Safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in people receiving methotrexate for inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthritis)

  • Review
  • Intervention

Authors

  • Alexandra N Colebatch,

    Corresponding author
    1. Southampton General Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Southampton; Consultant Rheumatologist Yeovil District Hospital, Somerset, Hampshire, UK
    • Alexandra N Colebatch, Department of Rheumatology, Southampton General Hospital, Tremona Road, Southampton; Consultant Rheumatologist Yeovil District Hospital, Somerset, Hampshire, SO16 6YD, UK. a_colebatch@hotmail.com.

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  • Jonathan L Marks,

    1. Southampton General Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Southampton, Hampshire, UK
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  • Christopher J Edwards

    1. Southampton General Hospital, Department of Rheumatology, Southampton, Hampshire, UK
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Abstract

Background

Methotrexate is routinely used in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. There have been concerns regarding the safety of using concurrent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, or paracetamol (acetaminophen), or both, in these people.

Objectives

To systematically appraise and summarise the scientific evidence on the safety of using NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol, or both, with methotrexate in inflammatory arthritis; and to identify gaps in the current evidence, assess the implications of those gaps and to make recommendations for future research to address these deficiencies.

Search methods

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, second quarter 2010); MEDLINE (from 1950); EMBASE (from 1980); the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). We also handsearched the conference proceedings for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) (2008 to 2009) and checked the websites of regulatory agencies for reported adverse events, labels and warnings.

Selection criteria

Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies comparing the safety of methotrexate alone to methotrexate with concurrent NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol, or both, in people with inflammatory arthritis.

Data collection and analysis

Two authors independently assessed the search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.

Main results

Seventeen publications out of 8681 identified studies were included in the review, all of which included people with rheumatoid arthritis using various NSAIDs, including aspirin. There were no identified studies for other forms of inflammatory arthritis.

For NSAIDs, 13 studies were included that used concurrent NSAIDs, of which nine studies examined unspecified NSAIDs. The mean number of participants was 150.4 (range 19 to 315), mean duration 2182.9 (range 183 to 5490) days, although the study duration was not always clearly defined, and the studies were mainly of low to moderate quality. Two of these studies reported no evidence for increased risk of methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease; one study assessed the effect of concurrent NSAIDs on renal function and found no adverse effect; one study identified no adverse effect on liver function; three studies demonstrated no increase in methotrexate withdrawal; and one study showed no increase in all adverse events, including major toxic reactions. However, transient thrombocytopenia was demonstrated in one study, specifically when NSAIDs were taken on the same week day as methotrexate. This study was a retrospective review that involved small numbers only and was of moderate quality; these finding have not been replicated since.

Four studies looked at specific NSAIDs (etodolac, piroxicam, celecoxib and etoricoxib), with a mean number of participants of 25.8 (range 14 to 50) and mean study duration of 16.8 (range 14 to 23) days. These studies were mainly of moderate quality. The studies were primarily pharmacokinetic studies but also reported adverse events as secondary outcomes. There were no clinically significant adverse effects with concomitant piroxicam or etodolac; and only mild adverse events with celecoxib or etoricoxib, such as nausea and vomiting, and headaches.

For aspirin, seven studies provided data on adverse events with the use of aspirin and methotrexate. These studies included a mean number of participants of 100 (range 11 to 232), had a mean duration of 1325 (range 8 to 2928) days and were mainly of low to moderate quality. Two of the studies reported no evidence for increased risk of methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease and two studies showed no increase in all adverse events including major toxic reactions; however, none of these studies specified the dose of aspirin that was used. One study demonstrated that concurrent aspirin adversely affected liver function at a mean dose of 6.84 tablets of aspirin per day, which is a possible daily dose of 2.1 g presuming that 300 mg aspirin tablets were given. A further study described a partially reversible decline in renal function with 2 g daily of aspirin. One study reported no increase in adverse events with 975 g aspirin daily, however the study duration was only one week.

For paracetamol, no studies were identified for inclusion.

Authors' conclusions

In the management of rheumatoid arthritis, the concurrent use of NSAIDs with methotrexate appears to be safe provided appropriate monitoring is performed. The use of anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin should be avoided.

