Intervention Review

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Interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke

  1. Kate E Lager1,*,
  2. Amit K Mistri2,
  3. Kamlesh Khunti1,
  4. Victoria J Haunton2,
  5. Aung K Sett2,
  6. Andrew D Wilson1

Editorial Group: Cochrane Stroke Group

Published Online: 2 MAY 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 9 APR 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009103.pub2


How to Cite

Lager KE, Mistri AK, Khunti K, Haunton VJ, Sett AK, Wilson AD. Interventions for improving modifiable risk factor control in the secondary prevention of stroke. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD009103. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009103.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of Leicester, Department of Health Sciences, Leicester, UK

  2. 2

    University of Leicester, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Leicester, UK

*Kate E Lager, Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, 22-28 Princess Road West, Leicester, LE1 6TP, UK. katelager@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 2 MAY 2014

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Adie 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Adie K, James MA. Does telephone follow up improve blood pressure after stroke/TIA?. Hypertension 2008;52(4):760.
  • Adie K, James MA. Does telephone follow up improve blood pressure in patients after stroke or TIA?. Proceedings of the 3rd Stroke Forum Conference. Harrogate, UK: The Stroke Association, 2008:5.
  • Adie K, James MA. Does telephone follow-up improve blood pressure after minor stroke or TIA?. Age and Ageing 2010;39:598-603.
Allen 2002 {published data only}
  • Allen KR, Hazelett S, Jarjoura D, Wickstrom GC, Hue K, Weinhardt J, et al. Effectiveness of a postdischarge care management model for stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a randomised trial. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease 2002;11(2):88-98.
  • Allen KR, Hazelett SE, Jarjoura D, Wickstrom G, Hua K, Weinhardt JA, et al. A post-discharge care management model for stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a randomised controlled trial. Stroke 2002;33(1):417 (Abstract P306).
  • NCT00328471. A post discharge intervention to improve stroke outcomes. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00328471 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Wright K, Allen K, Weinhardt J, Gareri M, Hua K, Hazelett S. Effectiveness of interdisciplinary post-stroke case management in improving patient outcomes: a pilot study. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2000;9(4):205.
  • Wright K, Hazelett S, Weinhardt J, Jarjoura D, Hua K, Gareri M, et al. The role of the advanced practice nurse in post-stroke care management. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2003;12(5):249 (Abstract 12).
Allen 2009 {published data only}
  • Allen K, Hazelett S, Jarjoura D, Hua K, Wright K, Weinhardt J, et al. A randomised trial testing the superiority of a postdischarge care management model for stroke survivors. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Disease 2009;18(6):443-52.
  • Allen K, Hazelett S, Jarjoura D, Wright K, Clough L, Weinhardt J. Improving stroke outcomes: implementation of a postdischarge care management model. Journal of Clinical Outcomes Management 2004;11(11):707-14.
  • Allen K, Hazelett S, Jarjoura D, Wright K, Weinhardt J. Randomized controlled trial of a post-stroke post-discharge care management intervention. Stroke 2008;39(2):531 (Abstract 14).
  • Allen K, Jarjoura D, Hazelett S, Wickstrom G, Wright K, Hua K. Effectiveness of care management for secondary prevention with TIA/non-disabled stroke survivors. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2002;50(4):483:S168.
  • Allen KR, Hazelett SE, Palmer RP, Jarjoura DG, Wickstrom GC, Weinhardt JA, et al. Developing a stroke unit using the acute care for elders intervention and model of care. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 2003;51(11):1660-7.
  • NCT00328471. A post discharge intervention to improve stroke outcomes. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00328471 (accessed 05 July 2013).
Boter 2004 {published and unpublished data}
  • Albrecht KW, Algra A, Boter H, Carpay HA, van Gijn J, de Haan R, et al. HESTIA: a randomised clinical trial of a nursing care program for recently discharged stroke patients. Proceedings of the 27th International Stroke Conference. Feb 7-9 2002. USA, San Antonio: The American Stroke Association, 2002:Abstract CTP365.
  • Albrecht KWJ. Home evaluation of stroke induced aid (HESTIA). Stroke 2000;31:2538-9.
  • Boter H. Effectiveness of outreach stroke care. Utrecht: University of Utrecht, 2003.
  • Boter H, Rinkel GJE, de Haan R, for the HESTIA study group. A multicentre, randomised controlled trial of an outreach nursing care programme for recently discharged stroke patients. Journal of Neurology 2003;250 Suppl 2:(Abstract 77).
  • Boter H, Rinkel JE, Haan R. Outreach nurse support after stroke: a descriptive study on patients' and carers' needs, and applied nursing interventions. Clinical Rehabilitation 2004;18:156-63.
  • Boter H, van Delden JJM, de Haan RJ, Rinkel GJE. A modified informed-consent procedure in which the complete information is given retrospectively: no objection from participating patients. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 2005;149(1):29-32.
