwal DK, Pandey CM, Agarwal KN. Vitamin A administration and preschool child mortality. Nutrition Research. Nutrition Research. 15(5)(pp 669-680), 1995. Date of Publication: 1995., 1995; Vol. 15, issue 5:669-80. [0271-5317]
Arya 2000 {published data only}
  • Arya S, Chellani H, Pandey J. Evaluation of safety of oral vitamin 'A' megadose co-administered with measles vaccination. Indian Pediatrics . 2000/12/19 2000; Vol. 37, issue 12:1341-7. [0019-6061: (Print)]
Bahl 1999 {published data only}
  • Bahl R, Kumar R, Bhandari N, Kant S, Srivastava R, Bhan MK. Vitamin A administered with measles vaccine to nine-month-old infants does not reduce vaccine immunogenicity. Journal of Nutrition 1999; Vol. 129, issue 8:1569-73. [0022-3166]
Barreto 1994 {published data only}
  • Andreozzi VL, Bailey TC, Nobre FF, Struchiner CJ, Barreto ML, Assis AM, et al. Random-effects models in investigating the effect of vitamin A in childhood diarrhea. Annals of Epidemiology 2006; Vol. 16, issue 4:241-7. [1047-2797]
  • Barreto ML, Santos LM, Assis AM, Araujo MP, Farenzena GG, Santos PA, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on diarrhoea and acute lower-respiratory-tract infections in young children in Brazil. Lancet 1994; Vol. 344, issue 8917:228-31. [0140-6736]
Benn 1997 {published data only}
  • Benn CS, Aaby P, Bale C, Olsen J, Michaelsen KF, George E, et al. Randomised trial of effect of vitamin A supplementation on antibody response to measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Lancet 1997; Vol. 350, issue 9071:101-5. [0140-6736]
  • Benn CS, Lisse IM, Bale C, Michaelsen KF, Olsen J, Hedegaard K, et al. No strong long-term effect of vitamin A supplementation in infancy on CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. A community study from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 2000; Vol. 20, issue 4:259-64. [0272-4936]
Biswas 1994 {published data only}
  • Biswas R, Biswas AB, Manna B, Bhattacharya SK, Dey R, Sarkar S. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on diarrhoea and acute respiratory tract infection in children. A double blind placebo controlled trial in a Calcutta slum community. European Journal of Epidemiology 1994, issue 1:57-61.
Cheng 1993 {published data only}
  • Cheng L, Chang Y, Wang EL, Brun T, Geissler C. Impact of large-dose vitamin A supplementation on childhood diarrhoea, respiratory disease and growth. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1993; Vol. 47, issue 2:88-96. [0954-3007]
Cherian 2003 {published data only}
  • Cherian T, Sneha V, Raghupathy P, Ratnam S, Chandra RK. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the immune response to measles vaccination. Vaccine 2003; Vol. 21, issue 19:2418-20. [0264-410X]
Chowdhury 2002 {published data only}
  • Chowdhury S, Kumar R, Ganguly NK, Kumar L, Walia BN. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on childhood morbidity and mortality. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 2002, issue 6:259-64.
Daulaire 1992 {published data only}
  • Daulaire NM, Starbuck ES, Houston RM, Church MS, Stukel TA, Pandey MR. Childhood mortality after a high dose of vitamin A in a high risk population. BMJ 1992; Vol. 304, issue 6821:207-10. [0959-8138]
DEVTA 2007 {published data only}
  • See Studies awaiting classification.
Dibley 1994 {published data only}
  • Dibley MJ, Sadjimin T, Kjolhede CL, Moulton LH. Vitamin A supplementation fails to reduce incidence of acute respiratory illness and diarrhea in preschool-age Indonesian children. Journal of Nutrition 1996; Vol. 126, issue 2:434-42. [0022-3166]
  • Hadi H, Dibley MJ, West KP. Complex interactions with infection and diet may explain seasonal growth responses to vitamin A in preschool aged Indonesian children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004, issue 7:990-9.