Résumé scientifique

Safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in people receiving methotrexate for inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, other spondyloarthritis)

Contexte

Methotrexate is routinely used in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. There have been concerns regarding the safety of using concurrent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, or paracetamol (acetaminophen), or both, in these people.

Objectifs

To systematically appraise and summarise the scientific evidence on the safety of using NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol, or both, with methotrexate in inflammatory arthritis; and to identify gaps in the current evidence, assess the implications of those gaps and to make recommendations for future research to address these deficiencies.

Stratégie de recherche documentaire

We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library,second quarter2010); MEDLINE (from 1950); EMBASE (from 1980); the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). We also handsearched the conference proceedings for the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) (2008 to 2009) and checked the websites of regulatory agencies for reported adverse events, labels and warnings.

Critères de sélection

Randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies comparing the safety of methotrexate alone to methotrexate with concurrent NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol, or both, in people with inflammatory arthritis.

Recueil et analyse des données

Two authors independently assessed the search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies.

Résultats principaux

Seventeen publications out of 8681 identified studies were included in the review, all of which included people with rheumatoid arthritis using various NSAIDs, including aspirin. There were no identified studies for other forms of inflammatory arthritis.

For NSAIDs, 13 studies were included that used concurrent NSAIDs, of which nine studies examined unspecified NSAIDs. The mean number of participants was 150.4 (range 19 to 315), mean duration 2182.9 (range 183 to 5490) days, although the study duration was not always clearly defined, and the studies were mainly of low to moderate quality. Two of these studies reported no evidence for increased risk of methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease; one study assessed the effect of concurrent NSAIDs on renal function and found no adverse effect; one study identified no adverse effect on liver function; three studies demonstrated no increase in methotrexate withdrawal; and one study showed no increase in all adverse events, including major toxic reactions. However, transient thrombocytopenia was demonstrated in one study, specifically when NSAIDs were taken on the same week day as methotrexate. This study was a retrospective review that involved small numbers only and was of moderate quality; these finding have not been replicated since.

Four studies looked at specific NSAIDs (etodolac, piroxicam, celecoxib and etoricoxib), with a mean number of participants of 25.8 (range 14 to 50) and mean study duration of 16.8 (range 14 to 23) days. These studies were mainly of moderate quality. The studies were primarily pharmacokinetic studies but also reported adverse events as secondary outcomes. There were no clinically significant adverse effects with concomitant piroxicam or etodolac; and only mild adverse events with celecoxib or etoricoxib, such as nausea and vomiting, and headaches.

For aspirin, seven studies provided data on adverse events with the use of aspirin and methotrexate. These studies included a mean number of participants of 100 (range 11 to 232), had a mean duration of 1325 (range 8 to 2928) days and were mainly of low to moderate quality. Two of the studies reported no evidence for increased risk of methotrexate-induced pulmonary disease and two studies showed no increase in all adverse events including major toxic reactions; however, none of these studies specified the dose of aspirin that was used. One study demonstrated that concurrent aspirin adversely affected liver function at a mean dose of 6.84 tablets of aspirin per day, which is a possible daily dose of 2.1 g presuming that 300 mg aspirin tablets were given. A further study described a partially reversible decline in renal function with 2 g daily of aspirin. One study reported no increase in adverse events with 975 g aspirin daily, however the study duration was only one week.

For paracetamol, no studies were identified for inclusion.

Conclusions des auteurs

In the management of rheumatoid arthritis, the concurrent use of NSAIDs with methotrexate appears to be safe provided appropriate monitoring is performed. The use of anti-inflammatory doses of aspirin should be avoided.

Resumo

Segurança de medicamentos anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais, incluindo a aspirina e paracetamol (acetaminofeno) em pessoas que receberam metotrexato para a artrite inflamatória (artrite reumatóide, espondilite anquilosante, artrite psoriática, outra espondiloartrite)

Introdução

O metotrexato é rotineiramente utilizada no tratamento de artrite inflamatória. Tem havido a preocupação em relação à segurança na utilização simultânea de fármacos anti-inflamatórios não-esteroidais (AINEs), incluindo aspirina, ou paracetamol (acetaminofeno), ou ambos, nestas pessoas.

