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Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes

  1. Nynke van den Broek1,*,
  2. Lixia Dou2,
  3. Mohammad Othman3,
  4. James P Neilson3,
  5. Simon Gates4,
  6. A Metin Gülmezoglu5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 10 NOV 2010

Assessed as up-to-date: 4 OCT 2010

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008666.pub2


How to Cite

van den Broek N, Dou L, Othman M, Neilson JP, Gates S, Gülmezoglu AM. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 11. Art. No.: CD008666. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008666.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK

  2. 2

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

  3. 3

    The University of Liverpool, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

  4. 4

    Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Warwick Clinical Trials Unit, Coventry, UK

  5. 5

    World Health Organization, UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, Geneva, Switzerland

*Nynke van den Broek, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, UK. vdbroek@liverpool.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 10 NOV 2010

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Ajans 1965 {published data only}
Coutsoudis 1999 {published data only}
  • Coutsoudis A, Moodley D, Pillay K, Harrigan R, Stone C, Moodley J, et al. Effects of vitamin A supplementation on viral load in HIV-1 infected pregnant women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1997;15(1):86-7.
  • Coutsoudis A, Pillay K, Spooner E, Kuhn L, Coovadia HM. Randomized trial testing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on pregnancy outcomes and early mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in Durban, South Africa. AIDS 1999;13(12):1517-24.
  • Filteau SM, Rollins NC, Coutsoudis A, Sullivan KR, Willumsen JF, Tomkins AM. The effect of antenatal vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation on gut integrity of infants of HIV-infected South African women. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2001;32(4):464-70.
  • Kennedy CM, Coutsoudis A, Kuhn L, Pillay K, Mburu A, Stein Z, et al. Randomized controlled trial assessing the effect of vitamin A supplementation on maternal morbidity during pregnancy and postpartum among HIV-infected women. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2000;24(1):37-44.
  • Kennedy-Oji C, Coutsoudis A, Kuhn L, Pillay K, Mburu A, Stein Z, et al. Effects of vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy and early lactation on body weight of South African HIV-infected women. Journal of Health, Population & Nutrition 2001;19(3):167-76.
  • Kuhn L, Coutsoudis A, Trabattoni D, Archary D, Rossi T, Segat L, et al. Synergy between mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms and supplementation with vitamin A influences susceptibility to HIV infection in infants born to HIV-positive mothers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84(3):610-5.
Cox 2005 {published data only}
Dijkhuizen 2004 {published data only}
  • Dijkhuizen MA, Wieringa FT, West CE, Muhilal. Zinc plus beta-carotene supplementation of pregnant women is superior to beta-carotene supplementation alone in improving vitamin A status in both mothers and infants. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;80(5):1299-307.
Fawzi 1998 {published data only}
  • Baylin A, Villamor E, Rifai N, Msamanga G, Fawzi WW. Effect of vitamin supplementation to HIV-infected pregnant women on the micronutrient status of their infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;59(8):960-8.
  • Fawzi W, Msamanga G, Antelman G, Xu C, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, et al. Effect of prenatal vitamin supplementation on lower-genital levels of HIV type 1 and interleukin type 1 beta at 36 weeks of gestation. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004;38(5):716-22.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga G, Hunter D, Urassa E, Renjifo B, Mwakagile D, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to vertical transmission of HIV-1 in tanzania. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2000;23(3):246-54.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Hunter D, Renjifo B, Antelman G, Bang H, et al. Randomized trial of vitamin supplements in relation to transmission of HIV-1 through breastfeeding and early child mortality. AIDS (London, England) 2002;16(14):1935-44.