This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (28 SEP 2016)

Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Baby-led compared with scheduled (or mixed) breastfeeding for successful breastfeeding

  1. Anne Fallon1,*,
  2. Deirdre Van der Putten1,
  3. Cindy Dring2,
  4. Edina H Moylett3,
  5. Gerard Fealy4,
  6. Declan Devane1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 31 JUL 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009067.pub2

How to Cite

Fallon A, Van der Putten D, Dring C, Moylett EH, Fealy G, Devane D. Baby-led compared with scheduled (or mixed) breastfeeding for successful breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD009067. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009067.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    National University of Ireland Galway, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Galway, Ireland

  2. 2

    National University of Ireland Galway, Health Promotion, Student Services, Galway, Ireland

  3. 3

    National University of Ireland Galway, Department of Paediatrics, Galway, Ireland

  4. 4

    University College Dublin, Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, Dublin, Ireland

*Anne Fallon, School of Nursing and Midwifery, National University of Ireland Galway, Áras Moyola, Galway, Ireland.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 31 JUL 2014


This is not the most recent version of the article. View current version (28 SEP 2016)


References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. Additional references
Carlsson 1978 {published data only}
De Carvalho 1983 {published data only}
Gale 1989 {published data only}
  • Gale R, Dollberg S, Branski D, Stevenson DK, Seidman DS. Breast-feeding of term infants. Three-hour vs four-hour non-demand. A randomized controlled reappraisal of hospital-based feeding schedules. Clinical Pediatrics 1989;28:458-60.
Illingworth 1952 {published data only}
  • Illingworth RS, Stone DGH, Jowett GH, Scott JF. Self-demand feeding in a maternity unit. Lancet 1952;1:683-7.
Johnson 1976 {published data only}
  • Johnson NW. Breast-feeding at one hour of age. American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing 1976;1:12-6.
Maisels 1994 {published data only}
  • Acquavita A, Vain N, Maisles MJ, Cohen A, Blanco N, Digregorio J. Effect of breast feeding frequency on serum bilirubin (SB) levels [abstract]. Pediatric Reserach 1991;30:390.
  • Maisels J, Vain N, Acquavita AM, de Blanco NV, Cohen A, DiGregorio J. The effect of breast-feeding frequency on serum bilirubin levels. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1994;170(3):880-3.
  • Vain N, Acquavita AM, Maisels MJ, De Blanco NV, Cohen A, Di Gregorio J. Effect of breast feeding frequency on serum bilirubin (SB) levels. Pediatric Research 1990;27(4):259A.
Ojofeitimi 1982 {published data only}
Pinilla 1993 {published data only}
Salariya 1978 {published data only}
  • Salariya EM, Easton PM, Cater JI. Duration of breast-feeding after early initiation and frequent feeding. Lancet 1978;2(8100):1141-3.
  • Salariya EM, Easton PM, Cater JI. Early and often for best results. RCT on breast feeding. Nursing Mirror 1979;148:15-7.
Slaven 1981 {published data only}
  • Slaven S, Harvey D. Unlimited sucking time improves breast feeding. Lancet 1981;317(8216):392-3.

