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Antiepileptic drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures after subarachnoid haemorrhage

  1. Richard Marigold1,
  2. Albrecht Günther2,
  3. Divya Tiwari3,
  4. Joseph Kwan4,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Epilepsy Group

Published Online: 5 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 MAR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008710.pub2

How to Cite

Marigold R, Günther A, Tiwari D, Kwan J. Antiepileptic drugs for the primary and secondary prevention of seizures after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD008710. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008710.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Department of Stroke Medicine, Bournemouth, UK

  2. 2

    Jena University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Jena, Germany

  3. 3

    Royal Bournemouth Hospital, Bournemouth, Dorset, UK

  4. 4

    Bournemouth University, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth, Dorset, UK

*Joseph Kwan, School of Health and Social Care, Bournemouth University, Royal London House, Christchurch Road, Bournemouth, Dorset, BH1 3LT, UK.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 5 JUN 2013



References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. Additional references
Chumnanvej 2007 {published data only}
Lewis 2009 {published data only}
  • Lewis SA, Schmitt S. Levetiracetam: a potential alternative to phenytoin as first line prophylactic anti-epileptic therapy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Epilepsia 2009;50:124-5.
Murphy-Human 2011 {published data only}
  • Murphy-Human T, Welch E, Zipfel G, Diringer MN, Dhar, R. Comparison of short duration levetiracetam with extended-course phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis after subarachnoid haemorrhage. World Neurosurgery 2011;75(2):269-74.
Naidech 2005 {published data only}
  • Naidech AM, Kreiter KT, Janjua N, Ostapkovich N, Parra A, Commichau C, et al. Phenytoin exposure is associated with functional and cognitive disability after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke 2005;36(3):583-7.
Rapaport 2012 {published data only}
  • Rapaport B, Zubkov S, Fields M, Marcuse L. Effect of prophylactic antiepileptic drugs on seizures in patients with non traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Epilepsy Currents 2012;12(1 Suppl 1):1535-97.
Rhoney 2000 {published data only}
Rosengart 2007 {published data only}
  • Rosengart AJ, Huo D, Tolentino J, Novakovic RL, Frank JI, Goldenberg FD, et al. Outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage treated with antiepileptic drugs. Journal of Neurosurgery 2007;107(2):253-60.
Szaflarski 2010 {published data only}
  • Szflarski JP, Sangha KS, Lindsell CJ, Shutter LA. Prospective, randomized, single-blinded comparative trial of intravenous levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis. Neurocritical Care 2010;12:165-72.

Additional references

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. Additional references
Bearden 2008
  • Bearden S, Eisenschenk S, Uthman B. Diagnosis of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in adults with altered mental status: clinico-electroencephalographic considerations. American Journal of Electroneurodiagnostic Technology 2008;48(1):11-37.
Bederson 1997
  • Bederson JB. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: pathophysiology and management. Park Ridge: American Association of Neurological Surgeons, 1997. [: ISBN-10 187928443X ]
Bederson 2009
  • Bederson JB, Sander Connolly Jr E, Hunt Batjer H, Darcey RG, Dion JE, Diringer MN, et al. Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a statement for healthcare professionals from a Special Writing Group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke 2009;40:994-1025.
Brailowsky 1986
Buczacki 2004
  • Buczacki SJ, Kirkpatrick PJ, Seeley HM, Hutchinson PJ. Late epilepsy following open surgery for aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2004;75(11):1620-2.
Butzkueven 2000
Byrne 2003
Claassen 2003
Claassen 2004
Dennis 2002
Engel 2001
Engel 2006
Fisher 2005
Fogelholm 1981
Hart 2011
  • Hart Y, Sneade M, Birks J, Rischmiller J, Kerr R, Molyneux A. Epilepsy after subarachnoid hemorrhage: the frequency of seizures after clip occlusion or coil embolization of a ruptured cerebral aneurysm: results from the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial. Journal of Neurosurgery 2011;115(6):1159-68.
Hoh 2011
  • Hoh BL, Nathoo S, Yueh-Yun C, Mocco J, Barker FG. Incidence of seizures or epilepsy after clipping or coiling of ruptured and unruptured cerebral aneurysms in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample Database: 2002-2007. Neurosurgery 2011;69:644-50.
King 1994
  • King WA, Martin NA. Critical care of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 1994;5(4):767-87.
Lanzino 2011
Lefebvre 2009
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.2 [updated September 2009]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2009. Available from
Lin 2003
  • Lin CL, Dumont AS, Lieu AS, Yen CP, Hwang SL, Kwan AL, et al. Characterization of perioperative seizures and epilepsy following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Journal of Neurosurgery 2003;99(6):978-85.
Lin 2008
Molyneux 2005
  • Molyneux AJ, Kerr RS, Yu LM, Clarke M, Sneade M, Yarnold JA, et al. International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion. Lancet 2005;366(9488):809-17.
Ohkuma 1990
  • Ohkuma A, Kawaguchi M, Sugimoto S, Yanagimoto M, Hattori T. Epilepsy after operation for ruptured intracranial aneurysm. No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery 1990;18(8):729-34.
Ohman 1990
Olafsson 2000
Pinto 1996
Qureshi 2005
  • Qureshi AI, Suri MF, Nasar A, Kirmani JF, Divani AA, He W, et al. Trends in hospitalization and mortality for subarachnoid hemorrhage and unruptured aneurysms in the United States. Neurosurgery 2005;57(1):1-8.
Riordan 2010
  • Riordan KC, Wingerchuk DM, Wellik KE, Zimmerman RS, Sirven JI, Noe KH, et al. Anticonvulsant drug therapy after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a critically appraised topic. Neurologist 2010;16(6):397-9.
Steiner 2006
  • Steiner T,  Kaste M,  Forsting M,  Mendelow D,  Kwiecinski H,  Szikora I,  et al. Recommendations for the management of intracranial haemorrhage - part I: spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage. The European Stroke Initiative Writing Committee and the Writing Committee for the EUSI Executive Committee. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2006;22(4):294-316.
Sundaram 1986
Van Gijn 2001
Varelas 2004
  • Varelas PN, Mirski MA. Management of seizures in critically ill patients. Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 2004;4(6):489-96.
Vespa 2005
  • Vespa P. Continuous EEG monitoring for the detection of seizures in traumatic brain injury, infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage: "to detect and protect". Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 2005;22(2):99-106.