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Restorative justice conferencing for reducing recidivism in young offenders (aged 7 to 21)

  1. Nuala Livingstone1,*,
  2. Geraldine Macdonald1,
  3. Nicola Carr2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 5 MAY 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008898.pub2


How to Cite

Livingstone N, Macdonald G, Carr N. Restorative justice conferencing for reducing recidivism in young offenders (aged 7 to 21). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD008898. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008898.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Queen's University Belfast, Institute of Child Care Research, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

  2. 2

    Queen's University Belfast, School of Sociology, Social Policy & Social Work, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

*Nuala Livingstone, Institute of Child Care Research, School of Sociology, Social Policy and Social Work, Queen's University Belfast, 6 College Park, Belfast, Northern Ireland, BT7 1LP, UK. nuala.livingstone@qub.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Bethlehem Experiment {published data only}
  • Baffour TD. Ethnic and gender differences in offending patterns: examining family group conferencing interventions among at-risk adolescents. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 2006;23(5-6):557-78.
  • McCold P. An experiment in police-based restorative justice: the Bethlehem (PA) project. Police Practice and Research: An International Journal 2003;4(4):379-90.
  • McCold P, Stahr J. Bethlehem Police Family Group Conferencing Project. Rockville, MD: National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS), 1996.
  • McCold P, Wachtel B. Restorative Policing Experiment: The Bethlehem Pennsylvania Police Family Group Conferencing Project. Pipersville, PA: Community Service Foundation, 1998.
Indianapolis Experiment {published data only}
  • Hipple NK, McGarrell EF. Comparing police- and civilian-run family group conferences. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 2008;31(4):553-77.
  • McGarrell E. Indianapolis Juvenile Restorative Justice Experiments [personal communication]. Email to: E McGarrell 15 September 2011.
  • McGarrell E, Olivares K, Crawford K, Kroovand N. Returning justice to the community: the Indianapolis juvenile restorative justice experiment. Indianapolis, IN: Hudson Institute, 2000.
  • McGarrell EF, Hipple NK. Family group conferencing and re-offending among first-time juvenile offenders: the Indianapolis experiment. Justice Quarterly 2007;24(2):221-46.
RISE JPP Experiment {published data only}
  • Gal T, Moyal S. Juvenile victims in restorative justice: Findings from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiment. British Journal of Criminology 2011;51(6):1014-34.
  • Sherman L. Randomizing shame to criminal events: issues in experimental criminology. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Conference. Chicago, IL: American Society of Criminology, 1996.
  • Sherman L, Strang H, Woods D. Recidivism Patterns in the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Canberra: Centre for Restorative Justice, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 2000.
  • Sherman LW, Braithwaite J, Strang H. Experiment in Restorative Policing - Reintegrative Shaming of Violence, Drink-Driving and Property Crime: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Canberra: Australian National University, 1997.
  • Sherman LW, Strang H, Barnes GC, Braithwaite J, Inkpen N, Teh MM. Experiments in Restorative Policing: A Progress Report on the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Canberra: Australian National University, 1998.
  • Strang H. Shaming conferences: community policing and the victim's perspective. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology conference. Chicago IL: American Society of Criminology, 1996.
  • Strang H, Barnes GC, Braithwaite J, Sherman LW. Experiments in Restorative Policing: A Progress Report on the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Canberra: Australian National University, 1999.
  • Strang H, Sherman L, Angel CM, Woods DJ, Bennett S, Newbury-Birch D, et al. Victim evaluations of face-to-face restorative justice conferences: a quasi-experimental analysis. Journal of social Issues 2006;62(2):281-306.
  • Woods DJ. Unpacking the Impact of Restorative Justice in the RISE Experiments: Facilitators, Offenders and Conference Non-Delivery [PhD Thesis]. Pennsylvania, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 2009.
RISE JPS Experiment {published data only}
  • Gal T, Moyal S. Juvenile victims in restorative justice: Findings from the Reintegrative Shaming Experiment. British Journal of Criminology 2011;51(6):1014-34.