  • Boter H, van Delden JJM, de Haan RJ, Rinkel GJE, for the home evaluation of stroke induced aid study group. Patients' evaluation of informed consent to postponed information: cohort study. BMJ 2004;329:86-7.
  • Boter H, van Delden JM, de Haan RJ, Rinkel GJE, for the home evaluation of stroke induced aid study group. Modified informed consent procedure: consent to postponed information. BMJ 2003;327:284-6.
  • Boter H, for the HESTIA Study Group. Multicenter randomised controlled trial of an outreach nursing support program for recently discharged stroke patients. Stroke 2004;35:2867-72.
  • HESTIA Study Group. Home evaluation of stroke induced aid (HESTIA). Stroke 2002;33:1732.
Boysen 2009 {published and unpublished data}
  • Boysen G, Krarup L, Zeng X, Oskedra A, Kõrv J, Andersen G, et al. ExStroke pilot trial of the effect of repeated instructions to improve physical activity after ischaemic stroke: a multinational randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2009;339:b2810.
  • Boysen G, Krarup LH, Zeng X, Oskedra A, Korv J, Andersen G, et al. Failure to promote physical activity after ischaemic stroke. The ExStroke pilot trial. International Journal of Stroke 2008;3 Suppl 1:72 (Abstract FC11-04).
  • Boysen G, Pedersen A, Meden P, Hansen L, Lindahl M, Zeng X, et al. Physical exercise after acute ischaemic stroke. Exstroke pilot trial. Proceedings of the 29th International Stroke Conference. 5-7 February 2004. California, USA: American Stroke Association, 2004.
  • Boysen G, Truelsen T, Pedersen A, Hansen L, Lindahl M, Zeng X. Physical activity and the risk of ischaemic stroke. European Journal of Neurology 2005;12 Suppl 2:311.
  • Krarup L, Gluud C, Truelsen T, Pedersen A, Lindahl M, Hansen L, et al. The ExStroke pilot trial: rationale, design, and baseline data of a randomized multicenter trial comparing physical training versus usual care after an ischaemic stroke. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2007;29:410-7.
  • Krarup LH, Truelsen T, Boysen G. Repeated encouragement to be physically active improves insulin sensitivity after ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2008;25 Suppl 2:7 (Abstract 2).
  • Krarup LH, Truelsen T, Gludd C, Andersen G, Zeng X, Oskedra A, et al. Prestroke physical activity is associated with severity and long-term outcome from first-ever stroke. Neurology 2008;71(17):1313-8.
  • Krarup LH, Lindhal M, Truelsen T, Gludd C, Boysen G. The risk of falling after stroke is associated with physical inactivity. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2010;29:72.
  • NCT00132483. ExStroke pilot trial: physical exercise after acute ischaemic stroke. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00132483 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Truelsen T, Pedersen A, Schnohr P, Bousen G. The ExStroke Trial. Physical activity before ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2004;17 Suppl 5:30 (Abstract 5).
  • Truelsen T, Pedersen A, Schnohr P, Boysen G. The EXSTROKE trial. Physical activity before ischaemic stroke. European Journal of Neurology 2004;11 Suppl 2:16 (Abstract SC124).
  • Truelsen T, Pedersen A, Schnor P, Boysen G. The EXSTROKE trial. Physical activity before ischaemic stroke. Stroke 2004;35(6):e239 (Abstract 673).
Brotons 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Brotons C, Arino D, Borrás I, Buitrago F, González ML, Kloppe P, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of a comprehensive programme of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care: the PREseAP Study. Atencion Primaria 2006;37(5):295-8.
  • Brotons C, Soriano N, Moral I, Rodrigo MP, Kloppe P, Rodríguez AL, et al. Randomized clinical trial to assess the efficacy of a comprehensive programme of secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in general practice: the PREseAP study. Revista Española de Cardiología 2011;64(1):13-20.
  • ISRCTN18578323. Randomised controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a comprehensive secondary prevention programme in primary care. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN18578323 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Trialists. Individual patient data (as supplied on 16 July 2012). Unpublished data on file.
Chanruengvanich 2006 {published data only}
  • Chanruengvanich W, Kasemkitwattana S, Charoenyooth C, Towanabut S, Pongurgsorn C. Self-regulated exercise program in transient ischemic attack and minor stroke patients. Thai Journal of Nursing Research 2006;10(3):165-78.
Chiu 2008 {published data only}
Eames 2013 {published and unpublished data}
  • ACTRN12608000469314. Do stroke clients and carers provided with a post-discharge education and support package demonstrate better stroke knowledge as compared with those receiving usual care?. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12608000469314 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Eames S, Hoffman T, Worrall L, Read S, Wong A. Randomised controlled trial of a postdischarge education and support package for clients with stroke and their carers. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal 2011;58:51.