Objetivos

Avaliar de forma sistemática e resumir as evidências científicas sobre a segurança do uso de AINEs, incluindo aspirina, ou paracetamol, ou ambos, com o metotrexato na artrite inflamatória; e identificar as lacunas nas evidências atuais, avaliar as implicações dessas lacunas e fazer recomendações para pesquisas futuras corrigirem essas deficiências.

Métodos de busca

Buscamos no Cochrane Central Register de Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, segundo trimestre de 2010); MEDLINE (desde 1950); EMBASE (desde 1980); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) e o Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE). Também foi realizado busca manual nos anais de conferência do Colégio Americano de Reumatologia (ACR) e da Liga Europeia contra o Reumatismo (EULAR) (2008 a 2009) e verificou-se os sites das agências reguladoras para relato dos efeitos adversos, bulas e precauções.

Critério de seleção

Ensaios clínicos controlados randomizados e estudos não-randomizados, comparando a segurança de metotrexato sozinho e do metotrexato com AINEs simultaneamente, incluindo a aspirina, ou paracetamol, ou ambos, em pessoas com artrite inflamatória.

Coleta dos dados e análises

Dois autores avaliaram independentemente os resultados da busca, extraíram os dados e avaliaram o risco de viés dos estudos incluídos.

Principais resultados

Dezessete publicações do total de 8.681 estudos identificados foram incluídas na revisão, os quais incluíram pessoas com artrite reumatoide usando vários AINE, incluindo aspirina. Não houve estudos identificados para outras formas de artrite inflamatória.

Para AINEs, 13 estudos foram incluídos que utilizaram AINEs concomitante, dos quais nove estudos examinaram AINEs não especificados. O número médio de participantes foi de 150,4 (intervalo 19 a 315), duração média de 2.182,9 (intervalo 183 a 5490) dias, apesar que a duração do estudo nem sempre foi claramente definida, e os estudos eram principalmente de baixa a moderada qualidade. Dois destes estudos não relataram nenhuma evidência para um risco aumentado de doença pulmonar induzida por metotrexato; um estudo avaliou o efeito de AINEs simultâneos sobre a função renal e não encontrou nenhum efeito adverso; um estudo não identificou nenhum efeito adverso sobre a função hepática; três estudos não demonstraram aumento na interrupção do metotrexato; e um estudo não mostrou aumento nos efeitos adversos, incluindo as principais reações tóxicas. No entanto, trombocitopenia transitória foi demonstrada em um estudo, especificamente quando AINEs foram tomados nos mesmos dias da semana com o metotrexato. Este estudo foi uma análise retrospectiva que envolveu apenas um pequeno número e de qualidade moderada; estes achados não foram reproduzidos.

Quatro estudos analisaram AINEs específicos (etodolaco, piroxicam, celecoxibe e etoricoxibe), com um número médio de participantes de 25,8 (intervalo de 14 a 50) e duração média do estudo de 16,8 (intervalo de 14 a 23) dias. Estes estudos foram principalmente de qualidade moderada. Os estudos eram em sua maioria farmacocinéticos, mas também relataram efeitos adversos como desfechos secundários. Não houve efeitos adversos clinicamente significativos com piroxicam ou etodolaco concomitantes; e apenas efeitos adversos leves com celecoxibe ou etoricoxibe, tais como náuseas e vômitos e dores de cabeça.

Para aspirina, sete estudos forneceram dados sobre efeitos adversos com o uso de aspirina e metotrexato. Estes estudos incluíram um número médio de 100 participantes (intervalo de 11 a 232), tiveram uma duração média de 1325 (intervalo de 8 a 2928) dias e eram principalmente de baixa a moderada qualidade. Dois dos estudos não relataram nenhuma evidência de aumento do risco de doença pulmonar induzida pelo metotrexato e dois estudos não mostraram nenhum aumento nos efeitos adversos, incluindo as principais reações tóxicas; no entanto, nenhum desses estudos especificou a dose de aspirina que foi utilizada. Um estudo demonstrou que a aspirina concomitante afeta negativamente a função do fígado, numa dose média de 6,84 comprimidos de aspirina por dia, o qual é uma dose diária possível de 2,1 g presumindo-se que 300 mg de aspirina em comprimidos foram administradas. Um outro estudo descreveu um declínio parcialmente reversível da função renal com 2 g de aspirina por dia. Um estudo relatou nenhum aumento de efeitos adversos com 975 g de aspirina diariamente, no entanto, a duração do estudo foi de apenas uma semana.

