Intervention Review

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Computer-based diabetes self-management interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  1. Kingshuk Pal1,*,
  2. Sophie V Eastwood1,
  3. Susan Michie1,
  4. Andrew J Farmer2,
  5. Maria L Barnard3,
  6. Richard Peacock4,
  7. Bindie Wood1,
  8. Joni D Inniss1,
  9. Elizabeth Murray1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 14 NOV 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008776.pub2


How to Cite

Pal K, Eastwood SV, Michie S, Farmer AJ, Barnard ML, Peacock R, Wood B, Inniss JD, Murray E. Computer-based diabetes self-management interventions for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD008776. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008776.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University College London, Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, London, UK

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, Oxford, UK

  3. 3

    The Whittington Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Diabetes, London, UK

  4. 4

    Archway Healthcare Library, London, UK

*Kingshuk Pal, Research Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, Upper Floor 3, Royal Free Hospital, Rowland Hill Street, London, NW3 PF, UK. k.pal@ucl.ac.uk. drkpal@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Christian 2008 {published data only}
  • Christian JG, Bessesen DH, Byers TE, Christian KK, Goldstein MG, Bock BC. Clinic-based support to help overweight patients with type 2 diabetes increase physical activity and lose weight. Archives of Internal Medicine 2008;168(2):141-6.
Glasgow 1997 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE,  La Chance PA,  Toobert DJ,  Brown J,  Hampson SE,  Riddle MC. Long-term effects and costs of brief behavioural dietary intervention for patients with diabetes delivered from the medical office. Patient Education and Counselling 1997;32(3):175-84.
Glasgow 2003 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Boles SM, Mckay HG, Feil EG, Barrera M. The D-Net diabetes self-management program: long-term implementation, outcomes and generalization results. Preventive Medicine 2003;36(4):410-9.
Glasgow 2005 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Nutting PA, King DK, Nelson CC, Cutter G, Gaglio B, et al. Randomized effectiveness trial of a computer-assisted intervention to improve diabetes care. Diabetes Care 2005;28(1):33-9.
Glasgow 2006 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Nutting PA, Toobert DJ, King DK, Strycker LA, Jex M, et al. Effects of a brief computer-assisted diabetes self-management intervention on dietary, biological and quality-of-life outcomes. Chronic Illness 2006;2(1):27-38.
Glasgow 2010 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Kurz D, King D, Dickman JM, Faber AJ, Halterman E, et al. Outcomes of minimal and moderate support versions of an internet-based diabetes self-management support program. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2010;25(12):1315-22. [PUBMED: 20714820]
Leu 2005 {published data only}
  • Leu MG,  Norris TE,  Hummel J,  Isaac M,  Brogan MW. A randomized, controlled trial of an automated wireless messaging system for diabetes. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 2005;7(5):710-8.
Lim 2011 {published data only}
  • Lim S, Kang SM, Shin H, Lee HJ, Won YJ, Yu SH, et al. Improved glycemic control without hypoglycemia in elderly diabetic patients using the Ubiquitous Healthcare Service, a new medical information system. Diabetes Care 2011;34(2):308-13. [: U231]
Lo 1996 {published data only}
  • Lo R, Lo B, Wells E, Chard M, Hathaway J. The development and evaluation of a computer-aided diabetes education program. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing 1996;13(4):19-27.
Lorig 2010 {published data only}
  • Lorig K,  Ritter PL,  Laurent DD,  Plant K,  Green M,  Jernigan VB, et al. Online diabetes self-management program: a randomized study. Diabetes Care 2010;33(6):1275-81.
Quinn 2008 {published data only}
  • Quinn CC, Clough SS, Minor JM, Lender D, Okafor MC, Gruber-Baldini A. WellDoc mobile diabetes management randomized controlled trial: change in clinical and behavioral outcomes and patient and physician satisfaction. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2008;10(3):160-8.