  • Eames S, Hoffman T, Worrall L, Read S, Wong A. Randomised controlled trial of an education and support package for stroke patients and their carers. BMJ Open 2013;3:e002538.
  • Eames S, Hoffmann T, Worrall L, Read S, Wong A. Randomised controlled trial of a post-discharge education and support package for clients with stroke and their carers. International Journal of Stroke 2011;6:8.
  • Eames S, Hoffmann T, Worrall L, Wong A, Read S. Evaluation of an innovative post-discharge education and support package for patients with stroke and their carers. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5 Suppl 2:190 (Abstract PO10411).
  • UK trialists. Individual patient data (as supplied 21 July 2012). Unpublished data on file.
Ellis 2005 {published and unpublished data}
  • Ellis G, Rodger J, McAlpine C, Langhorne P. Patient-centered education lowers blood pressure. Stroke 2004;35(1):257 (Abstract P25).
  • Ellis G, Rodger J, McAlpine C, Langhorne P. The impact of a stroke nurse specialist on risk factor modification in a TIA clinic: a randomised controlled trial. Age and Ageing 2004;33 Suppl 1:10.
  • Ellis G, Rodger J, McAlpine C, Langhorne P. The impact of stroke nurse specialist input on risk factor modification: a randomised controlled trial. Age and Ageing 2005;34(4):389-92.
  • McManus J, Craig A, McAlpine C, Langhorne P, Ellis G. Does behaviour modification affect post-stroke risk factor control? Three-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23:99-105.
  • McManus JA, Craig A, Ellis G, McAlpine C, Langhorne P. 3 years on: does behaviour modification affect post stroke risk factor control?. Age and Ageing 2006;35 Suppl 3:i72.
  • McManus JA, Craig A, Ellis G, McAlpine C, Langhorne P. 3 years on: does behaviour modification affect post stroke risk factor control?. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2006;21 Suppl 4:92 (Abstract 12).
Evans 2010 {published and unpublished data}
Flemming 2013 {published and unpublished data}
  • Flemming K, Brown R. Utility of a physician directed, nurse based stroke prevention program. Neurology 2012;78 (Meeting Abstracts 1):P07.022.
  • Flemming KD, Allison T, Covalt J, Herzig D, Brown RD. The utility of a nurse case managed ischemic stroke post hospitalization prevention program (as supplied 13 May 2013). Unpublished report.
Hornnes 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hornnes AN, Boysen G, Larsen K. The post stroke preventive trial (PREVENT). A randomised controlled trial nested in a cohort. Proceedings of the 17th European Stroke Conference. 13-16 May 2008. Nice, France, 2008 (Abstract 9).
  • Hornnes N, Larsen K, Boysen G. Blood pressure 1 year after stroke: the need to optimise secondary prevention. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases 2011;20(1):16-23.
  • Hornnes N, Larsen K, Boysen G. Little change of modifiable risk factors 1 year after stroke: a pilot study. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5:157-62.
  • NCT00253097. The post stroke preventive trial (PREVENT). A RCT nested in a cohort study. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00253097 (accessed 05 July 2013).
Johnston 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Hills NK, Nguyen-Huynh M, Grosvenor D, Sidney S, Kingman J, Bernstein A, et al. Race and blood pressure control six months after ischemic stroke. Stroke 2008;39(2):622-23 (Abstract P213).
  • Johnston SC, Sidney S, Hills NK, Grosvenor D, Klingman JG, Bernstein A, Levin E. Standardised discharge orders after stroke: results of the quality improvement in stroke prevention (QUISP) cluster randomised trial. Annals of Neurology 2010;67:579-89.
  • Johnston SC, Sidney S, Hills NK, Grosvenor D, Klingman JG, Bernstein A, et al. Standardised discharge orders after stroke: results of the quality improvement in stroke prevention (QUISP) trial. Stroke 2010;41(4):e289 (Abstract 130).
  • Kwan J, Johnston SC. The impact of standardised stroke orders on adherence to best practices. Neurology 2006;66:1130.
  • NCT00328640. Quality improvement in stroke prevention (QUISP). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00328640 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Navi BB, Kamel H, Sidney S, Hills NK, Nguyen-Huynh MN, Johnston SC. Statin cessation after ischaemic stroke. Stroke 2010;41(4):E244 (Abstract 157).
Joubert 2009 {published data only}
  • ACTRN12611000264987. Reducing disability in older Australians through secondary stroke prevention. ICARUSS. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12611000264987 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Joubert J. Shared care in stroke survivors - translation of research into service. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 2005;238 Suppl 1:S63 (Abstract OPL069).
  • Joubert J, Joubert L, Jackson D, Wilson A, Pearce C, Reid C, et al. Improvement in risk factor management stroke survivors exposed to an integrated model of care. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5:27.
  • Joubert J, Joubert L, Reid C, Barton D, Cumming T, Mitchell P, et al. The positive effect of integrated care on depressive symptoms in stroke survivors. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2008;26(2):199-205.