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Kupka R, Spiegelman D, Villamor E, Mugusi F, et al. Multivitamin supplementation improves hematologic status in HIV-infected women and their children in Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85(5):1335-43.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Urassa EJ, Hunter DJ. Rationale and design of the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial. Controlled Clinical Trials 1999;20(1):75-90.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Urassa EJ, McGrath N, Mwakagile D, et al. Randomised trial of effects of vitamin supplements on pregnancy outcomes and T cell counts in HIV-1-infected women in tanzania. Lancet 1998;351(9114):1477-82.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Wei R, Kapiga S, Villamor E, et al. A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351(1):23-32.
  • Fawzi WW, Msamanga GI, Wei R, Spiegelman D, Antelman G, Villamor E, et al. Effect of providing vitamin supplements to human immunodeficiency virus-infected, lactating mothers on the child's morbidity and cd4+ cell counts. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2003;36(8):1053-62.
  • Kawai K, Kupka R, Mugusi F, Aboud S, Okuma J, Villamor E, et al. A randomized trial to determine the optimal dosage of multivitamin supplements to reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes among HIV-infected women in Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91(2):391-7.
  • Kupka R, Msamanga GI, Spiegelman D, Morris S, Mugusi F, Hunter DJ, et al. Selenium status is associated with accelerated HIV disease progression among HIV-1-infected pregnant women in Tanzania. Journal of Nutrition 2004;134(10):2556-60.
  • McGrath N, Bellinger D, Robins J, Msamanga GI, Tronick E, Fawzi WW. Effect of maternal multivitamin supplementation on the mental and psychomotor development of children who are born to HIV-1-infected mothers in Tanzania. Pediatrics 2006;117(2):216-25.
  • Merchant AT, Msamanga G, Villamor E, Saathoff E, O'Brien M, Hertzmark E, et al. Multivitamin supplementation of HIV-positive women during pregnancy reduces hypertension. Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(7):1776-81.
  • Smith Fawzi MC, Kaaya SF, Mbwambo J, Msamanga GI, Antelman G, Wei R, et al. Multivitamin supplementation in HIV-positive pregnant women: impact on depression and quality of life in a resource-poor setting. HIV Medicine 2007;8(4):203-12.
  • Villamor E, Msamanga G, Saathoff E, Fataki M, Manji K, Fawzi WW. Effects of maternal vitamin supplements on malaria in children born to HIV-infected women. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2007;76(6):1066-71.
  • Villamor E, Msamanga G, Saathoff E, Manji K, Fawzi WW. Effect of vitamin supplements on the incidence of malaria among children born to HIV-infected Women. FASEB Journal 2006;20(4 Pt 1):A125.
  • Villamor E, Saathoff E, Bosch RJ, Hertzmark E, Baylin A, Manji K, et al. Vitamin supplementation of HIV-infected women improves postnatal child growth. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81(4):880-8.
  • Villamor E, Saathoff E, Manji K, Msamanga G, Hunter DJ, Fawzi WW. Vitamin supplements, socioeconomic status, and morbidity events as predictors of wasting in HIV-infected women from Tanzania. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;82(4):857-65.
  • Webb AL, Aboud S, Furtado J, Murrin C, Campos H, Fawzi WW, et al. Effect of vitamin supplementation on breast milk concentrations of retinol, carotenoids and tocopherols in HIV-infected Tanzanian women. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(3):332-9.
Green 1931 {published data only}
  • Green HN, Pindar D, Davis G, Mellanby E. Diet as a prophylactic agent against puerperal sepsis. British Medical Journal 1931;2:595-8.
Kirkwood 2010 {published data only}
  • Costello A, Osrin D. Vitamin A supplementation and maternal mortality. Lancet 2010;375:1675-7.
  • Kirkwood B. Trial of the impact of vitamin A on maternal mortality (ObaapaVitA). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00211341 (accessed August 2010).
  • Kirkwood B. “ObaapaVitA” Vitamin A Supplementation and Maternal Mortality Trial: Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial to evaluate the impact of vitamin A supplementation maternal mortality in Ghana. http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/nphir/research/obaapavita/Obaapa_Trial_Protocol.pdf (accessed August 2010).
  • Kirkwood BR, Hurt L, Amenga-Etego S, Tawiah C, Zandoh C, Danso S, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation in women of reproductive age on maternal survival in Ghana (obaapavita): a cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2010;375(9726):1640-9.