  • Hadi H, Stoltzfus RJ, Dibley MJ, Moulton LH, West KP Jr, Kjolhede CL, et al. Vitamin A supplementation selectively improves the linear growth of Indonesian preschool children: results from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000; Vol. 71, issue 2:507-13. [0002-9165]
  • Hadi H, Stoltzfus RJ, Moulton LH, Dibley MJ, West KP Jr. Respiratory infections reduce the growth response to vitamin A supplementation in a randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Epidemiology 1999; Vol. 28, issue 5:874-81. [0300-5771]
Donnen 1998 {published data only}
  • Donnen P, Brasseur D, Dramaix M, Vertongen F, Zihindula M, Muhamiriza M, et al. Vitamin A supplementation but not deworming improves growth of malnourished preschool children in eastern Zaire. Journal of Nutrition 1998; Vol. 128, issue 8:1320-7. [0022-3166]
  • Donnen P, Dramaix M, Brasseur D, Zihindula M, Muhamiriza M, Hennart P. Malnourished children morbidity following vitamin A supplementation or deworming in Democratic Republic of Congo. Archives of Public Health 1998; Vol. 56, issue 3:109-24. [0003-9578]
Florentino 1990 {published data only}
  • Florentino RF, Tanchoco CC, Ramos AC, Mendoza TS, Natividad EP, Tangco JB, et al. Tolerance of preschoolers to two dosage strengths of vitamin A preparation. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; Vol. 52, issue 4:694-700. [0002-9165]
Herrera 1992 {published data only}
  • Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, Nestel P, el Amin A, Lipsitz S, et al. Dietary vitamin A intake and the risk of mortality among children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; Vol. 59, issue 2:401-8. [0002-9165]
  • Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, Nestel P, el Amin A, Mohamed KA. Dietary vitamin A intake and the incidence of diarrhea and respiratory infection among Sudanese children. Journal of Nutrition. 1995/05/01 1995; Vol. 125, issue 5:1211-21. [0022-3166: (Print)]
  • Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, Nestel P, el Amin A, Mohamed KA. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of preschool children in the Sudan. American Journal of Public Health 1997; Vol. 87, issue 8:1359-62. [0090-0036]
  • Fawzi WW, Herrera MG, Willett WC, el Amin A, Nestel P, Lipsitz S, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and dietary vitamin A in relation to the risk of xerophthalmia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 58(3)(pp 385-391), 1993. Date of Publication: 1993., 1993; Vol. 58, issue 3:385-91. [0002-9165]
  • Herrera MG, Nestel P, el Amin A, Fawzi WW, Mohamed KA, Weld L. Vitamin A supplementation and child survival. Lancet 1992; Vol. 340, issue 8814:267-71. [0140-6736]
Kartasasmita 1995 {published data only}
  • Kartasasmita CB, Rosmayudi O, Deville W, Demedts M. Plasma retinol level, vitamin A supplementation and acute respiratory infections in children of 1-5 years old in a developing country. Tubercle and Lung Disease 1995; Vol. 76, issue 6:563-9. [0962-8479]
Lima 2010 {published data only}
  • Lima AA, Soares AM, Lima NL, Mota RM, Maciel BL, Kvalsund MP, et al. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on intestinal barrier function, growth, total parasitic, and specific Giardia spp infections in Brazilian children: a prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition 2010; Vol. 50, issue 3:309-15.
Lin 2008 {published data only}
  • Lin J, Song F, Yao P, Yang X, Li N, Sun S, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on immune function of well-nourished children suffering from vitamin A deficiency in China. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008, issue 12:1412-8.
Lin 2009 {published data only}
  • Lin J, Lai X, Qin J, Song F, Zhang Y, Yao P, et al. Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on health and growth of vitamin A deficient children in China rural villages: A randomized controlled trial. e-SPEN, the European e-Journal of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism 2009;4(1):e17-e21. [1751-4991]
Long 2006 {published data only}
  • Long KZ, Montoya Y, Hertzmark E, Santos JI, Rosado JL. A double-blind, randomized, clinical trial of the effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on diarrheal disease and respiratory tract infections in children in Mexico City, Mexico. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006; Vol. 83, issue 3:693-700. [0002-9165]
  • Rosado JL, Caamano MC, Montoya YA, Solano MdL, Santos JI, Long KZ. Interaction of zinc or vitamin A supplementation and specific parasite infections on Mexican infants' growth: a randomized clinical trial. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; Vol. 63, issue 10:1176-84. [0954-3007]
Long 2006 (2) {published data only}
  • As above.