  • Joubert J, Joubert LB, Reid C, Barton D, Cumming T, Mitchell P, et al. The positive effect of integrated care on depressive symptoms in stroke survivors. International Journal of Stroke 2008;3 Suppl 1:144 (Abstract 3).
  • Joubert J, Reid C, Barton D, Cumming T, McLean A, Joubert L, et al. Integrated care improves risk-factor modification after stroke: initial results of the integrated care for the reduction of secondary stroke model. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 2009;80:279-84.
  • Joubert J, Reid C, Joubert L, Barton D, Ruth D. Effective detection and secondary intervention for post-stroke depression in a high-risk group: results of a shared care model. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2004; Vol. 17 Suppl 1.
  • Joubert J, Reid C, Joubet L, Barton D, Ruth D, Jackson D, et al. Risk factor management and depression post-stroke: the value of an integrated model of care. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 2006;13:84-100.
Kerry 2013 {published data only}
  • Kerry S, Cloud G, Markus H, Khong T, Oakeshott P. Does self monitoring improve blood pressure control in hypertensive stroke patients - first results of a randomised trial. International Journal of Stroke 2010;5 Suppl 3:6.
  • Kerry S, Markus H, Khong T, Doshi R, Conroy R, Oakeshott P. Community based trial of home blood pressure monitoring with nurse-led telephone support in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack recently discharged from hospital. Trials 2008;9:15.
  • Kerry S, Markus H, Oakeshott P, Khong T. Community based trial of home blood pressure monitoring of recently discharge stroke patients. The Stroke Association Funded Research 2007 (www.stroke.org.uk).
  • Kerry SM, Markus HS, Khong TK, Cloud GC, Tulloch J, Coster D, et al. Home blood pressure monitoring with nurse-led telephone support among patients with hypertension and a history of stroke: a community-based randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2013;185(1):23-31.
Kim 2013 {published data only}
  • Kim JI, Lee S, Kim JH. Effects of a web-based stroke education program on recurrence prevention behaviors among stroke patients: a pilot study. Health Education Research 2013;28(3):488-501.
Lowe 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN55373356. The CareFile project: an assessment of the impact of individualised information booklets in patients post stroke. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN55373356 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Lowe D, Leathley M, Sharma A. Patient education following stroke: the CareFile project. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2002;13 Suppl 3:81.
  • Lowe D, Leathley M, Sharma A. The effects of an individualised booklet in post stroke patients: the care file project. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2003;16 Suppl 4:95 (Abstract P404).
  • Lowe D, Leathley MJ, Sharma AK. An assessment of the utility of an individualised information booklet in patients after stroke: the CAREFILE project. Age and Ageing 2005;34 Suppl 1:i38.
  • Lowe DB, Leathley MJ, Sharma AK. Assessment of stroke knowledge. Age and Ageing 2002;31 Suppl 1:42.
  • Lowe DB, Sharma AK, Leathley MJ. The CareFile project: a feasibility study to examine the effects of an individualised information booklet on patients after stroke. Age and Ageing 2007;36:83-9.
Lowrie 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • Lowrie R, Morrison J, McConachie A. A cluster randomised controlled trial of pharmacist led statin outreach support (SOS) in primary care: design and baseline characteristics. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2010;31:303-11.
  • UK trialists. Summary patient data (as supplied on 08 July 2013). Unpublished data on file.
Maasland 2007 {published and unpublished data}
  • Maasland E, Koudstaal PJ, Habbema JDF, Dippel DWJ. Effects of an individualized multimedia computer program for health education inpatients with a recent minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack – a randomized controlled trial. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2007;115:41-8.
  • Maasland L, Koudstall PJ, Habbema JDF, Dippel DWJ. Knowledge and understanding of disease process, risk factors and treatment modalities in patients with recent TIA or minor ischaemic stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2007;23:435-40.
MacKenzie 2013 {published data only}
  • MacKenzie G, Ireland S, Sahlas D, Oczkowski W, Gould L, LeBlanc K, et al. Tailored interventions to improve hypertension in management after stroke. Stroke 2011;42(11):e599.
  • Mackenzie G, Ireland S, Moore S, Heinz I, Johnson R, Oczkowski W, et al. Tailored interventions to improve hypertension management after stroke or TIA - phase II (TIMS II). Canadian Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 2013;35(1):27-34.
Markle-Reid 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • Markle-Reid M, Orridge C, Weir R, Browne G, Gafni A, Lewis M, et al. Interprofessional stroke rehabilitation for stroke survivors using home care. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 2011;38:317-34.
  • NCT00463229. Interdisciplinary team approach to stroke rehabilitation in home care. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00463229 (accessed 05 July 2013).
O'Carroll 2011 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN38274953. Improving adherence to medication in stroke survivors: a single centre randomised controlled pilot study. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN38274953 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • O'Carroll R. Improving adherence to medication in stroke survivors (IAMSS): a randomised controlled trial: study protocol. BMC Neurology 2010;10:15.