Additional references

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. Additional references
Ahluwalia 2012
  • Ahluwalia IB, Morrow B, D’Angelo D, Li R. Maternity care practices and breastfeeding experiences of women in different racial and ethnic groups: pregnancy risk assessment and monitoring system (PRAMS). Maternal and Child Health Journal 2012;16:1672–8.
Becker 2011
Callen 2004
Carletti 2011
  • Carletti C, Pani P, Knowles A, Monasta L, Montico M, Cattaneo A. Breastfeeding to 24 months of age in the northeast of Italy: a cohort study. Breastfeeding Medicine 2011;6(4):177-82.
Casiday 2004
  • Casiday RE, Wright CM, Panter-Brick C, Parkinson KN. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain?. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2004;58:1290-6.
Chalmers 2009
Chien 2007
  • Chien LY, Chen-Jei T, Kuei-Hui C, Yi-Li H, Yueh-Chi C. The number of Baby Friendly hospital practices experienced by mothers is positively associated with breastfeeding. A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies 2007;44:1138-46.
Coutinho 2005
Crenshaw 2007
  • Crenshaw J. Care practice #6: No separation of mother and baby, wIth unlimited opportunities for breastfeeding. Journal of Perinatal Education 2007;16(3):39-43.
Crowther 2009
  • Crowther SM, Reynolds LA, Tansey EM (eds). The Resurgence of Breastfeeding, 1975-2000. Wellcome Witnesses to Twentieth Century Medicine. Vol. 35, London: Wellcome Trust Centre for the History of Medicine at UCL, 2009.
Daly 1995
  • Daly SEJ, Hartmann PE. Infant demand and milk supply. Part 1: infant demand and milk production in lactating women. Journal of Human Lactation 1995;11(1):21-6.
De Carvalho 1982
Declercq 2009
  • Declercq E, Labbok M, Sakala C, O’Hara M. Hospital practices and women’s likelihood of fulfilling their intention to exclusively breastfeed. Research and Practice 2009;99(5):929-34.
Dewey 1991
  • Dewey KG, Heinig J, Nommsen LA, Lonnerdal B. Maternal versus infant factors related to breast milk intake and residual milk volume: the DARLING Study. Pediatrics 1991;87(6):829-37.
Diaz 1995
  • Diaz S, Herreros C, Araveno R, Casado M, Reyes MV, Schiappacasse V. Breastfeeding duration and growth of fully breast-fed infants in a poor urban Chilean population. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1995;62:371-6.
DiGirolamo 2008
Dykes 2005
Eidelman 2012
Entwistle 2013
  • Entwistle FM. The Evidence and Rationale for the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative Standards. UNICEF UK, 2013.
Fildes 1986
  • Fildes V. Breasts, Bottles and Babies a History of Infant Feeding. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1986.
Ghosh 2006
Godfrey 2010
Graffy 2005
Grieve 2000
  • Grieve V, Howarth T. The counselling needs of breastfeeding women. Breastfeeding Review 2000;8(2):9-15.
Guo 2013
  • Guo S, Fu X, Scherpbier RW, Wang Y, Zhou H, Wang X, et al. Breastfeeding rates in central and western China in 2010: implications for child and population health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2013;91:322-31.
Hall 2011
  • Hall J. Effective community-based interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding at four to six months in low- and low-middle-income countries: a systematic review of randomised trials. Midwifery 2011;27:497-502.
Heinig 2010
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Hill 1994
  • Hill PD, Humenick SS, West B. Concerns of breastfeeding mothers; the first six weeks postpartum. Journal of Perinatal Education 1994;3(4):47-58.
Hoddinott 2012
Holman 2003
Howel 2013
Howie 1981
Häggkvist 2010
  • Häggkvist AP, Brantsaester AL, Grjibovski AM, Helsing E, Meltzer HM, Haugen M. Prevalence of Breastfeeding in Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and health-service correlates of cessation of full breastfeeding. Public Health Nutrition 2010;13(12):2076-86.
Ip 2007
  • Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment , No 153. AHRQ Publication (Prepared by Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center, under Contract No. 290-02-0022). AHRQ Publication No. 07-E007. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2007:1-186.
Jaafar 2012
Jones 2007
  • Jones E, Spencer SA. The physiology of lactation. Paediatrics and Child Health 2007;17(6):244-8.
Jones 2011
Kelleher 2006
Kent 2006
  • Kent JC,  Mitoulas LR,  Cregan MD,  Ramsay DT,  Doherty DA,  Hartmann PE. Volume and frequency of breastfeeding and fat content of breast milk throughout the day. Pediatrics 2006;117(3):e387-e395.