  • Kirkwood BR, Hurt L, Amenga-Etego S, Tawiah C, Zandoh C, Danso S, et al. Effect of vitamin A supplementation in women of reproductive age on maternal survival in Ghana (ObaapaVitA): a cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Personal communication.
Kumwenda 2002 {published data only}
  • Kumwenda N, Miotti PG, Taha TE, Broadhead R, Biggar RJ, Jackson JB, et al. Antenatal vitamin A supplementation increases birth weight and decreases anemia among infants born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women in Malawi. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002;35(5):618-24.
Muslimatun 2001 {published data only}
  • Muslimatun S, Schmidt MK, Schultink W, West CE, Hautvast JGAJ, Gross R, et al. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(1):85-90.
  • Muslimatun S, Schmidt MK, West CE, Schultink W, Gross R, Hautvast JG. Determinants of weight and length of Indonesian neonates. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56(10):947-51.
  • Muslimatun S, Schmidt MK, West CE, Schultink W, Hautvast JG, Karyadi D. Weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation during pregnancy increases vitamin a concentration of breast milk but not iron status in Indonesian lactating women. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(10):2664-9.
  • Schmidt MK, Muslimatun S, Schultink W, West CE, Hautvast JG. Randomised double-blind trial of the effect of vitamin A supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women on morbidity and growth of their infants during the first year of life. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2002;56(4):338-46.
  • Schmidt MK, Muslimatun S, West CE, Schultink W, Hautvast JG. Mental and psychomotor development in Indonesian infants of mothers supplemented with vitamin A in addition to iron during pregnancy. British Journal of Nutrition 2004;91(2):279-85.
  • Schmidt MK, Muslimatun S, West CE, Schultink W, Hautvast JG. Vitamin A and iron supplementation of Indonesian pregnant women benefits vitamin a status of their infants. British Journal of Nutrition 2001;86(5):607-15.
Radhika 2003 {published data only}
  • Radhika MS, Bhaskaram P, Balakrishna N, Ramalakshmi BA. Red palm oil supplementation: a feasible diet-based approach to improve the vitamin A status of pregnant women and their infants. Food & Nutrition Bulletin 2003;24(2):208-17.
Semba 2001 {published data only}
Suharno 1993 {published data only}
Suprapto 2002 {published data only}
Tanumihardjo 2002 {published data only}
  • Tanumihardjo SA. Vitamin A and iron status are improved by vitamin A and iron supplementation in pregnant Indonesian women. Journal of Nutrition 2002;132:1909-12.
van den Broek 2006 {published data only}
  • van den Broek NR. Double-blind randomised trial of antenatal vitamin A supplementation in pregnant anaemic women in rural Malawi. Personal communication 1999.
  • van den Broek NR, White SA, Flowers C, Cook JD, Letsky EA, Tanumihardjo SA, et al. Randomised trial of vitamin A supplementation in pregnant women in rural Malawi found to be anaemic on screening by HemoCue. BJOG: an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology 2006;113(5):569-76.
West 1999 {published data only}
  • Checkley W, West KP Jr, Wise RA, Baldwin MR, Wu L, LeClerq SC, et al. Maternal vitamin A supplementation and lung function in offspring. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;362(19):1784-94.
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, Yamini S, Stallings R, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Zinc supplementation might potentiate the effect of vitamin A in restoring night vision in pregnant Nepalese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;73(6):1045-51.
  • Christian P, West Jr KP, Katz J, Kimbrough-Pradhan E, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, et al. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in rural Nepal. Risk factors and effects of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;58(2):204-11.
  • Christian P, West KP, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq SC, Kimbrough-Pradhan E, et al. Vitamin a or beta-carotene supplementation reduces symptoms of illness in pregnant and lactating Nepali women. Journal of Nutrition 2000;130:2675-82.
  • Christian P, West KPJr, Khatry SK, Katz J, LeClerq S, Pradhan EK, et al. Vitamin A or beta-carotene supplementation reduces but does not eliminate maternal night blindness in Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 1998;128:1458-63.