  • O'Carroll R, Whittaker J, Hamilton B, Johnston M, Sudlow C, Dennis M. Predictors of adherence to secondary preventive medication in stroke patients. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 2011;41(3):383-90.
  • UK trialists. IAMSS Final Report (as supplied 18 April 2013). Unpublished report.
Slark 2013 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN67999605. Individual risk awareness intervention in stroke. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN67999605 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Slark J, Khan MS, Bentley P, Sharma P. Individual risk awareness intervention in stroke (IRAIS): a randomised controlled trial (as supplied 17 June 2013). Unpublished report.
  • Slark JS. Risk awareness in secondary stroke prevention. London, UK: Imperial College London, 2012.
Wang 2005 {published data only}
  • Wang L. Neurologist participates in the community intervention for the functional prognosis of convalescent patients with stroke. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2005;9(17):4-5.
Welin 2010 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT00976001. Follow-up pilot study after a first stroke. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00976001 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Welin L, Bjälkefur K, Roland I. Open, randomized pilot study after first stroke: a 3.5 year follow-up. Stroke 2010;41:1555-7.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Amariles 2012 {published data only}
  • Amariles P, Sabater-Hernandez D, Garcia-Jimenez E, Rodriguez-Chamorro MA, Prats-Mas R, Marin-Magan F, et al. Effectiveness of Dader method for pharmaceutical care on control of blood pressure and total cholesterol in outpatients with cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk: EMDADER-CV randomized controlled trial. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy 2012;18(4):311-23.
Banet 1997 {published data only}
  • Banet GA, Felchlia MA. The potential utility of a shared medical record in a "first-time" stroke population. Journal of Vascular Nursing 1997;15(1):29-33.
Bokemark 1996 {published data only}
  • Bokemark L, Blomstrand C, Fagerberg B. Considerable differences in the management of stroke. A study of structured vs. conventional care. Lakartidningen 1996;93(8):681-5.
Gillham 2010 {published data only}
  • Gillham S, Endacott R. Impact of enhanced secondary prevention on health behaviour in patients following minor stroke and transient ischaemic attack: a randomised controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation 2010;24(9):822-30.
  • Gillham SD. Does enhanced secondary prevention intervention after minor stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA) affect readiness to change health behaviour?. Conference: 4th UK Forum Stroke Conference. Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2009. International Journal of Stroke 2009;4:27.
Goessens 2006 {published data only}
  • *Goessens BMB, Visseren FLJ, Sol BGM, de Man-van Ginkel JM, van der Graaf Y. A randomised, controlled trial for risk factor reduction in patients with symptomatic vascular disease: the multidisciplinary vascular prevention by nurses study (VENUS). European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2006;13:996-1003.
  • Sol BG, van der Graaf Y, van der Bijl JJ, Goessens BM, Visserten FL. The role of self-efficacy in vascular risk factor management: a randomised controlled trial. Patient Education and Counseling 2008;71(2):191-7.
Green 2007 {published data only}
  • Green T, Haley E, Eliasziw M. Patient education in stroke prevention. Stroke 2006;37(2):688 (Abstract P211).
  • Green T, Haley E, Eliasziw M, Hoyte K. Education in stroke prevention: efficacy of an educational counselling intervention to increase knowledge in stroke survivors. Canadian Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 2007;29(2):13-20.
Harrington 2007 {published data only}
  • Harrington R, Taylor G, Duggan A, Reed M, Wood V. The evaluation of a community-based stroke scheme. Disability and Rehabilitation 2007;29(20-21):1636-7.
Johnston 2000 {published data only}
Joshi 2012 {published data only}
  • Chow CK, Joshi R, Gottumukkala AK, Raju K, Raju R, Reddy S, et al. Rationale and design of the rural Andhra Pradesh cardiovascular prevention study (RAPCAPS): a factorial, cluster-randomised trial of 2 practical cardiovascular disease prevention strategies developed for rural Andhra Pradesh, India. American Heart Journal 2009;158:349-55.
  • Joshi R, Chow C, Raju K, Raju R, Gottumukkala AK, Reddy S, et al. The rural Andhra Pradesh cardiovascular prevention study (RAPCAPS): a cluster randomised trial. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2012;59(13):1188-96.
  • NCT00263393. Rural Andhra Pradesh cardiovascular prevention study (RAPCAPS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00263393 (accessed 05 July 2013).
Ma 2009 {published data only}
  • Ma J, Berra K, Haskell WL, Klieman L, Hyde S, Smith MW, et al. Case management to reduce cardiovascular risk in a county healthcare system. Archives of Internal Medicine 2009;169(21):1988-95.
  • Ma J, Lee K, Berra K, Stafford RS. Implementation of case management to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in the Stanford and San Mateo heart to heart randomised controlled trial: study protocol and baseline characteristics. Implementation Science 2006;1:21.