Quinn 2011 {published data only}
  • Quinn CC, Shardell MD, Terrin ML, Barr EA, Ballew SH, Gruber-Baldini AL. Cluster-randomized trial of a mobile phone personalized behavioral intervention for blood glucose control. Diabetes Care 2011;34(9):1934-42.
Smith 2000 {published data only}
Wise 1986 {published data only}
Yoo 2009 {published data only}
Zhou 2003 {published data only}
  • Zhou Y, Wei GU. Computer-assisted nutrition therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Zhejiang University (Medical Sciences) 2003;32(3):244-8.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Adams 2009 {published data only}
  • Adams SY, Crawford AG, Rimal RN, Lee JS, Janneck LM, Sciamanna CN, et al. The effects of a computer-tailored message on secondary prevention in type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial. Population Health Management 2009;12(4):197-204.
Albisser 1996 {published data only}
  • Albisser AM, Harris RI, Sakkal S, Parson ID, Chao SC, Albisser AM, et al. Diabetes intervention in the information age. Medical Informatics 1996;21(4):297-316.
Avdal 2011 {published data only}
  • Avdal E, Kizilci S, Demirel N. The effects of web-based diabetes education on diabetes care results: a randomized control study. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2011;29(2):101-6.
Billiard 1991 {published data only}
Boaz 2009 {published data only}
  • Boaz M, Hellman K, Wainstein J, Boaz M, Hellman K, Wainstein J. An automated telemedicine system improves patient-reported well-being. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2009;11(3):181-6.
Bond 2007 {published data only}
  • Bond GE, Burr R, Wolf FM, Price M, McCurry SM, Teri L, et al. The effects of a web-based intervention on the physical outcomes associated with diabetes among adults age 60 and older: a randomized trial. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2007;9(1):52-9.
Bond 2010 {published data only}
  • Bond GE, Burr RL, Wolf FM, Feldt K. The Effects of a Web-Based Intervention on Psychosocial Well-Being Among Adults Aged 60 and Older With Diabetes A Randomized Trial. Diabetes Educator 2010;36(3):446-56.
Bujnowska-Fedak 2011 {published data only}
  • Bujnowska-Fedak MM, Puchala E, Steciwko A. The impact of telehome care on health status and quality of life among patients with diabetes in a primary care setting in Poland. Telemedicine journal and e-health: the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association 2011;17(3):153-63. [PUBMED: 21375410]
Carter 2011 {published data only}
  • Carter ELN. A patient-centric, provider-assisted diabetes telehealth self-management intervention for urban minorities. Perspectives in health information management/AHIMA, American Health Information Management Association 2011;8(pp 1b):2011.
Castelnuovo 2010 {published data only}
  • Castelnuovo G, Manzoni GM, Cuzziol P, Cesa GL, Tuzzi C, Villa V, et al. TECNOB: study design of a randomized controlled trial of a multidisciplinary telecare intervention for obese patients with type-2 diabetes. BMC Public Health 2010;10:204.
Cho 2006 {published data only}
  • Cho JH, Chang SA, Kwon HS, Choi YH, Ko SH, Moon SD, et al. Long-term effect of the Internet-based glucose monitoring system on HbA1c reduction and glucose stability: a 30-month follow-up study for diabetes management with a ubiquitous medical care system. Diabetes Care 2006;29(12):2625-31.
Cho 2009 {published data only}
  • Cho JH, Lee HC, Lim DJ, Kwon HS, Yoon KH, Cho JH, et al. Mobile communication using a mobile phone with a glucometer for glucose control in Type 2 patients with diabetes: as effective as an Internet-based glucose monitoring system. Journal of Telemedicine & Telecare 2009;15(2):77-82.
Cleveringa 2007 {published data only}
  • Cleveringa FGW, Gorter KJ, van den Donk M, Rutten GEH. Task delegation and computerised decision support improve cardiovascular risk for type 2 diabetes patients. A randomised controlled trial in primary care. Diabetologia 2007;50:0264.