  • Christian P, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Kimbrough-Pradhan E, LeClerq SC, Katz J, et al. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation. American Journal of Epidemiology 2000;152:542-7.
  • Christian P, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Kimbrough-Pradhan E, Katz J, et al. Maternal night blindness increases risk of mortality in the first 6 months of life among infants in Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(5):1510-2.
  • Congdon NG, Dreyfuss ML, Christian P, Navitsky RC, Sanchez AM, Wu LS, et al. Responsiveness of dark-adaptation threshold to vitamin A and beta-carotene supplementation in pregnant and lactating women in Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;72:1004-9.
  • Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Christian P, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, et al. Risk factors for early infant mortality in Sarlahi district, Nepal. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003;81(10):717-25.
  • Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Christian P, Pradhan EK, et al. Twinning rates and survival of twins in rural Nepal. International Journal of Epidemiology 2001;30:802-7.
  • Katz J, West KP Jr, Khatry SK, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Christian P, et al. Maternal low-dose vitamin A or B-carotene supplementation has no effect on fetal loss and early infant mortality: a randomized cluster trial in Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2000;71:1570-6.
  • Olsen SF. Effect of vitamin a and beta carotene supplementation on women's health. BMJ 1999;318(7183):551-2.
  • West KP Jr, Katz J, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Pradhan EK, Shrestha SR, et al. Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal: the nnips-2 study group. BMJ 1999;318(7183):570-5.
  • Yamini S, West KP Jr, Wu L, Dreyfuss ML, Yang DX, Khatry SK. Circulating levels of retinol, tocopherol and carotenoid in Nepali pregnant and postpartum women following long-term beta-carotene and vitamin A supplementation. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;55:252-9.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Banerjee 2009 {published data only}
Chawla 1995 {published data only}
  • Chawla PK, Puri R. Impact of nutritional supplements on hematological profile of pregnant women. Indian Pediatrics 1995;32:876-80.
Chikobvu 2001 {published data only}
  • Chikobvu P, Jouvert G, Schall R, Steinberg WJ, Viljoen JI, Kotze M, et al. The effect of vitamin A on reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Bloemfontein. 21st Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in South Africa; 2002 March 5-8; Eastern Cape, South Africa. 2002.
  • Chikobvu P, van der Ryst E, Joubert G, Steinberg WJ, Voljoen JI, Kriel J, et al. Preliminary results of a double blind randomised controlled trial testing the effect of vitamin A in mother to child transmission of HIV-1. 20th Conference on Priorities in Perinatal Care in Southern Africa; 2001 March 6-9; KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 2001.
Christian 2003 {published data only}
  • Christian P, Darmstadt GL, Wu L, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Katz J, et al. The effect of maternal micronutrient supplementation on early neonatal morbidity in rural Nepal: a randomised, controlled, community trial. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2008;93(8):660-4.
  • Christian P, Jiang T, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, West Jr KP. Antenatal supplementation with micronutrients and biochemical indicators of status and subclinical infection in rural Nepal. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;83:788-94.
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, Katz J, Pradhan EK, LeClerq SC, Shrestha SR, et al. Effects of alternative maternal micronutrient supplements on low birth weight in rural Nepal: double blind randomised community trial. BMJ 2003;326(7389):571.
  • Christian P, Khatry SK, LeClerq SC, Dali SM. Effects of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on complications of labor and delivery and puerperal morbidity in rural Nepal. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 2009;106(1):3-7.
  • Christian P, Shrestha J, LeClerq SC, Khatry SK, Jiang T, Wagner T, et al. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(11):3492-8.