  • Sherman L. Randomizing shame to criminal events: issues in experimental criminology. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Conference. Chicago, IL: American Society of Criminology, 1996.
  • Sherman L, Strang H, Woods D. Recidivism Patterns in the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Canberra: Centre for Restorative Justice, Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 2000.
  • Sherman LW, Braithwaite J, Strang H. Experiment in Restorative Policing - Reintegrative Shaming of Violence, Drink-Driving and Property Crime: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Canberra: Australian National University, 1997.
  • Sherman LW, Strang H, Barnes GC, Braithwaite J, Inkpen N, Teh MM. Experiments in Restorative Policing: A Progress Report on the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Canberra: Australian National University, 1998.
  • Strang H. Shaming conferences: community policing and the victim's perspective. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology conference. Chicago IL: American Society of Criminology, 1996.
  • Strang H, Barnes GC, Braithwaite J, Sherman LW. Experiments in Restorative Policing: A Progress Report on the Canberra Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE). Canberra: Australian National University, 1999.
  • Strang H, Sherman L, Angel CM, Woods DJ, Bennett S, Newbury-Birch D, et al. Victim evaluations of face-to-face restorative justice conferences: a quasi-experimental analysis. Journal of social Issues 2006;62(2):281-306.
  • Woods DJ. Unpacking the Impact of Restorative Justice in the RISE Experiments: Facilitators, Offenders and Conference Non-Delivery [PhD Thesis]. Pennsylvania, PA: University of Pennsylvania, 2009.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Bacon 2010 {published data only}
  • Bacon JR. Making Progress in Restorative Justice: A Qualitative Study [Masters Thesis]. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge, 2010.
Barnes 1999 {published data only}
  • Barnes GC. Procedural Justice in Two Contexts: Testing the Fairness of Diversionary Conferencing for Intoxicated Drivers. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, 1999.
Bazemore 2009 {published data only}
  • Bazemore DG, Schiff, M. Addressing the school-to-jail pipeline: restorative justice and theory for practice in real alternatives to zero tolerance. Proceedings of the American Society of Criminology conference, Philadelphia, PA. 2009.
Bennett 2008 {published data only}
  • Bennett S. Criminal Careers and Restorative Justice [PhD Thesis]. Cambridge, UK: University of Cambridge, 2008.
Bergseth 2007 {published data only}
  • Bergseth KJ, Bouffard JA. The long-term impact on restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice 2007;35(4):433-51.
Brank 2008 {published data only}
  • Brank E, Lane J, Turner S, Fain T, Sehgal A. An experimental juvenile probation program: effects on parent and peer relationships. Crime and Delinquency 2008;54(2):193-224.
Calhoun 2010 {published data only}
  • Calhoun A, Pelech W. Responding to young people responsible for harm: a comparative study of restorative and conventional approaches. Contemporary Justice Review 2010;13(3):287-306.
Copeland 2001 {published data only}
  • Copeland J, Swift W, Howard J, Roffman RA, Stephens RS, Berghuis J. A randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for cannabis problems among young offenders [Abstract]. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 2001;63 Suppl 1:S32.
Dansie 2010 {published data only}
  • Dansie EJ. A Multigroup Analysis of Reintegrative Shaming Theory: An Application to Drunk Driving Offenses [PhD Thesis]. Logan UT: Utah State University, 2010.
de Beus 2007 {published data only}
  • de Beus K, Rodriguez N. Restorative justice practice: an examination of program completion and recidivism. Journal of Criminal Justice 2007;35(3):337-47.
Eriksson 2008 {published data only}
  • Eriksson AM. Community Restorative Justice in Northern Ireland: Building Bridges and Challenging Culture of Violence [PhD Thesis]. Belfast: Queen's University Belfast, 2008.
Errante 2010 {published data only}
  • Errante JM. An evaluation of two restorative practices on measures of moral disengagement, empathy and forgiveness among incarcerated male juvenile offenders. Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 2010;71(4):1449.
Fain 2005 {published data only}
  • Fain T, Lane J, Sehgal A, Turner S. Evaluating an experimental intensive juvenile probation program: supervision and official outcomes. Crime and Delinquency 2005;51(1):26-52.