Long 2007 {published data only}
  • Long KZ, Estrada-Garcia T, Rosado JL, Santos JI, Haas M, Firestone M, et al. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on the intestinal immune response in Mexican children is modified by pathogen infections and diarrhea. Journal of Nutrition 2006; Vol. 136, issue 5:1365-70. [0022-3166]
  • Long KZ, Rosado JL, DuPont HL, Hertzmark E, Santos JI. Supplementation with vitamin A reduces watery diarrhoea and respiratory infections in Mexican children. British Journal of Nutrition 2007; Vol. 97, issue 2:337-43. [0007-1145]
  • Long KZ, Santos JI, Rosado JL, Lopez-Saucedo C, Thompson-Bonilla R, Abonce M, et al. Impact of vitamin A on selected gastrointestinal pathogen infections and associated diarrheal episodes among children in Mexico City, Mexico. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006; Vol. 194, issue 9:1217-25. [0022-1899]
Pant 1996 {published data only}
  • Pant CR, Pokharel GP, Curtale F, Pokhrel RP, Grosse RN, Lepkowski J, et al. Impact of nutrition education and mega-dose vitamin A supplementation on the health of children in Nepal. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1996; Vol. 74, issue 5:533-45. [0042-9686]
  • Pokharel GP, Pant CR, Tilden RL, Pokhrel RP, Atmarita, Curtale F. Nutrition education and mega-dose vitamin A supplementation in Nepal. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1998; Vol. 65, issue 4:547-55. [0019-5456]
Pinnock 1986 {published data only}
  • Pinnock CB, Douglas RM, Badcock NR. Vitamin A status in children who are prone to respiratory tract infections. Australian Paediatric Journal. 1986/05/01 1986; Vol. 22, issue 2:95-9. [0004-993X: (Print)]
Pinnock 1988 {published data only}
  • Pinnock CB, Douglas RM, Martin AJ, Badcock NR. Vitamin A status of children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy. Australian Paediatric Journal. 1988/10/01 1988; Vol. 24, issue 5:286-9. [0004-993X: (Print)]
Rahman 2001 {published data only}
  • Rahman MM, Fahmida T, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, Baqui AH, Alvarez JO. Short-term supplementation with zinc and vitamin A has no significant effect on the growth of undernourished Bangladeshi children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; Vol. 75, issue 1:87-91. [0002-9165]
  • Rahman MM, Vermund SH, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, Baqui AH, Alvarez JO. Simultaneous zinc and vitamin A supplementation in Bangladeshi children: randomised double blind controlled trial. BMJ 2001; Vol. 323, issue 7308:314-8. [0959-8138]
  • Rahman MM, Wahed MA, Fuchs GJ, Baqui AH, Alvarez JO. Synergistic effect of zinc and vitamin A on the biochemical indexes of vitamin A nutrition in children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002; Vol. 75, issue 1:92-8. [0002-9165]
Rahmathullah 1990 {published data only}
  • Rahmathullah L. Effect of receiving a weekly dose of vitamin A equivalent to the recommended dietary allowances among pre school children on mortality in south India. Indian Journal of Pediatrics 1991, issue 6:837-47.
  • Rahmathullah L, Underwood BA, Thulasiraj RD, Milton RC. Diarrhea, respiratory infections, and growth are not affected by a weekly low-dose vitamin A supplement: a masked, controlled field trial in children in southern India. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1991; Vol. 54, issue 3:568-77. [0002-9165]
  • Rahmathullah L, Underwood BA, Thulasiraj RD, Milton RC, Ramaswamy K, Rahmathullah R, et al. Reduced mortality among children in southern India receiving a small weekly dose of vitamin A. New England Journal of Medicine 1990; Vol. 323, issue 14:929-35. [0028-4793]
  • Rahmathullah L, Underwood BA, Thulasiraj RD, Milton RC, Ramaswamy K, Rahmathullah R, et al. Vitamin a supplementation reduces childhood mortality. National Medical Journal of India 1991; Vol. 4, issue 4:187-9.
