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Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders for health and nutrition in children under two years of age

  1. Luz Maria De-Regil1,*,
  2. Parminder S Suchdev2,
  3. Gunn E Vist3,
  4. Silke Walleser4,
  5. Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems Group

Published Online: 7 SEP 2011

Assessed as up-to-date: 10 AUG 2011

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008959.pub2


How to Cite

De-Regil LM, Suchdev PS, Vist GE, Walleser S, Peña-Rosas JP. Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders for health and nutrition in children under two years of age. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 9. Art. No.: CD008959. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008959.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Micronutrient Initiative, Ottawa, ON, Canada

  2. 2

    Emory University; Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), Pediatrics and Global Health; Nutrition Branch, Atlanta, GA, USA

  3. 3

    Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Prevention, Health Promotion and Organisation Unit, Oslo, Norway

  4. 4

    Independent Consultant, Geneva, Switzerland

  5. 5

    World Health Organization, Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, Geneva, Switzerland

*Luz Maria De-Regil, Micronutrient Initiative, 180 Elgin Street, Suite 1000, Ottawa, ON, K2P 2K3, Canada. lderegil@micronutrient.org.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 7 SEP 2011

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Adu-Afarwuah 2007 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Brown KH, Zlotkin S, Briend A, Dewey KG. Home fortification of complementary foods with micronutrient supplements is well accepted and has positive effects on infant iron status in Ghana. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2008;87:929-38.
  • Adu-Afarwuah S, Lartey A, Brown KH, Zlotkin S, Briend A, Dewey KG. Randomized comparison of 3 types of micronutrient supplements for home fortification of complementary foods in Ghana: effects on growth and motor development. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86:412-20.
Christofides 2006 {published data only}
  • Christofides A, Asante KP, Schauer C, Sharieff W, Owusu-Agyei S, Zlotkin S. Multi-micronutrient Sprinkles including a low dose of iron provided as microencapsulated ferrous fumarate improves haematologic indices in anaemic children: a randomized clinical trial. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2006;2(3):169-80.
Giovannini 2006 {published data only}
  • Agostoni C, Giovannini M, Sala D, Usuelli M, Livio L, Francescato C, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing effects of supplementation of two micronutrient Sprinkles on fatty acid status in Cambodian infants. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2007;44(1):136-42.
  • Giovannini M, Sala D, Usuelli M, Livio L, Francescato G, Braga M, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing effects of supplementation with two different combinations of micronutrients delivered as sprinkles on growth, anemia, and iron deficiency in Cambodian infants. Journal of Pediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2006;42(3):306-12.
Hirve 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hirve S, Bhave S. Re-analysis of the sprinkles study conducted by us at KEM Hospital Research Center, Pune, India. (personal communication) February 2011.
  • Hirve S, Bhave S, Bavdekar A, Naik S, Pandit A, Schauer C, et al. Low dose 'Sprinkles' - an innovative approach to treat iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children. Indian Pediatrics 2007;44(2):91-100.
Lundeen 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lundeen E, Schueth T, Toktobaev N, Zlotkin S, Hyder SM, Houser R. Daily use of Sprinkles micronutrient powder for 2 months reduces anemia among children 6 to 36 months of age in the Kyrgyz Republic: a cluster-randomized trial. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 2010;31(3):446-60.
Menon 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Loechl CU, Menon P, Arimond M, Ruel MT, Pelto G, Habicht JP, et al. Using programme theory to assess the feasibility of delivering micronutrient Sprinkles through a food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programme in rural Haiti. Maternal and Child Nutrition 2009;5(1):33-48.
  • Menon P, Ruel MT, Loechl CU, Arimond M, Habicht JP, Pelto G, et al. Micronutrient Sprinkles reduce anemia among 9- to 24-mo-old children when delivered through an integrated health and nutrition program in rural Haiti. Journal of Nutrition 2007;137(4):1023-30.