Kent 2007
Klaus 1987
  • Klaus MH. The frequency of suckling. A neglected but essential ingredient of breast-feeding. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 1987;14(3):623-33.
Kramer 2012
Labbok 2006
Leonard 2000
Livingstone 2000
  • Livingstone VH, Willis CE, Abdel-Wareth LO, Thiessen P, Lockitch G. Neonatal hypernatraemic dehydration associated with breast-feeding malnutrition: a retrospective survey. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2000;162(5):647-52.
Mangesi 2010
Manz 1999
Marshall 2007
McAndrew 2012
  • McAndrew F, Thompson J, Fellows L, Large A, Speed M, Renfrew MJ. Infant Feeding Survey 2010. Health and Social Care Information Centre.
McClellan 2012
  • McClellan HL, Hepworth AR, Kent JC, Garbin CP, Williams TM, Hartmann PE, et al. Breastfeeding frequency, milk volume, and duration in mother–infant dyads with persistent nipple pain. Breastfeeding Medicine 2012;7(4):275-81.
McCormick 2010
Mizuno 2004
Morse 1990
Motee 2013
  • Motee A, Ramasawmy D, Pugo-Gunsam P, Jeewon R. An assessment of the breastfeeding practices and infant feeding pattern among mothers in Mauritius. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, Article ID 243852, 2013; Vol. 2013.
Murray 2007
NICE 2010
  • National Institute for Clinical Evidence. Neonatal Jaundice. National Institute for Clinical Evidence London 2010.
  • OECD/WHO (2012). “Breastfeeding”. Health at a Glance: Asia/ Pacific, OECD Publishing. 2012.
Parry 2013
  • Parry JE, Ip DKM, Chau PYK, Wu KM, Tarrant M. Predictors and consequences of in-hospital formula supplementation for healthy breastfeeding newborns. Journal of Human Lactation 2013;29(4):527–36.
Perrine 2012
Phillip 2007
Prusova 2014
  • Prusova K, Tyler A, Churcher L, Lokugamage U. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists guidelines: How evidenced-based are they?. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2014;12:1-6 [Epub ahead of print]. [DOI: 10.3109/01443615.2014.920794]
Putthakeo 2009
Renfrew 2005
  • Renfrew M, Dyson L, Wallace L, D'Sousa L, McCormack F, Spiby H. The Effectiveness of Public Health Interventions to Promote the Duration of Breastfeeding: Systematic Review. 1st Edition. London: NICE, 2005.
RevMan 2014 [Computer program]
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). Version 5.3. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2014.
Shealy 2008
Skafida 2012
  • Skafida V. Juggling work and motherhood: the impact of employment and maternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a survival analysis on Growing Up in Scotland data. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2012;16(2):519-27.
Spencer 2007
  • Spencer R. Ontological perspectives of breastfeeding. British Journal of Midwifery 2007;15(12):779-83.
Teich 2014
  • Teich AS, Barnett J, Bonuck K. Women’s perceptions of breastfeeding barriers in early postpartum period: a qualitative analysis nested in two randomized controlled trials. Breastfeeding Medicine 2014;9(1):9-14.
Tierney 2005
Tin 2014
Van Esterik 2002
Vincent 1999
  • Vincent P. Feeding our Babies. Exploring Traditions of Breastfeeding and Infant Nutrition. Cheshire: Hochland & Hochland Ltd, 1999.
Watt 2013
  • Watt J, Mead J. What paediatricians need to know about breastfeeding. Paediatrics and Child Health 2013;23(8):362-6.
WHO 1998
  • World Health Organization. Evidence for the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998.
WHO 2001
  • WHO. The Optimal Duration of Exclusive Breastfeeding. Report of an Expert Consultation. World Health Organization 2001.
WHO 2002
  • WHO. Global Strategy on Infant and Young Child Feeding. WHO 2002.
WHO 2008
  • World Health Organization. Indicators for Assessing Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices. Part 1, Definitions. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
WHO 2009
  • World Health Organization and United Nations Children’s Fund. Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative Revised, Updated and Expanded for Integrated Care. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2009.
Woolridge 2008
Wright 2011
  • Wright JD, Pawar N, Gonzalez JSR, Lewin SN, Burke WM, Simpson LL, et al. Scientific evidence underlying the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Practice Bulletins. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2011;118(3):505-12.
Yamauchi 1990