Para paracetamol, não foram identificados estudos para a inclusão.

Conclusão dos autores

No manejo da artrite reumatóide, o uso concomitante de AINEs com metotrexato parece ser seguro desde que uma monitorização adequada seja realizada. A utilização de doses anti-inflamatórias da aspirina deve ser evitada.

Notas de tradução

Notas de tradução CD008872.pub2

Plain language summary

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin and paracetamol (acetaminophen) in people taking methotrexate for inflammatory arthritis

This summary of a Cochrane review describes what we know from research about any safety issues from using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs, including aspirin, or paracetamol (acetaminophen), or both, along with methotrexate in people with inflammatory arthritis.

The review shows that in people with inflammatory arthritis:

- NSAIDs, including aspirin, plus methotrexate may not increase lung problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

- High dose aspirin plus methotrexate may increase liver problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

- High dose aspirin plus methotrexate may increase kidney problems in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

- NSAIDs plus methotrexate may cause a brief and mild increase in blood problems (low platelet count) in people with rheumatoid arthritis, particularly if NSAIDs are taken on the same day as methotrexate.

- NSAIDs, including aspirin, plus methotrexate seems not to increase the chance of people with rheumatoid arthritis stopping taking their methotrexate due to side effects.

- No studies were found that looked at paracetamol plus methotrexate.

- No studies were found in people with conditions other than rheumatoid arthritis.

Often we do not have precise information about side effects and complications, particularly for rare but serious side effects. Possible side effects associated with high dose paracetamol includes liver problems. NSAIDs, including aspirin, may cause stomach, kidney or heart problems, and methotrexate may cause stomach problems, liver problems, anaemia or infection.

What is inflammatory arthritis, and what drugs are used to treat pain?

Inflammatory arthritis is a group of diseases that includes rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and other types of spondyloarthritis. When you have inflammatory arthritis, your immune system, which normally fights infection, attacks your joints. This makes your joints swollen, stiff and painful. In rheumatoid arthritis, the small joints of your hands and feet are usually affected first. In contrast, in ankylosing spondylitis the joints of the spine are the most affected. There is no cure for inflammatory arthritis at present, so the treatments aim to relieve pain and stiffness and improve your ability to move.

People with inflammatory arthritis therefore often need to use painkillers, like paracetamol, and NSAIDs such as aspirin or ibuprofen to help ease their pain. Paracetamol, also called acetaminophen, is used to relieve pain but does not affect swelling; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors or COX-2s (for example celecoxib), are used to decrease pain and swelling.

Methotrexate is one of the medications most commonly used to treat people with inflammatory arthritis. Methotrexate is a disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug.  Methotrexate can treat rheumatoid arthritis by decreasing the activity of the immune system. Methotrexate is a common treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and may be prescribed in combination with other drugs, especially for people who are not improving on methotrexate alone. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs like methotrexate come as tablets, capsules and, in some cases, injections. Unfortunately, there have been some concerns in the past that it may not be safe to use methotrexate at the same time as the painkillers that patients with inflammatory arthritis often need to use.

Résumé simplifié

Médicaments anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens, y compris l’aspirine et le paracétamol (acétaminophène), prescrits à des personnes suivant un traitement au méthotrexate pour soigner une arthrite inflammatoire

Ce récapitulatif d’une revue Cochrane décrit les connaissances issues de nos recherches portant sur les problèmes de tolérance des médicaments anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens, ou AINS, y compris l’aspirine et/ou le paracétamol (acétaminophène), associés à la prise de méthotrexate chez les personnes souffrant d’arthrite inflammatoire.

Cette revue démontre que chez les patients souffrant d’arthrite inflammatoire :

- Les AINS, y compris l’aspirine, associés à la prise de méthotrexate, n’augmentent pas obligatoirement les problèmes pulmonaires chez les personnes souffrant d’arthrite rhumatoïde.