Derose 2009 {published data only}
  • Derose SF, Nakahiro RK, Ziel FH. Automated messaging to improve compliance with diabetes test monitoring. American Journal of Managed Care 2009;15(7):425-31.
Earle 2010 {published data only}
  • Earle KA. Mobile telemonitoring for achieving tighter targets of blood pressure control in patients with complicated diabetes: A pilot study. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 2010;12(7):575-9.
Edmonds 1998 {published data only}
  • Edmonds M, Bauer M, Osborn S, Lutfiyya H, Mahon J, Doig G, et al. Using the Vista 350 telephone to communicate the results of home monitoring of diabetes mellitus to a central database and to provide feedback. International Journal of Medical Informatics 1998;51(2-3):117-25.
Estrada 2010 {published data only}
  • Estrada C, Salanitro A, Safford M, Curry W, Williams J, Ovalle F, et al. A cluster-randomized trial of a web-based physician intervention to improve diabetes care. Journal of Investigative Medicine 2010;58(2):512.
Glasgow 1995 {published data only}
Glasgow 2000 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ, Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ. Brief, computer-assisted diabetes dietary self-management counseling: effects on behavior, physiologic outcomes, and quality of life. Medical Care 2000;38(11):1062-73.
Glasgow 2002 {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Toobert DJ, Hampson SE, Strycker LA. Implementation, generalization and long-term results of the "choosing well" diabetes self-management intervention. Patient Education & Counseling 2002;48(2):115-22.
Glasgow 2005a {published data only}
  • Glasgow RE, Nutting PA, King DK, Horng MS. Improving diabetes care with interactive technology. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management 2005;12(2):67-8.
Goldberg 2006 {published data only}
  • Goldberg HI, Hirsch IB, Hoath JI, Ralston JD, Mullen MA. Internet co-management of type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial (RCT). Diabetes 2006;55:A270.
Graziano 2009 {published data only}
  • Graziano JA, Gross CR, Graziano JA, Gross CR. A randomized controlled trial of an automated telephone intervention to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Advances in Nursing Science 2009;32(3):E42-57.
Handley 2008 {published data only}
  • Handley MA, Shumway M, Schillinger D, Handley MA, Shumway M, Schillinger D. Cost-effectiveness of automated telephone self-management support with nurse care management among patients with diabetes. Annals of Family Medicine 2008;6(6):512-8.
Harno 2006 {published data only}
  • Harno K, Kauppinen-Makelin R, Syrjalainen J, Harno K, Kauppinen-Makelin R, Syrjalainen J. Managing diabetes care using an integrated regional e-health approach. Journal of Telemedicine & Telecare 2006;12(Suppl 1):13-5.
Holbrook 2009 {published data only}
  • Holbrook A, Thabane L, Keshavjee K, Dolovich L, Bernstein B, Chan D, et al. Individualized electronic decision support and reminders to improve diabetes care in the community: COMPETE II randomized trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2009;181(1-2):37-44.
Izquierdo 2010 {published data only}
  • Izquierdo R, Lagua CT, Meyer S, Ploutz-Snyder RJ, Palmas W, Eimicke JP, et al. Telemedicine Intervention effects on waist circumference and body mass index in the IDEATel Project. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2010;12(3):213-21.
Jones 2006 {published data only}
  • Jones D, Curry W. Impact of a PDA-based diabetes electronic management system in a primary care office. American Journal of Medical Quality 2006;21(6):401-8.
Kalten 2000 {published data only}
Keuthage 2008 {published data only}
  • Keuthage W. Diabetes mellitus type 2: lifestyle change in type 2 diabetics thanks to short intervention?. Gesundheitsoekonomie und Qualitaetsmanagement 2008;13(4):244-5.
Kim 2005 {published data only}
  • Kim HS, Yoo YS, Shim HS. Effects of an Internet-based intervention on plasma glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 2005;20(4):335-40.