Ramakrishnan 1995 {published data only}
  • Ramakrishnan U, Latham MC, Abel R. Vitamin A supplementation does not improve growth of preschool children: a randomized, double-blind field trial in south India. Journal of Nutrition 1995; Vol. 125, issue 2:202-11. [0022-3166]
  • Ramakrishnan U, Latham MC, Abel R, Frongillo EA Jr. Vitamin A supplementation and morbidity among preschool children in South India. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; Vol. 61, issue 6:1295-303. [0002-9165]
Ranjini 2001 {published data only}
  • Ranjini EK, Cherian T, Balasubramaniam KA, Raghupathy P. Vitamin A supplementation in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Indian Pediatrics 2001; Vol. 38, issue 7:771-4. [0019-6061]
Reddy 1986 {published data only}
  • Reddy V, Vijayaraghavan K, Mathur KK. Effect of deworming and vitamin A administration on serum vitamin A levels in preschool children. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1986; Vol. 32, issue 4:196-9. [0142-6338]
Reddy 1986 (2) {published data only}
  • As above.
Ross 1993 HEALTH {published data only}
  • Benn CS, Aaby P, Nielsen J, Binka FN, Ross DA. Does vitamin A supplementation interact with routine vaccinations? An analysis of the Ghana Vitamin A Supplementation Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; Vol. 90, issue 3:629-39.
  • Binka FN, Ross DA, Morris SS, Kirkwood BR, Arthur P, Dollimore N, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; Vol. 61, issue 4:853-9. [0002-9165]
  • Dollimore N, Cutts F, Binka FN, Ross DA, Morris SS, Smith PG. Measles incidence, case fatality, and delayed mortality in children with or without vitamin A supplementation in rural Ghana. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997; Vol. 146, issue 8:646-54. [0002-9262]
  • Filteau SM, Morris SS, Raynes JG, Arthur P, Ross DA, Kirkwood BR, et al. Vitamin A supplementation, morbidity, and serum acute-phase proteins in young Ghanaian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; Vol. 62, issue 2:434-8. [0002-9165]
  • Filteau SM, Morris SS, Tomkins AM, Arthur P, Kirkwood BR, Ross DA, et al. Lack of association between vitamin A status and measures of conjunctival epithelial integrity in young children in northern Ghana. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; Vol. 48, issue 9:669-77. [0954-3007]
  • Kirkwood BR, Ross DA, Arthur P, Morris SS, Dollimore N, Binka FN, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996; Vol. 63, issue 5:773-81. [0002-9165]
  • Kirkwood BR, Ross DA, Arthur P, Morris SS, Dollimore N, Binka FN, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. Early Human Development 1996, issue 3:279.
  • Ross DA, Binka FN, Dollimore N, Smith PG, Addy HA, Tomkins AM, et al. Vitamin A supplementation in northern Ghana: Effects on clinic attendances, hospital admissions, and child mortality. Lancet. Lancet. 342(8862)(pp 7-12), 1993. Date of Publication: 1993., 1993; Vol. 342, issue 8862:7-12. [0140-6736]
  • Ross DA, Kirkwood BR, Binka FN, Arthur P, Dollimore N, Morris SS, et al. Child morbidity and mortality following vitamin A supplementation in Ghana: time since dosing, number of doses, and time of year. American Journal of Public Health 1995; Vol. 85, issue 9:1246-51. [0090-0036]
Ross 1993 SURVIVAL {published data only}
  • Benn CS, Aaby P, Nielsen J, Binka FN, Ross DA. Does vitamin A supplementation interact with routine vaccinations? An analysis of the Ghana Vitamin A Supplementation Trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009; Vol. 90, issue 3:629-39.