Sharieff 2006a {published data only}
  • Sharieff W, Bhutta Z, Schauer C, Tomlinson G, Zlotkin S. Micronutrients (including zinc) reduce diarrhoea in children: the Pakistan Sprinkles Diarrhoea Study. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2006;91(7):573-9.
Suchdev 2011 {unpublished data only}
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Baseline data from the Nyando Integrated Child Health and Education Project - Kenya, 2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 2007;56(42):1109-13.
  • Suchdev PS, Leeds IL, McFarland DA, Flores R. Is it time to change guidelines for iron supplementation in malarial areas?. Journal of Nutrition 2010;140(4):875-6.
  • Suchdev PS, Ruth L, Woodruff BA, Mbakaya C, Mandava U, Flores R, et al. Sprinkles sales reduce anemia and iron deficiency among young children in Western Kenya. (personal communication) February 2011.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Bagni 2009 {published data only}
  • Bagni UV, Baiao MR, de Souza Santos MMA, Luiz RR, da Veiga GV. Effect of weekly rice fortification with iron on anaemia prevalence and haemoglobin concentration among children attending public daycare centres in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil [Efeito da fortificao semanel do arroz com ferro quelato sobre a frequencia de anemia e concentracao de hemoglobina em criancas de creches municipais de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil]. Cadernos de Saude Publica 2009;25(2):291-302.
Chen 2008 {published data only}
  • Chen K, Li TY, Chen L, Qu P, Liu YX. Effects of vitamin A, vitamin A plus iron and multiple micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder on preschool children in a suburb of Chongqing, China. Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology 2008;54(6):440-7.
  • Chen K, Zhang X, Li TY, Chen L, Wei XP, Qu P, Liu YX. Effect of vitamin A, vitamin A plus iron and multiple micronutrient-fortified seasoning powder on infectious morbidity of preschool children. Nutrition 2011;27(4):428-34.
Geltman 2009 {published data only}
  • Geltman PL, Hironaka LK, Mehta SD, Padilla P, Rodrigues P, Meyers AF, et al. Iron supplementation of low-income infants: a randomized clinical trial of adherence with ferrous fumarate sprinkles versus ferrous sulfate drops. Journal of Pediatrics 2009;154(5):738-43.
Ip 2009 {published data only}
  • Ip H, Hyder SM, Haseen F, Rahman M, Zlotkin SH. Improved adherence and anaemia cure rates with flexible administration of micronutrient Sprinkles: a new public health approach to anaemia control. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;63(2):165-72.
Sharieff 2006b {published data only}
  • Sharieff W, Yin SA, Wu M, Yang Q, Schauer C, Tomlinson G, et al. Short-term daily or weekly administration of micronutrient Sprinkles has high compliance and does not cause iron overload in Chinese schoolchildren: a cluster-randomized trial. Public Health Nutrition 2006;9(3):336-44.
Smuts 2005 {published data only}
  • Smuts CM, Dhansay MA, Faber M, van Stuijvenberg ME, Swanevelder S, Gross R, et al. Efficacy of multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving anemia, micronutrient status, and growth in South African infants. Journal of Nutrition 2005;135(3):653S-9S.
Troesch 2009 {published data only}
  • Troesch B. Optimized micronutrient powder containing low levels of highly bioavailable iron and zinc together with EDTA, phytase and ascorbic acid improves the nutritional status of children. Sight and Life Magazine 2010, issue 3:9-14.
  • Troesch B, Egli I, Zeder C, Hurrell RF, de Pee S, Zimmermann MB. Optimization of a phytase-containing micronutrient powder with low amounts of highly bioavailable iron for in-home fortification of complementary foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009;89(2):539-44.
Troesch 2011 {published data only}
  • Troesch B, van Stujivenberg ME, Smuts CM, Kruger HS, Biebinger R, Hurrell RF, et al. A micronutrient powder with low doses of highly absorbable iron and zinc reduces iron and zinc deficiency and improves weight-for-age Z-scores in South African children. Journal of Nutrition 2011;141(2):237-42.
Wijaya-Erhardt 2007 {published data only}
  • Wijaya-Erhardt M, Erhardt JG, Untoro J, Karyadi E, Wibowo L, Gross R. Effects of daily or weekly multiple-micronutrient and iron foodlike tablets on body iron stores of Indonesian infants aged 6-12 mo: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;86(6):1680-6.