Kim 2006 {published data only}
  • Kim CJ, Kang DH. Utility of a web-based intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes: the impact on physical activity levels and glycemic control. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing 2006;24(6):337-45.
Kim 2007 {published data only}
Kim 2007a {published data only}
Kim 2008 {published data only}
Kim 2010 {published data only}
  • Kim CS, Park SY, Kang JG, Lee SJ, Ihm SH, Choi MG, et al. Insulin dose titration system in diabetes patients using a short messaging service automatically produced by a knowledge matrix. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2010;12(8):663-70.
King 2006 {published data only}
  • King DK, Estabrooks PA, Strycker LA, Toobert DJ, Bull SS, Glasgow RE, et al. Outcomes of a multifaceted physical activity regimen as part of a diabetes self-management intervention. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2006;31(2):128-37.
Kwon 2004 {published data only}
Laffel 2007 {published data only}
  • Laffel LMB, Hsu WC, McGill JB, Meneghini L, Volkening L K. Continued use of an integrated meter with electronic logbook maintains improvements in glycemic control beyond a randomized, controlled trial. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2007;9(3):254-65.
Lee 2007 {published data only}
  • Lee TI, Yeh YT, Liu CT, Chen PL. Development and evaluation of a patient-oriented education system for diabetes management. International Journal of Medical Informatics 2007;76(9):655-63.
Liebreich 2009 {published data only}
  • Liebreich T, Plotnikoff RC, Courneya KS, Boule N. Diabetes NetPLAY: A physical activity website and linked email counselling randomized intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 2009;6(1):18.
MacLean 2004 {published data only}
  • MacLean CD, Littenberg B, Gagnon M, Reardon M, Turner PD, Jordan C. The Vermont Diabetes Information System (VDIS): study design and subject recruitment for a cluster randomized trial of a decision support system in a regional sample of primary care practices. Clinical Trials 2004;1(6):532-44.
McMahon 2005 {published data only}
Mollon 2008 {published data only}
  • Mollon B, Holbrook AM, Keshavjee K, Troyan S, Gaebel K, Thabane L, et al. Automated telephone reminder messages can assist electronic diabetes care. Journal of Telemedicine & Telecare 2008;14(1):32-6.
Morrish 1989 {published data only}
Noel 2004 {published data only}
Oh 2003 {published data only}
Palmas 2010 {published data only}
  • Palmas W, Shea S, Starren J, Teresi JA, Ganz ML, Burton TM, et al. Medicare payments, healthcare service use, and telemedicine implementation costs in a randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in medically underserved participants with diabetes mellitus (IDEATel). Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2010;17(2):196-203.
Persson 2000 {published data only}
  • Persson LG, Lindstrom K, Lingfors H. Quality improvement in primary health care using computerised journal, exemplified by a smoking cessation programme for diabetic patients. Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care 2000;18(4):252-3.
Peters 1991 {published data only}
Piette 2000 {published data only}
  • Piette JD, Weinberger M, McPhee SJ. The effect of automated calls with telephone nurse follow-up on patient-centered outcomes of diabetes care: a randomized, controlled trial. Medical Care 2000;38(2):218-30.
Piette 2001 {published data only}
  • Piette JD, Weinberger M, Kraemer FB, McPhee SJ. Impact of automated calls with nurse follow-up on diabetes treatment outcomes in a Department of Veterans Affairs Health Care System: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2001;24(2):202-8.
Quinn 2009 {published data only}
  • Quinn CC, Gruber-Baldini AL, Shardell M, Weed K, Clough S, Peeples M, et al. Mobile diabetes intervention study: testing a personalized treatment/behavioral communication intervention for blood glucose control. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2009;30(4):334-46.
Ralston 2009 {published data only}
Robertson 2007 {published data only}
  • Robertson C, Kattelmann K, Ren C. Control of type 2 diabetes mellitus using interactive internet-based support on a Northern Plains Indian reservation: a pilot study. Topics in Clinical Nutrition 2007;22(2):185-94.