  • Christian P, Stewart CP, LeClerq SC, Wu L, Katz J, West KP Jr, et al. Antenatal and postnatal iron supplementation and childhood mortality in rural Nepal: a prospective follow-up in a randomized, controlled community trial. American Journal of Epidemiology 2009;170(9):1127-36.
  • Katz J, Christian P, Dominici F, Zeger SL. Treatment effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation vary by percentiles of the birth weight distribution in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(5):1389-94.
  • Stewart CP, Christian P, Schulze KJ, Leclerq SC, West KP Jr, Khatry SK. Antenatal micronutrient supplementation reduces metabolic syndrome in 6- to 8-year-old children in rural Nepal. Journal of Nutrition 2009;139(8):1575-81.
Darboe 2007 {published data only}
  • Darboe MK, Thurnham DI, Morgan G, Adegbola RA, Secka O, Solon JA, et al. Effectiveness of an early supplementation scheme of high-dose vitamin A versus standard WHO protocol in Gambian mothers and infants: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;369(9579):2088-96.
Haskell 2005 {published data only}
  • Graham JM, Haskell MJ, Pandey P, Shrestha RK, Brown KH, Allen LH. Supplementation with iron and riboflavin enhances dark adaptation response to vitamin A-fortified rice in iron-deficient, pregnant, nightblind Nepali women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85(5):1375-84.
  • Haskell MJ, Pandey P, Graham JM, Peerson JM, Shrestha RK, Brown KH. Recovery from impaired dark adaptation in nightblind pregnant Nepali women who receive small daily doses of vitamin A as amaranth leaves, carrots, goat liver, vitamin A-fortified rice, or retinyl palmitate. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2005;81:461-71.
Howells 1986 {published data only}
  • Howells DW, Haste F, Rosenberg D, Brown IR, Brooke OG. Investigation of vitamin a nutrition in pregnant British Asians and their infants. Human Nutrition. Clinical Nutrition 1986;40(1):43-50.
Humphrey 2006 {published data only}
  • Humphrey JH, Iliff PJ, Marinda ET, Mutasa K, Moulton LH, Chidawanyika H, et al. Effects of a single large dose of vitamin A, given during the postpartum period to HIV-positive women and their infants, on child HIV infection, HIV-free survival, and mortality. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;193(6):860-71.
Laitinen 2009 {published data only}
  • Laitinen K, Isolauri E, Kaipiainen L, Gylling H, Miettinen TA. Plant stanol ester spreads as components of a balanced diet for pregnant and breast-feeding women: evaluation of clinical safety. British Journal of Nutrition 2009;101(12):1797-804.
Lietz 2001 {published data only}
  • Lietz G, Henry CJK, Mulokozi G, Mugyabuso JKL, Ballart A, Ndossi GD, et al. Comparison of the effects of supplemental red palm oil and sunflower oil on maternal vitamin A status. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74(4):501-9.
  • Lietz G, Mulokozi G, Henry JC, Tomkins AM. Xanthophyll and hydrocarbon carotenoid patterns differ in plasma and breast milk of women supplemented with red palm oil during pregnancy and lactation. Journal of Nutrition 2006;136(7):1821-7.
Roberfroid 2010 {published data only}
  • Roberfroid D, Huybregts L, Lanou H, Henry MC, Meda N, Kolsteren P. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplements on cord blood hormones: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;91:1649-58.
Roy 1997 {published data only}
  • Roy SK, Islam A, Molla A, Akramuzzaman SM, Jahan F, Fuchs G. Impact of a single megadose of vitamin a at delivery on breastmilk of mothers and morbidity of their infants. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997;51(5):302-7.
Sharma 2003 {published data only}
  • Sharma JB, Kumar A, Malhotra M, Arora R, Prasad S, Batra S. Effect of lycopene on pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth retardation in primigravidas. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2003;81:257-62.
Van Vliet 2001 {published data only}
  • Van Vliet T, Boelsma E, De Vries AJ, Van den Berg H. Retinoic acid metabolites in plasma are higher after intake of liver paste compared with a vitamin a supplement in women. Journal of Nutrition 2001;131(12):3197-203.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Hakimi 1999 {published data only}
  • Hakimi M, Dibley M. ZIBUVITA trial: impact of vitamin A and zinc supplementation in pregnancy on maternal post partum infections. Personal communication 1999.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
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Bloem 1990
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References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Van den Broek 2002