- Des doses élevées d’aspirine, associées à la prise de méthotrexate, peuvent accroître les problèmes hépatiques chez les personnes souffrant d’arthrite rhumatoïde.

- Des doses élevées d’aspirine, associées à la prise de méthotrexate, peuvent accroître les problèmes rénaux chez les personnes souffrant d’arthrite rhumatoïde.

- Les AINS, associés à la prise de méthotrexate, peuvent entraîner une brève et légère augmentation des problèmes sanguins (baisse du nombre de plaquettes) chez les personnes souffrant d’arthrite rhumatoïde, à condition que les AINS soient pris le même jour que le méthotrexate.

- Les AINS, y compris l’aspirine, associés à la prise de méthotrexate, n’augmentent pas obligatoirement les possibilités d’arrêt du méthotrexate en raison d’effets secondaires chez les personnes souffrant d’arthrite rhumatoïde.

- Aucune étude sur le paracétamol, associé à la prise de méthotrexate, n’a été trouvée.

- Aucune étude présentant des conditions autres que l’arthrite rhumatoïde n’a été trouvée.

Les informations dont nous disposons sur les effets secondaires et les complications, notamment les effets secondaires rares mais graves, sont généralement imprécises. Des problèmes hépatiques correspondent à d’éventuels effets secondaires associés à une dose élevée de paracétamol. Les AINS, y compris l’aspirine, peuvent causer des problèmes gastriques, rénaux ou cardiaques et le méthotrexate peut causer des problèmes gastriques, hépatiques, anémiques ou infectieux.

Qu’est-ce que l’arthrite inflammatoire et quels médicaments sont utilisés pour traiter la douleur ?

L’arthrite inflammatoire regroupe plusieurs maladies dont : l’arthrite rhumatoïde, la spondylarthrite ankylosante, l’arthrite psoriasique et d’autres types de spondylarthrites. Lorsque vous souffrez d’une arthrite inflammatoire, votre système immunitaire, qui combat normalement les infections, attaque vos articulations. Ces dernières gonflent, se raidissent et deviennent douloureuses. Dans le cas de l’arthrite rhumatoïde, les petites articulations de vos mains et de vos pieds sont généralement les premières touchées. En revanche, dans le cas de la spondylarthrite ankylosante, les articulations de la colonne vertébrale sont les plus touchées. Il n’existe à l’heure actuelle aucun remède pour soigner l’arthrite inflammatoire. Les traitements visent donc à soulager la douleur et la raideur, ainsi qu’à améliorer votre capacité à vous déplacer.

Par conséquent, les personnes souffrant d’arthrite inflammatoire doivent souvent prendre des antidouleurs, comme le paracétamol, ainsi que des AINS, comme l’aspirine ou l’ibuprofène, pour soulager la douleur. Le paracétamol, aussi connu sous le nom d’« acétaminophène", est utilisé pour soulager la douleur, mais n’atténue pas les gonflements ; les médicaments anti-inflammatoires non stéroïdiens (AINS), comme l’aspirine, l’ibuprofène, le diclofénac et les inhibiteurs cyclo-oxygénase-2 ou COX-2 (par exemple : le célécoxib), sont utilisés pour atténuer la douleur et les gonflements.

Le méthotrexate est l’un des médicaments les plus couramment utilisés pour le traitement des personnes souffrant d’arthrite inflammatoire. Il s’agit d’un traitement de l’arthrite rhumatoide. Il permet de traiter l’arthrite rhumatoïde en réduisant l’activité du système immunitaire. Il sert de traitement courant de l’arthrite rhumatoïde et peut être prescrit avec d’autres médicaments, surtout chez les personnes dont l’état ne s’améliore pas suite à la prise de méthotrexate seul. Les médicaments antiarthritiques rhumatoïdes, comme le méthotrexate, se présentent sous la forme de comprimés, de gélules et, dans certains cas, de piqûres. Malheureusement, la tolérance du méthotrexate, associé à la prise régulière d’antidouleurs prescrits aux patients souffrant d’arthrite inflammatoire, est remise en cause.

