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Analgesia for forceps delivery

  1. Payam Nikpoor1,*,
  2. Emily Bain2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 30 SEP 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 3 SEP 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008878.pub2


How to Cite

Nikpoor P, Bain E. Analgesia for forceps delivery. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD008878. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008878.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Lyell McEwin Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Elizabeth Vale, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, The Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Payam Nikpoor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lyell McEwin Hospital, Haydown Road, Elizabeth Vale, 5112, Australia. payam.nikpoor@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 30 SEP 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. 'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. 'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 1 Pain relief (judged as effective by the mother).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 2 Maternal apnoea requiring oxygen ventilation.
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 3 Apgar score of less than seven at five minutes.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 4 Acidosis as defined by cord blood arterial pH less than 7.2.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 5 Good anaesthesia (judged by the obstetrician).
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 6 Pleasant recovery (judged by the mother).
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Diazepam versus ketamine, Outcome 7 Awareness (mother sensed the operation).
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Diazepam versus vinydan-ether, Outcome 1 Pain relief (judged as effective by the mother).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Diazepam versus vinydan-ether, Outcome 2 Vomiting.
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Diazepam versus vinydan-ether, Outcome 3 Apgar score of less than seven at five minutes.
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Diazepam versus vinydan-ether, Outcome 4 Good anaesthesia (judged by the obstetrician).
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Diazepam versus vinydan-ether, Outcome 5 Comfortable induction and recovery (judged by the mother).
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Diazepam versus other (general, local, other anaesthetic), Outcome 1 Apgar score of less than eight at two minutes.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Spinal analgesia versus pudendal block anaesthesia, Outcome 1 Pain relief (analgesia achieved).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Spinal analgesia versus pudendal block anaesthesia, Outcome 2 Severe pain during delivery.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Spinal analgesia versus pudendal block anaesthesia, Outcome 3 Serious maternal complications.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Spinal analgesia versus pudendal block anaesthesia, Outcome 4 Request for additional anaesthesia.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Spinal analgesia versus pudendal block anaesthesia, Outcome 5 Maternal hypotension (defined as a decrease in diastolic or systolic blood pressure of more than 10 mmHg).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Spinal analgesia versus pudendal block anaesthesia, Outcome 6 Headache (mild or moderate).