Zlotkin 2001 {published data only}
  • Zlotkin S, Arthur P, Antwi KY, Yeung G. Treatment of anemia with microencapsulated ferrous fumarate plus ascorbic acid supplied as sprinkles to complementary (weaning) foods. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;74(6):791-5.
Zlotkin 2003a {published data only}
  • Zlotkin S, Antwi KY, Schauer C, Yeung G. Use of microencapsulated iron (II) fumarate sprinkles to prevent recurrence of anaemia in infants and young children at high risk. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2003;81(2):108-15.
Zlotkin 2003b {published data only}
  • Zlotkin S, Arthus P, Schauer C, Antwi KY, Yeung G, Piekarz A. Home-fortification with iron and zinc Sprinkles of iron Sprinkles alone successfully treats anemia in infants and young children. Journal of Nutrition 2003;133(4):1075-80.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Bilenko 2010 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Bilenko N, Belmaker I, Vardi H, Fraser D. Efficacy of multiple micronutrient supplementations on child health: study design and baseline characteristics. Israel Medical Association Journal 2010;12(6):342-7.
Neufeld 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • Aburto NJ, Ramirez-Zea M, Neufeld LM, Flores-Ayala R. The effect of nutritional supplementation on physical activity and exploratory behavior of Mexican infants aged 8-12 months. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2010;64(6):644-51.
  • Colchero A, Neufeld LM. Cost estimations of different types of micronutrient supplements for children and pregnant women (poster presentation). FASEB Journal 2008; Vol. 22, issue Abstract 678.21.
  • García-Guerra A, Neufeld LM, Domínguez CP, García-Feregrino R, Hernández-Cabrera A. Effect of three supplements with identical micronutrient content on anemia in Mexican children (poster presentation). FASEB Journal 2008; Vol. 22, issue Abstract 677.5.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Fitzsimons 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, World Health Organization. Early Childhood Development: A cluster-randomized controlled trial to Identify successful interventions and the mechanisms behind them. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ISRCTN18991160 (accessed 23 January 2011).
Jack 2008 {unpublished data only}
  • International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, World Health Organization. Combating anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies among young children in rural Cambodia through in-home multiple micronutrient fortification and nutrition education compared with nutrition education alone. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ACTRN12608000069358 (accessed 24 January 2011).
Ribeiro Da Costa 2009 {unpublished data only}
  • International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, World Health Organization. The impact of the use of zinc supplementation and other micronutrients on the occurence of diarrhea diseases and respiratory infections in children of daycare centers. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=NCT00967551 (accessed 24 January 2011).
van der Kam 2010 {published data only}
  • Kam van der S. Effectiveness of nutritional supplementation in preventing malnutrition in children with infection. NIH ClinicalTrials.gov Register NCT01154803 2010.
Zavaleta 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, World Health Organization. Efficacy of the nutritional supplement sprinkles with zinc and micronutrients on anaemia and acute diarrhoea in Peruvian children. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ISRCTN39244429 (accessed 24 January 2011). [: Identifier ISRCTN39244429]
Zimmermann 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • International Clinical trials Registry Platform, World Health Organization. The Effect of iron fortification of complementary foods on iron status and infant gut microbiota in Kenya. Available at http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=NCT01111864 (accessed 24 January 2011).
Zlotkin 2010 {unpublished data only}
  • International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, World Health Organization. Seasonal Impact of iron fortification on malaria incidence in Ghanaian children. Available at http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=NCT01001871 (accessed 24 January 2011).

Additional references

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  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
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