Notes de traduction

Traduit par: French Cochrane Centre 1st December, 2011
Traduction financée par: Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé Français

Resumo para leigos

Fármacos anti-inflamatórios não esteroidais, incluindo aspirina e paracetamol (acetaminofeno) em pessoas tomando metotrexato para a artrite inflamatória

Este resumo de uma revisão Cochrane descreve o que sabemos de pesquisas sobre as questões de segurança do uso de medicamentos anti-inflamatórios não-esteroidais, ou AINEs, incluindo aspirina, ou paracetamol (acetaminofeno), ou ambos, juntamente com metotrexato em pessoas com artrite inflamatória.

Esta revisão mostra que em pessoas com artrite inflamatória:

- AINEs, incluindo aspirina, além de metotrexato pode não aumentar problemas pulmonares em pessoas com artrite reumatoide.

- Altas doses de aspirina mais metotrexato podem aumentar problemas hepáticos em pessoas com artrite reumatoide.

- Altas doses de aspirina mais metotrexato podem aumentar problemas renais em pessoas com artrite reumatoide.

- AINEs mais metotrexato podem provocar um aumento breve e leve em problemas de sangue (baixa contagem de plaquetas) em pessoas com artrite reumatoide, especialmente se AINEs são tomadas no mesmo dia com o metotrexato.

- AINEs, incluindo aspirina, mais metotrexato parece não aumentar a chance de pessoas com artrite reumatoide pararem de tomar o metotrexato devido aos efeitos adversos.

- Não foram encontrados estudos pesquisando paracetamol com metotrexato.

- Não foram encontrados estudos em pessoas com outras condições diferentes da artrite reumatoide.

Muitas vezes não temos informações precisas sobre os efeitos colaterais e complicações, especialmente para efeitos colaterais raros, mas graves. Os possíveis efeitos colaterais associados com altas doses de paracetamol incluem problemas hepáticos. AINEs, incluindo aspirina, podem causar problemas estomacais, renais ou cardíacos, e metotrexato pode causar problemas estomacais, hepáticos, anemia ou infecção.

O que é artrite inflamatória, e quais fármacos são utilizadas para tratar a dor?

Artrite inflamatória é um grupo de doenças que incluem artrite reumatoide, espondilite anquilosante, artrite psoríasica e outros tipos de espondilotartite. Quando você tem artrite inflamatória, o seu sistema imunológico, que normalmente combate a infecção, ataca suas articulações. Isso torna suas articulações inchadas, rígidas e dolorosas. Na artrite reumatoide, as pequenas articulações das mãos e pés geralmente são as primeiras a serem afetadas. Em contraste, na espondilite anquilosante as articulações da coluna são as mais afetadas. Não há cura para a artrite inflamatória atualmente, de modo que os tratamentos visam aliviar a dor e rigidez e melhorar a sua capacidade de se mover.

Pessoas com artrite inflamatória muitas vezes precisam usar analgésicos, como paracetamol e AINEs, como aspirina ou ibuprofeno para ajudar a aliviar a dor. Paracetamol, também chamado acetaminofeno, é utilizado para aliviar a dor, mas não afeta o inchaço; fármacos anti-inflamatórios não-esteroidais (AINEs), tais como aspirina, ibuprofeno, diclofenaco e inibidores da ciclooxigenase 2 ou COX-2 (por exemplo celecoxibe), são usados para diminuir a dor e inchaço.

O metotrexato é um dos medicamentos mais comumente usados para tratar pessoas com artrite inflamatória. O metotrexato é um medicamento antirreumático modificador do curso da doença. O metotrexato pode tratar a artrite reumatoide por diminuição da atividade do sistema imunológico.O metotrexato é um tratamento comum para a artrite reumatoide e pode ser prescrito em combinação com outros fármacos, especialmente para pessoas que não apresentam melhoras com metotrexato sozinho. Medicamentos antirreumáticos modificadores do curso da doença como o metotrexato podem vir como comprimidos, cápsulas e, em alguns casos, injeções. Infelizmente, houve algumas preocupações no passado de que o uso de metotrexato pode não ser seguro se utilizado ao mesmo tempo que os analgésicos em pacientes com artrite inflamatória.

Notas de tradução

Notas de tradução CD008872.pub2