Filipcic 2004 {published data only}
  • Filipcic K. New directions in dealing with juvenile offenders [Nove usmeritve pri obravnavanju mladoletnih prestopnikov]. Preprecevanje kriminalitete V Ljubljani. Ljubljani, Slovenia: Institut za kriminologijo pri Pravni fakulteti, 2004.
Lane 2005 {published data only}
  • Lane J, Turner S, Fain T, Sehgal A. Evaluating an experimental intensive juvenile probation program: supervision and official outcomes. Crime and Delinquency 2005;51(1):26-52.
Lane 2007 {published data only}
  • Lane J, Turner S, Fain T, Sehgal A. Implementing "corrections of place" ideas - the perspective of clients and staff. Criminal Justice and Behavior 2007;34(1):76-95.
Little 2004 {published data only}
  • Little M, Kogan J, Bullock R, Van der Laan P. ISSP: An experiment in multi-systematic responses to persistent young offenders known to children's services. British Journal of Criminology 2004;44(2):225-40.
Lo 2006 {published data only}
  • Lo T, Maxwell G, Wong DSW. Diversion from youth courts in five Asia pacific jurisdictions. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 2006;50(1):46-61.
McKenzie 2005 {published data only}
  • McKenzie N. Beyond the Fringe: Family Group Conferencing and its Relationship with the Criminal Justice Process [PhD Thesis]. Portsmouth: University of Portsmouth, 2005.
Moore 2004 {published data only}
  • Moore R. Intensive supervision and surveillance programmes for young offenders: the evidence base so far. In: Burnett R, Roberts C editor(s). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice: Developing Evidence-based Practice. Cullompton, UK: Willan Publishing, 2004:159-79.
Nugent 1995 {published data only}
O'Dwyer 2006 {published data only}
  • O'Dwyer K. Restorative Justice in the Garda Siochana: An Evolution of the Garda Programme of Restorative Justice 2002-2003 [PhD Thesis]. Dublin: University College Dublin, 2006.
Papadopoulou 2008 {published data only}
  • Papadopoulou PC. Restorative Justice for Minors in Greece: The Impact of Act 3189/2003 [PhD Thesis]. Sussex: University of Sussex, 2008.
Riggs 2008 {published data only}
  • Riggs JW. Face-to-face: victims, offender and the community coming together in Cass County. Masters Abstracts International 2008;46(3):1335.
Rodriguez 2007 {published data only}
  • Rodriguez N. Restorative justice at work: examining the impact of restorative justice resolutions on juvenile recidivism. Crime and Delinquency 2007;53(3):355-79.
Sherman 2010 {published data only}
  • Sherman LW, Strang H. Restorative Justice as a psychological treatment: healing victims, reintegrating offenders. In: Towl G, Crichton D editor(s). Forensic Psychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2010:398-415.
Stewart 2004 {published data only}
  • Stewart AL, Smith F. Youth justice conferencing and police referrals: the gate keeping role of police in Queensland, Australia. Journal of Criminal Justice 2004;32(4):345-57.
Sundell 2004 {published data only}
Turner 2002 {published data only}
  • Turner S, Schroeder A, Fain T, Lane J, Petersilia J. Evaluation of the South Oxnard Challenge Project 1997-2001. Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 2002.
Urban 2008 {published data only}
  • Urban LS, Riggs J. Restorative juvenile justice: a comparison of two Missouri jurisdictions. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology Conference. Missouri, MO: American Society of Criminology, 2008.
Van Wormer 2009 {published data only}
  • Van Wormer K. Restorative justice: what social workers need to know. In: Maschi T, Bradley C, Ward K editor(s). Forensic Social Work: Psychosocial and Legal Issues in Diverse Practice Settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2009:229-310.
Williams 1995 {published data only}
  • Williams LW. A Case Management Follow-up Support Strategy for Misdemeanors Processed at a Juvenile Assessment Centre [Masters Thesis]. Fort Lauderdale-Davie, FL: Nova Southeastern University, 1995.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Bergseth 2006 {published data only}
  • Bergseth K, Bouffard JA. Restorative justice and juvenile offender characteristics. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology conference. Los Angeles, CA: American Society of Criminology, 2006.