  • Binka FN, Ross DA, Morris SS, Kirkwood BR, Arthur P, Dollimore N, et al. Vitamin A supplementation and childhood malaria in northern Ghana. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; Vol. 61, issue 4:853-9. [0002-9165]
  • Dollimore N, Cutts F, Binka FN, Ross DA, Morris SS, Smith PG. Measles incidence, case fatality, and delayed mortality in children with or without vitamin A supplementation in rural Ghana. American Journal of Epidemiology 1997; Vol. 146, issue 8:646-54. [0002-9262]
  • Filteau SM, Morris SS, Raynes JG, Arthur P, Ross DA, Kirkwood BR, et al. Vitamin A supplementation, morbidity, and serum acute-phase proteins in young Ghanaian children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; Vol. 62, issue 2:434-8. [0002-9165]
  • Filteau SM, Morris SS, Tomkins AM, Arthur P, Kirkwood BR, Ross DA, et al. Lack of association between vitamin A status and measures of conjunctival epithelial integrity in young children in northern Ghana. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994; Vol. 48, issue 9:669-77. [0954-3007]
  • Kirkwood BR, Ross DA, Arthur P, Morris SS, Dollimore N, Binka FN, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1996; Vol. 63, issue 5:773-81. [0002-9165]
  • Kirkwood BR, Ross DA, Arthur P, Morris SS, Dollimore N, Binka FN, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on the growth of young children in northern Ghana. Early Human Development 1996, issue 3:279.
  • Ross DA, Binka FN, Dollimore N, Smith PG, Addy HA, Tomkins AM, et al. Vitamin A supplementation in northern Ghana: Effects on clinic attendances, hospital admissions, and child mortality. Lancet. Lancet. 342(8862)(pp 7-12), 1993. Date of Publication: 1993., 1993; Vol. 342, issue 8862:7-12. [0140-6736]
  • Ross DA, Kirkwood BR, Binka FN, Arthur P, Dollimore N, Morris SS, et al. Child morbidity and mortality following vitamin A supplementation in Ghana: time since dosing, number of doses, and time of year. American Journal of Public Health 1995; Vol. 85, issue 9:1246-51. [0090-0036]
Semba 1992 {published data only}
  • Semba R, Muhilal, Scott A, Natadisastra G, Wirasasmita S, Griffin D, et al. Immune status in children with mild vitamin A deficiency in Indonesia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1991.
  • Semba RD, Muhilal MPH, West KP Jr. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on hematological indicators of iron metabolism and protein status in children. Nutrition Research 1992; Vol. 12, issue 4:469-78. [0271-5317]
  • Semba RD, Muhilal, Scott AL, Natadisastra G, West KP, Sommer A. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on immunoglobulin G subclass responses to tetanus toxoid in children. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 1994, issue 2:172-5.
  • Semba RD, Muhilal, Scott AL, Natadisastra G, Wirasasmita S, Mele L, et al. Depressed immune response to tetanus in children with vitamin A deficiency. Journal of Nutrition. 1992/01/11 1992; Vol. 122, issue 1:101-7. [0022-3166: (Print)]
Semba 1995 {published data only}
  • Semba RD, Munasir Z, Beeler J, Akib A, Muhilal, Audet S, et al. Reduced seroconversion to measles in infants given vitamin A with measles vaccination. Lancet. 1995/05/27 1995; Vol. 345, issue 8961:1330-2. [0140-6736: (Print)]
Sempertegui 1999 {published data only}
  • Sempertegui F, Estrella B, Camaniero V, Betancourt V, Izurieta R, Ortiz W, et al. The beneficial effects of weekly low-dose vitamin A supplementation on acute lower respiratory infections and diarrhea in Ecuadorian children. Pediatrics 1999; Vol. 104, issue 1.
Shankar 1999 {published data only}
  • Shankar AH, Genton B, Semba RD, Baisor M, Paino J, Tamja S, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity due to Plasmodium falciparum in young children in Papua New Guinea: a randomised trial. Lancet 1999, issue 9174:203-9.