Rodríguez-Idígoras 2009 {published data only}
  • Rodríguez-Idígoras MI, Sepúlveda-Muñoz J, Sánchez-Garrido-Escudero R, Martínez-González JL, Escolar-Castelló JL, Paniagua-Gómez IM, et al. Telemedicine influence on the follow-up of type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2009;11(7):431-8.
Ross 2006 {published data only}
  • Ross SE, Haverhals LM, Main DS, Bull SS, Pratte K, Lin CT, et al. Adoption and use of an online patient portal for diabetes (Diabetes-STAR). AMIA 2006;Annual Symposium Proceedings/AMIA Symposium.:1080.
Ryff-de 1992 {published data only}
  • Ryff-de Leche A, Engler H, Nutzi E, Berger M, Berger W, Ryff-de Leche A, et al. Clinical application of two computerized diabetes management systems: comparison with the log-book method. Diabetes Research 1992;19(3):97-105.
Sarkar 2008 {published data only}
  • Sarkar U, Handley MA, Gupta R, Tang A, Murphy E, Seligman HK, et al. Use of an interactive, telephone-based self-management support program to identify adverse events among ambulatory diabetes patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 2008;23(4):459-65.
Schillinger 2009 {published data only}
  • Schillinger D, Handley M, Wang F, Hammer H. Effects of self-management support on structure, process, and outcomes among vulnerable patients with diabetes: a three-arm practical clinical trial. Diabetes Care 2009;32(4):559-66. [PUBMED: 19131469]
Schrezenmeier 1988 {published data only}
  • Schrezenmeier J, Müller-Haberstock S, Achterberg H, Dirting K, Stürmer W, Schulz, et al. Effect of computer-assistance on the metabolic balance of type-II diabetics under meal-related insulin therapy - a controlled multicenter study. Klinische Wochenschrift 1988;66(Suppl 13):129.
Shea 2006 {published data only}
  • Shea S, Weinstock RS, Starren J, Teresi J, Palmas W, Field L, et al. A randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2006;13(1):40-51.
Shea 2007 {published data only}
  • Shea S, IDEATel Consortium, Shea Steven, IDEATel Consortium. The informatics for diabetes and education telemedicine (IDEATel) project. Transactions of the American Clinical & Climatological Association 2007;118:289-304.
Shea 2009 {published data only}
  • Shea S, Weinstock RS, Teresi JA, Palmas W, Starren J, Cimino JJ, et al. A randomized trial comparing telemedicine case management with usual care in older, ethnically diverse, medically underserved patients with diabetes mellitus: 5 year results of the IDEATel study. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 2009;16(4):446-57.
Sherifali 2011 {published data only}
  • Sherifali D, Greb JL, Amirthavasar G, Hunt D, Haynes RB, Harper W, et al. Effect of computer-generated tailored feedback on glycemic control in people with diabetes in the community: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2011;34:1794-8.
Shultz 1991 {published data only}
  • Shultz EK, Bauman A, Hayward M, Rodbard D, Holzman R. Improved diabetic prognosis following telecommunication and graphical processing of diabetic data. Proceedings - the Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care. 1991:53-7.
Smith 2004 {published data only}
  • Smith KE, Levine BA, Clement SC, Hu MJ, Alaoui A, Mun SK, et al. Impact of MyCareTeam for poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2004;6(6):828-35.
Song 2009 {published data only}
Stone 2010 {published data only}
  • Stone RA, Rao RH, Sevick MA, Cheng C, Hough LJ, Macpherson DS, et al. Active care management supported by home telemonitoring in veterans with type 2 diabetes: the DiaTel randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2010;33(3):478-85.
Tildesley 2011 {published data only}
  • Tildesley HDM. Efficacy of A1C reduction using internet intervention in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with insulin. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 2011;35(3):250-3.
Tjam 2006 {published data only}
  • Tjam EY, Sherifali D, Steinacher N, Hett S. Physiological outcomes of an internet disease management program vs. in-person counselling: a randomized, controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Diabetes 2006;30(4):397-405.