  • NCT00127751. Heart disease on the mend. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00127751 (accessed 05 July 2013).
Middleton 2004 {published data only}
  • Middleton S, Donnelly N, Harris J, Ward J. Nursing intervention after carotid endarterectomy: a randomised trial of co-ordinated care post-discharge. Issues and Innovations in Nursing Practice 2004;52(3):250-61.
Nir 2006 {published data only}
  • Nir Z, Weisel-Eichler A. Improving knowledge and skills for use of medication by patients after stroke: Evaluation of a nursing intervention. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2006;85(7):582-92.
Ornstein 2004 {published data only}
  • Ornstein S, Jenkins RG, Nietert PJ, Feifer C, Roylance LF, Nemeth L, et al. A multimethod quality improvement intervention to improve preventive cardiovascular care: a cluster randomised trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004;141(7):523-32.
  • Ornstein SM. Translating research into practice using electronic medical records the PPRNet-TRIP project: primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke. Topics in Health Information Management 2001;22:52-8.
Palanco 2011 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN93700442. Impact of comprehensive and intensive treatment of risk factors concerning cardiovascular mortality in secondary prevention: MIRVAS study. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN93700442 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Moreno-Palanco MA, Ibanez-Sanz P, Ciria-de, Pablo C, Pizarro-Portillo A, Rodriquez-Salvanes F, Suarez-Fernandez C. Impact of comprehensive and intensive treatment of risk factors concerning cardiovascular mortality in secondary prevention: MIRVAS study. Revista Española de Cardiología 2011;64(3):179-85.
  • Palanco MAM, de Pablo CC, Sanz IP, Luis SC, Portillo AP, Fernandez C. Cardiovascular morbimortality reduction after an acute cardiovascular event through multifactorial and intensive cardiovascular risk factors management (MIRVAS project). Medicina Clinica 2007;129(7):241-6.
Powers 2011 {published data only}
  • NCT01134458. Personalised cardiovascular risk information to initiate and maintain behavior changes (FIMDM_CVD). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01134458 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Powers BJ, Danus S, Grubber JM, Olsen MK, Oddone EZ, Bosworth HB. The effectiveness of personalised coronary heart disease and stroke risk communication. American Heart Journal 2011;161(4):673-80.
Rimmer 2000 {published data only}
  • Rimmer JH, Braunschweig C, Silverman K, Riley B, Creviston T, Nicola T. Effects of a short-term health promotion intervention for a predominantly African-American group of stroke survivors. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2000;18(4):332-8.
Ross 2007 {published data only}
  • Ross MA, Compton S, Medado P, Fitzgerald M, Kilanowski P, O'Neil BJ. An emergency department diagnostic protocol for patients with transient ischaemic attack: a randomized controlled trial. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2007;50(2):109-19.
Sides 2012 {published data only}
  • Bushnell C, Zimmer L, Schwamm L, Goldstein LB, Clapp-Channing N, Harding T, et al. The adherence evaluation after ischaemic stroke longitudinal (AVAIL) registry: design, rationale, and baseline patient characteristics. American Heart Journal 2009;157(3):428-35.
  • NCT01115660. Stroke education intervention trial - pilot AVAIL II. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01115660 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Sides EG, O Zimmer L, Wilson L, Pan W, Olson DM, Peterson ED, et al. Medication coaching program for patients with minor stroke or TIA: a pilot study. BMC Public Health 2012;12:549.
Strandberg 2006 {published data only}
  • Strandberg TE, Pitkala K, Berglind S, Nieminen MS, Tilvis RS. Multifactorial cardiovascular disease prevention in patients aged 75 years and older: a randomised controlled trial: drugs and evidence based medicine in the elderly (DEBATE) study. American Heart Journal 2001;142(6):945-51.
  • Strandberg TE, Pitkala K, Berglind S, Nieminen MS, Tilvis RS. Multifactorial cardiovascular prevention in patients aged 75 and over: design and baseline results of a randomised controlled trial (DEBATE Study). European Heart Journal 2001;22:460 (Abstract P2408).
  • Strandberg TE, Pitkala K, Berglind S, Nieminen MS, Tilvis RS. Possibilities of multifactorial cardiovascular disease prevention in patients aged 75 and older: a randomised controlled trial. Drugs and evidence based medicine in the elderly (DEBATE) study. European Heart Journal 2003;24:1216-22.
  • Strandberg TE, Pitkala KH, Berglind S, Nieminen MS, Tilvis RS. Multifactorial intervention to prevent recurrent cardiovascular events in patients 75 years or older: the drugs and evidence-based medicine in the elderly (DEBATE) study: a randomised, controlled trial. American Heart Journal 2006;152:585-92.
UMIN000001865 {published and unpublished data}
  • UMIN000001865. Lifestyle intervention for prevention of stroke recurrence in mild stroke - a randomised controlled trial. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=UMIN000001865 (accessed 05 July 2013).