Sinha 1976 {published data only}
  • Sinha DP, Bang FB. The effect of massive doses of vitamin A on the signs of vitamin A deficiency in preschool children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1976; Vol. 29, issue 1:110-5. [0002-9165]
Smith 1999 {published data only}
  • Smith JC, Makdani D, Hegar A, Rao D, Douglass LW. Vitamin A and zinc supplementation of preschool children. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 1999; Vol. 18, issue 3:213-22. [0731-5724]
Sommer 1986 {published data only}
  • Abdeljaber MH, Monto AS, Tilden RL, Schork MA, Tarwotjo I. The impact of vitamin A supplementation on morbidity: a randomized community intervention trial. American Journal of Public Health 1991; Vol. 81, issue 12:1654-6. [0090-0036]
  • Djunaedi E, Sommer A, Pandji A, Kusdiono, Taylor HR. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on xerophthalmia. A randomized controlled community trial. Archives of Ophthalmology 1988; Vol. 106, issue 2:218-22. [0003-9950]
  • Sommer A, Tarwotjo I, Djunaedi E, West KP Jr, Loeden AA, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on childhood mortality. A randomised controlled community trial. Lancet 1986; Vol. 8491, issue 31.
  • Tielsch JM, West KP. Cost and efficiency considerations in community-based trials of vitamin A in developing countries. Statistics in medicine 1990; Vol. 9, issue 1-2:35-41; discussion 41-3.
  • West KP Jr, Djunaedi E, Pandji A. Vitamin A supplementation and growth: a randomized community trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1988; Vol. 48, issue 5:1257-64. [0002-9165]
Stabell 1995 {published data only}
  • Stabell C, Bale C, Pedro da Silva A, Olsen J, Aaby P. No evidence of fontanelle-bulging episodes after vitamin A supplementation of 6- and 9-month-old infants in Guinea Bissau. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995; Vol. 49, issue 1:73-4. [0954-3007]
Stansfield 1993 {published data only}
  • Stansfield SK, Muller PL, Lerebours G, Augustin A. Vitamin A supplementation and increased prevalence of childhood diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections. Lancet 1993; Vol. 342, issue 8871:578-82. [0140-6736]
van Agtmaal 1988 {published data only}
  • van Agtmaal EJ, Bloem MW, Speek AJ, Saowakontha S, Schreurs HP, van Haeringen NJ. The effect of vitamin A supplementation on tear fluid retinol levels of marginally nourished preschool children. Current Eye Research 1988;7(1):43-8.
Venkatarao 1996 {published data only}
  • Venkatarao T, Ramakrishnan R, Nair NG, Radhakrishnan S, Sundaramoorthy L, Koya PK, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation to mother and infant on morbidity in infancy. Indian Pediatrics 1996; Vol. 33, issue 4:279-86. [0019-6061]
Vijayaraghavan 1990 {published data only}
  • Vijayaraghavan K, Radhaiah G, Surya Prakasam B, Sarma KVR, Reddy V. Effect of massive dose vitamin A on morbidity and mortality in Indian children. Lancet 1990; Vol. 336, issue 8727:1342-5. [0140-6736]
West 1991 {published data only}
  • Bishai D, Kumar KCS, Waters H, Koenig M, Katz J, Khatry SK, et al. The impact of vitamin A supplementation on mortality inequalities among children in Nepal. Health Policy and Planning 2005; Vol. 20, issue 1:60-6. [0268-1080]
  • Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Thapa MD, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, et al. Impact of vitamin A supplementation on prevalence and incidence of xerophthalmia in Nepal. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science 1995; Vol. 36, issue 13:2577-83. [0146-0404]
  • Pokhrel RP, Khatry SK, West KP, Shrestha SR, Katz J, Pradhan EK, et al. Sustained reduction in child mortality with vitamin A in Nepal. Lancet 1994, issue 8909:1368-9.