Trief 2007 {published data only}
  • Trief PM, Teresi JA, Izquierdo R, Morin PC, Goland R, Field L, et al. Psychosocial outcomes of telemedicine case management for elderly patients with diabetes: the randomized IDEATel trial. Diabetes Care 2007;30(5):1266-8.
Tsang 2001 {published data only}
  • Tsang MW, Mok M, Kam G, Jung M, Tang A, Chan U, et al. Improvement in diabetes control with a monitoring system based on a hand-held, touch-screen electronic diary. Journal of Telemedicine & Telecare 2001;7(1):47-50.
Turnin 1992 {published data only}
  • Turnin MC, Beddok RH, Clottes JP, Martini P, Abadie R, Buisson JC, et al. Telematic expert system Diabeto. New tool for diet self-monitoring for diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1992;15(2):204-12.
van Bastelaar 2011 {published data only}
  • van Bastelaar K, Cuijpers P, Pouwer F, Riper H, Snoek FJ, van Bastelaar Kim, et al. Development and reach of a web-based cognitive behavioural therapy programme to reduce symptoms of depression and diabetes-specific distress. Patient Education & Counseling 2011;84(1):49-55.
van Bastelaar 2011a {published data only}
Vespasiani 2008 {published data only}
  • Vespasiani G, Rossi MC, Nicolucci A, Di Bartolo P, Sardu C, Bruttomesso D, et al. Comparison between the "Diabetes Interactive Diary" system and standard carbohydrate counting education: an open label, multicentre, randomised study. Diabetologia 2008;51:230.
Wakefield 2011 {published data only}
  • Wakefield BJH. Effectiveness of home telehealth in comorbid diabetes and hypertension: a randomized, controlled trial. Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association 2011;17(4):254-61.
Yeh 2006 {published data only}
  • Yeh YT, Chiu YT, Liu CT, Wu SJ, Lee TI, Yeh YT, et al. Development and evaluation of an integrated patient-oriented education management system for diabetes. Studies in Health Technology & Informatics 2006;122:172-5.
Yoo 2008 {published data only}
  • Yoo HJ, An HG, Park SY, Ryu OH, Kim HY, Seo JA, et al. Use of a real time continuous glucose monitoring system as a motivational device for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice 2008;82(1):73-80.
Yoon 2008 {published data only}

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Faridi 2008 {published data only}
Lorig 2006 {published data only}
Noh 2010 {published data only}
  • Noh JH, Cho YJ, Nam HW, Kim JH, Kim DJ, Yoo HS, et al. Web-Based comprehensive information system for self-management of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2010;12(5):333-7.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
ADA 1999
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ADA 2008
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Ajzen 2001
Bandura 1986
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Brown 1999
Campbell 2003
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Carver 1982
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Costa 2009
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DAFNE 2002
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Danaei 2011
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Davies 2008
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DCCT 1993
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Deakin 2005
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Duke 2009
Funnell 2009
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Gaede 2003
  • Gaede P, Vedel P, Larsen N, Jensen GV, Parving HH, Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348(5):383-93.
Glasgow 2010a
  • Glasgow R, Strycker L, Kurz D, Faber A, Bell H, Dickman J, et al. Recruitment for an Internet-based diabetes self-management program: scientific and ethical implications. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2010;40(1):40-8.
Griffiths 2006
  • Griffiths F, Lindenmeyer A, Powell J, Lowe P, Thorogood M. Why are health care interventions delivered over the internet? A systematic review of the published literature. Journal of Medical Internet Research 2006;8(2):e10.
Harris 2011
  • Harris J, Felix L, Miners A, Murray E, Michie S, Ferguson E, et al. Adaptive e-learning to improve dietary behaviour: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England). England: Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK., 2011; Vol. 15, issue 37:1-160.
Higgins 2002
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
International Diabetes Federation 2011
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