Vernooij 2012 {published data only}
  • Vernooij JW, Kaasjager HA, van der Graaf Y, Wierdsma J, Grandjean HM, Hovens MM, et al. Internet based vascular risk factor management for patients with clinically manifest vascular disease: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2012;344:e3750.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Feld-Glazman 2012 {published data only}
  • Feld-Glazman R, Bushnik T, Van Lew S, Sheikovitz L. The impact of a stroke education program on Patient's stroke knowledge and their change of stroke risk behaviors. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 2012;93(10):E39.
ISRCTN23868518 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN23868518. Secondary preventive, nurse based, telephone follow-up for risk factor control after stroke. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN23868518/ (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Mooe T, Bergstrom L, Irewall A-L, Ogren J. The NAILED stroke risk factor trial (Nurse based Age independent Intervention to Limit Evolution of Disease after stroke): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2013;14:5.
ISRCTN63816609 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN63816609. Improving the prevention of vascular events after stroke or transient ischemic attack: a randomised controlled pilot trial of nurse independent prescriber-led care pathway-based risk factor management. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN63816609 (accessed 05 July 2013).
ISRCTN95662526 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN95662526. The you call - we call trial: impact of a multimodal support intervention after a "mild" stroke. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN95662526 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Rochette A, Korner-Bitensky N, Bishop D, Teasell R, White C, Bravo G, et al. Study protocol of the you call - we call trial: impact of a multimodal support intervention after a "mild" stroke. BMC Neurology 2010;10:3.
  • Rochette A, Korner-Bitensky N, White C, Bravo G, Côté R, Green T, et al. You all - we call trial: impact of a multimodal support intervention after a "mild" stroke. Stroke 2013;44:ANS13.
NCT00172484 {published data only}
  • NCT00172484. North Taiwan stroke center for prevention and treatment. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00172484 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00211731 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cowles C, Tuhrim S, Brust J, Koppel B, Weinberger J, Horowitz C, Chassin M. Participation in peer-led support groups improves use of secondary stroke prevention measures. Neurology 2008;70(11 Suppl 1):A203.
  • NCT00211731. Preventing recurrent stroke in minority populations. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00211731 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00664846 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cui L, Peng B, Ni J, Zhou L, Zhu Y, Yao M, et al. Standard medical management is associated with improved quality and outcome of secondary stroke prevention in China. Stroke 2012;43 (Meeting abstracts 2):A2587.
  • Cui L, Peng B, Zhu Y, Ni J, Xu W, Zhou L, et al. Standard medical management in secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke in China (Abstract CTP45). Proceedings of the International Stroke Conference. 24-26 February 2010. Texas, USA: American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, 2010.
  • NCT00664846. Standard medical management in secondary prevention of ischaemic stroke in China (SMART). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00664846 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Peng B, Zhu Y, Cui L, Ni J, Xu W, Zhou L, et al. Standard medical management in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in China (SMART). International Journal of Stroke 2011;6(5):461-5.
  • Peng B, Zhu Y, Ni J, Xu W, Zhou L, Yao M, et al. Interim analysis of a multi-center trial in secondary ischaemic stroke prevention in China (Abst. CTP47). Proceedings of the International Stroke Conference 2011. Los Angeles, USA: American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, 8-11 February 2011.
NCT00687869 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT00687869. Participative rehabilitation in stroke patients (paReSiS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00687869 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00703274 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dromerick AW, Gibbons C, Edwards DF, Farr D, Jayam-Trouth A, Shara NM, et al. A Phase II RCT of stroke navigators to improve compliance with secondary stroke prevention: PROTECT DC (Abst. CTP33). Proceedings of the International Stroke Conference 2011. Los Angeles, USA: American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, 8-11 February 2011.
  • Dromerick AW, Gibbons MC, Covington C, Farr D, Jayam-Trouth A, Shara NM, et al. A phase II RCT of stroke navigators to improve compliance with secondary stoke prevention. PROTECT DC (Abst. CT P23). Proceedings of the International Stroke Conference 2009. California, USA: American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, 18-20 February 2009.
  • Dromerick AW, Gibbons MC, Edwards DF, Farr D, Sanchez BN, Fokar A, et al. A Phase II RCT of stroke navigators to improve compliance with secondary stroke prevention: PROTECT DC (Abst. CT P26). Proceedings of the International Stroke Conference 2010. Texas, USA: American Heart Association and American Stroke Assocation, 24-26 February 2010.
  • Dromerick AW, Gibbons MC, Edwards DF, Farr DE, Giannetti M, Sanchez B, et al. Preventing recurrence of thromboembolic events through coordinated treatment in the district of Columbia (PROTECT DC). International Journal of Stroke 2011;6(5):454-60.