Grothe Nielsen 2000 {published data only}
  • Grothe Nielsen B. Repressive and reflexive criminal law [Repressiv og refleksiv strafferet]. Lovens liv : til Jørgen Dalberg-Larsen på 60 års-dagen 19. september 2000. København: Jurist- og Økonomforbundets Forlag, 2000:283-304.
Grothe Nielsen 2001 {published data only}
  • Grothe Nielsen B. Paradigmaskift - Fra Straffende Ret Til Genoprettende Ret - En Canadisk Højesteretsdom Viser Vej. København: Danmarks Jurist- og Økonomforbund, 2001.
Grothe Nielsen 2003 {published data only}
  • Grothe Nielsen B. Does punishment bring peace? [Giver straf så fred?]. Retspolitiske Udfordringer: Dansk Retspolitisk Forening 1978-2003. København: Gjellerup, 2003:339-49.
Kim 2009 {published data only}
  • Kim HJ, Webb DW. The effectiveness of reintegrative shaming and restorative justice conference. Paper presented at the American Society of Criminology conference. Philadelphia, PA: American Society of Criminology, 2009.
Rane 2003 {published data only}
  • Rane CM. Restorative Justice in a Retributive System [MPhil thesis]. Sheffield: University of Sheffield, 2003.
Saunders Baffour 2004 {published data only}
  • Saunders Baffour TD. The Impact of Family Group Conferencing on Competency Development and Recidivism: A Comparative Analysis of Ethnicity and Gender Among Juvenile Offenders [PhD Thesis]. Washington DC: Howard University, 2004.
Scott J {published data only}
  • Scott J. The Process of Restorative Justice and its Potential to Empower Victims of Crime [Masters Thesis]. Dublin: University College Dublin, 2003.
Sørensen 2005 {published data only}
  • Sørensen J, Jepsen J. Juvenile Justice in Transition: Bringing the Convention on the Rights of the Child to Work in Africa and Nepal. Denmark: The Danish Institute for Human Rights, 2005.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
Arsenault 2003
  • Arsenault L, Moffitt TE, Caspi A, Taylor A, Rijsdijk RV, Jafee SR, et al. Strong genetic effects on cross-situational antisocial behaviour among 5-year old children according to mothers, teachers, examiner-observers, and twins self-reports. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2003;44(6):832-48.
Bandura 1990
  • Bandura A. Mechanisms of moral disengagement. In: Reich W editor(s). Origins of Terrorism. Cambridge, UK: Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars and Cambridge University Press, 1990:161-91.
Barton 2003
  • Barton CKB. Restorative Justice: The Empowerment Model. Sydney, Australia: Hawkins Press, 2003.
Bazemore 2001
  • Bazemore G, Umbreit M. A comparison of four restorative conferencing models. In: Johnstone G editor(s). A Restorative Justice Reader. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing, 2001:225-43.
Braithwaite 1989
  • Braithwaite J. Crime Shame and Reintegration. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Braithwaite 2001
  • Braithwaite J, Braithwaite V. Revising the theory of reintegrative shaming. In: Ahmed E, Harris N, Braithwaite J, Braithwaite V editor(s). Shame Management Through Reintegration. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001:33-57.
Britton 2008
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Burnett 2004
  • Burnett R, Roberts C. The emergence and importance of evidence-based practice in probation and youth justice. In: Burnett R, Roberts C editor(s). What Works in Probation and Youth Justice. Developing Evidence-Based Practice. Cullompton: Willan, 2004:1-14.
Campbell 2006
  • Campbell C, Devlin R, O'Mahony D, Doak J, Jackson J, Corrigan T, et al. Evaluation of the Northern Ireland Youth Conferencing Service. http://www.nio.gov.uk/evaluation_of_the_northern_ireland_youth_conference_service.pdf (accessed February 2010).
Coleman 1996
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Dignan 2001
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Eccles 2002
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Umbreit 1994
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Walgrave 2003
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