  • Shih JH, Lu SE. Analysis of failure time data with multilevel clustering, with application to the child vitamin a intervention trial in Nepal. Biometrics 2007; Vol. 63, issue 3:673-80. [0006-341X]
  • West KP Jr, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, Wu LSF, Pradhan EK, Khatry SK, et al. Effects of vitamin A on growth of vitamin A-deficient children: Field studies in Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 1997; Vol. 127, issue 10:1957-65. [0022-3166]
  • West KP Jr, Pokhrel RP, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, Shrestha SR, et al. Efficacy of vitamin A in reducing preschool child mortality in Nepal. Lancet 1991; Vol. 338, issue 8759:67-71. [0140-6736]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Bahl 1997 {published data only}
  • Bahl R, Bhandari N, Taneja S, Bhan MK. The impact of vitamin A supplementation on physical growth of children is dependent on season. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1997/01/01 1997; Vol. 51, issue 1:26-9. [0954-3007: (Print)]
Bhaskaram 1997 {published data only}
  • Bhaskaram P, Rao KV. Enhancement in seroconversion to measles vaccine with simultaneous administration of vitamin A in 9-months-old Indian infants. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 1997/07/01 1997; Vol. 64, issue 4:503-9. [0019-5456: (Print)]
Bloem 1990 {published data only}
  • Bloem MW, Wedel M, Agtmaal EJ, Speek AJ, Saowakontha S, Schreurs WHP. Vitamin A intervention: short-term effects of a single, oral, massive dose on iron metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1990; Vol. 51, issue 1:76-9. [0002-9165]
Kothari 1991 {published data only}
  • Kothari G. The Effect of Vitamin A Prophylaxis on Morbidity and Mortality Among Children in Urban Slums in Bombay. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 1991; Vol. 37:141.
Semba 1990 {published data only}
  • Semba RD, Wirasasmita S, Natadisastra G, Muhilal, Sommer A. Response of Bitot's spots in preschool children to vitamin A treatment. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1990/10/15 1990; Vol. 110, issue 4:416-20. [0002-9394: (Print)]
Semba 2005 {published data only}
  • Semba RD, Ndugwa C, Perry RT, Clark TD, Jackson JB, Melikian G, et al. Effect of periodic vitamin A supplementation on mortality and morbidity of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Uganda: A controlled clinical trial. Nutrition. 2005/01/22 2005; Vol. 21, issue 1:25-31. [0899-9007: (Print)]
Wu 2007 {published data only}
  • Z. Wu, L. Lin, Ouyang L. Impact of vitamin A on the immune function of infants. China Tropical Medicine 2007;7(4):540-1.
Yang 2002 {published data only}
  • Yang YX, Han JH, Shao XP, He M, Bian LH, Wang Z, et al. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on the growth of preschool children in China. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 2002/12/26 2002; Vol. 15, issue 3:196-202. [0895-3988: (Print)]

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Aklamati 2006 {published data only}
  • Aklamati E, Brown KH, Mulenga M, Kafwembe E, Peerson JM, Stephensen C, et al. Impact of high-dose vitamin A supplements on vitamin A status of 3-4 year old Zambian boys. FASEB Journal 2006; Vol. 20, issue 5, Part 2.
DEVTA trial 2007 {published data only}
  • Awasthi S, Peto R, Bundy D, Read S, Kourellias K, Clark S, et al. Six-monthly vitamin A supplementation from 1 to 6 years of age. Abstract of talk at ILSI Micronutrient Forum, Istanbul, 16-18 April 2007. http://www.ctsu.ox.ac.uk/projects/devta/index_html.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Alvarez 1995
  • Alvarez JO, Salazar-Lindo E, Kohatsu J, Miranda P, Stephensen CB. Urinary excretion of retinol in children with acute diarrhoea. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995;61(6):1273-6.
Bates 1995
Beaton 1993
  • Beaton GH, Martorell R, Aronson KJ, Edmonston B, McCabe G, Ross AC, et al. Effectiveness of Vitamin A supplementation in the control of young child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. ACC/SCN State of the Art Series, Nutrition 1993;Policy Discussion Paper:No. 13.
Bello 2009
  • Bello S, Meremikwu MM, Ejemot RI. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007719]
Benn 2003
  • Benn CS, Bale C, Sommerfelt H, Friis H, Aaby P. Hypothesis: Vitamin A supplementation and childhood mortality: amplification of the non-specific effects of vaccines?. International Journal of Epidemiology. 2003/10/16 2003; Vol. 32, issue 5:822-8. [0300-5771: (Print)]
Chen 2008
Darlow 2007
Fawzi 1993
Fawzi 2006
Glasziou 1993
Gogia 2008
  • Gogia S, Sachdev HS. Vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in infants six months of age or less. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007480]
Gogia 2008a
  • Gogia S, Sachdev HPS. Web Appendix 10. Review of vitamin A supplementation in pregnancy and childhood. In: Bhutta ZA, Ahmed T, Black RE, Cousens S, Dewey K, Giugliani E, et al. What works? Interventions for maternal and child undernutrition and survival. Lancet 2008;371(9610):417-40.
Green 1928
  • Green H, Mellanby E. Vitamin A as an anti-infective agent. British Medical Journal 1928;2:691-6.
Haider 2008
  • Haider BA, Irfan FB, Bhutta ZA. Neonatal vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of mortality and morbidity in term neonates in developing countries. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006980]
Haskell 1999
Hathcock 1997
Higgins 2008
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.1 [updated September 2008]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Imdad 2010
  • Imdad A, Yakoob MY, Haider BA, Bhutta ZA. Preventive and Therapeutic Effects of Vitamin A Supplementation on Infant and Childhood Morbidity and Mortality: A Systematic Review. In: Bhutta ZA editor(s). Nutrition Interventions for Maternal and Child Health and Survival. Vol. 1, Oxford University Press, 2010:125-39.
Kirkwood 2010
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Klemm 2009
  • Klemm RD, West KJ, Tielsh J, Wu L, Katz J. Pooled analysis of Asian newborn vitamin A supplementation trials to assess differential effects of early infant mortality. Micronutrients, health and development: Evidence-based programs. Beijing, China, 2009.
Klemm 2010
  • Klemm RD, West KP Jr, Palmer AC, Johnson Q, Randall P, Ranum P, et al. Vitamin A fortification of wheat flour: considerations and current recommendations. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2010;31(1 Suppl):S47-61.
Latham 2010
  • Latham M. The great vitamin A fiasco. World Nutrition May 2010;1(1):12-45.
Mayo-Wilson 2007
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Mitra 1998
  • Mitra AK, Alvarez JO, Guay-Woodford L, Fuchs GJ, Wahed MA, Stephenson CB. Urinary retinol excretion and kidney function in children with shigellosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1998;68(5):1095-103.
Ni 2005
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Oliveira 2006
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Ramakrishnan 2002
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RevMan 2008 [Computer program]
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Rice 2004
  • Rice AL, West KP Jr, Black RE. Vitamin A deficiency. In: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. Vol. 1, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.
Rotondi 2010
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Semba 1999
Shenai 1993
  • Shenai JP. Vitamin A. In: Tsang RC, Lucas A, Uauy R editor(s). Nutritional needs of the preterm infant: scientific basis and practical guidelines. Baltimore: Williams and Williams, 1993:87-100.
Smith 1976
Sommer 1996
  • Sommer A, West KP Jr. Vitamin A deficiency: Health, Survival and Vision. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Sommer 2002
  • Sommer A, Davidson FR. Assessment and Control of Vitamin A Deficiency: The Annecy Accords. Journal of Nutrition 2002;132(9):2845-50.
US Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board
  • US Institute of Medicine, Food, Nutrition Board. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 2000.
van den Broek 2002
Villamor 2000
  • Villamor E, Fawzi WW. Vitamin A supplementation: implications for morbidity and mortality in children. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000/08/17 2000; Vol. 182 Suppl 1:S122-33. [0022-1899: (Print)]
West 2002
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West 2002a
  • West KP Jr. Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age. Journal of Nutrition 2002;132(9):2857-66.
West KP 2003
  • West KP Jr. Vitamin A deficiency disorders in children and women. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2003;4(suppl 4):S78-S90.
WHO 1997
  • WHO. Vitamin A supplements; A guide to their use in prevention and treatment of vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1997.
WHO 2009
  • WHO. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk 1995–2005. WHO Global Database on Vitamin A Deficiency 2009.
Wiysonge 2005
Yang 2009
  • Yang HM, Mao M, Wan CM. Vitamin A for treating measles in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001479.pub3]