  • NCT00703274. Preventing recurrence of thromboembolic events through coordinated treatment in the district of Columbia (PROTECT DC). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00703274 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01027273 {published and unpublished data}
  • Goldfinger JZ, Kronish IM, Fei K, Graciani A, Rosenfeld P, Lorig K, et al. Peer education for secondary stroke prevention in inner-city minorities: design and methods of the prevent recurrence of all inner-city strokes through education randomized controlled trial. Contemporary Clinical Trials 2012;33(5):1065-73.
  • NCT01027273. Prevent return of stroke study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01027273 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01071408 {published and unpublished data}
  • Cheng EM, Cunningham WE, Towfighi A, Sanossian N, Bryg RJ, Anderson TL, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention to enable stroke survivors throughout the Los Angeles County safety net to "stay with the guidelines". Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 2011;4(2):229-34.
  • NCT01071408. Trial of a secondary stroke prevention program. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01071408 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01466907 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT01466907. Detection and intervention of health problems after stroke: a randomised controlled trial of a structured nurse-led follow-up program. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01466907 (accessed 05 July 2013).
Nguyen 2011 {published data only}
  • Nguyen P, Tokuda S, Wallis D. Pharmacist telephone interventions improve adherence to stroke preventive medications and reduce stroke risk factors: a randomised controlled trial. Stroke 2011;43(3):e244.
Wolfe 2010 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN10730637. The south London secondary prevention programme. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN10730637 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Redfern J. The stop stroke secondary prevention trial: one year update. Proceedings of the The Stroke Association 9th Scientific Conference. 15-16 September 2004. Cambridge, UK: The Stroke Association, 2004.
  • Redfern J, McKevitt C, Frisby L, Montoute K, Rudd A, Wolfe C. Stop stroke: the south London secondary prevention programme. Evaluation of a multifaceted secondary prevention programme for stroke. Proceedings of the 13th European Stroke Conference (http://www.eurostroke.org/esc_ongoing_trials.asp). 13-15 May 2004. Mannheim-Heidelberg, Germany, 2004.
  • Redfern J, McKevitt C, Rudd AD, Heuschmann P, Grieve A, Wolfe CDA. Optimising secondary prevention post stroke - first results of the stop stroke study. Proceedings of the 3rd UK Stroke Forum Conference 2008. 2-4 December 2008. Harrogate, UK: The Stroke Association, 2008.
  • Redfern J, McKevitt C, Rudd AG, Heuschmann P, Grieve A, Wolfe CDA. Stop stroke: cluster randomised controlled trial of a patient/carer and general practitioner intervention to improve risk factor management after stroke. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2009;27:66.
  • Redfern J, Rudd AD, Wolfe CDA, McKevitt C. Stop stroke: development of an innovative intervention to improve risk factor management after stroke. Patient Education and Counseling 2008;72:201-9.
  • Redfern J, Wolfe C, McKevitt C. How does stop stroke work? Qualitative process evaluation of a multiple risk factor intervention to improve stroke secondary prevention. Cerebrovascular Diseases 2008;25 Suppl 2:189 (Abstract 7).
  • Refern J, McKevitt C, Rudd A, Wolfe C. Stop stroke. A new intervention to improve stroke secondary prevention (Abstract 18). Proceedings of the 12th European Stroke Conference. Valencia, Spain, 21-24 May 2003.
  • Refern JM. Methods for developing and evaluating randomised controlled trials of complex interventions - case study of stroke secondary prevention. London, UK: Guy's King's and St. Thomas's School of Medicine, 2007.
  • Wolfe C. The south London stroke secondary prevention programme. Proceedings of the UK Stroke Forum Conference 2007. 4-6 December 2007. Harrogate, UK: The Stroke Association, 2007.
  • Wolfe CD, Redfern J, Rudd AG, Grieve AP, Heuschmann PU, McKevitt C. Cluster randomized controlled trial of a patient and general practitioner intervention to improve the management of multiple risk factors after stroke: stop stroke. Stroke 2010;41:2470-6.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
ACTRN12608000166370 {published and unpublished data}
  • ACTRN12608000166370. Shared team approach between nurses and doctors for improved risk factor management for stroke patients. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ACTRN12608000166370 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Cadilhac DA, Thrift AG, Srikanth VK, Nelson MR, Kim J, Fitzgerald SM, et al. The standfirm trial: a double-blind, cluster randomised-controlled trial of long-term risk factor management in survivors of stroke. International Journal of Stroke 2012;7 Suppl 1:58.
  • Thayabaranathan T, Cadilhac DA, Srikanth VK, Nelson MR, Kim J, Fitzgerald SM, et al. Feasibility of a double-blind, cluster randomised-controlled trial of long-term risk factor management in survivors of stroke. International Journal of Stroke 2012;7 Suppl 1:8.
  • Thrift AG, Srikanth VK, Nelson MR, Kim J, Fitzgerald SM, Gerraty RP, et al. Risk factor management in survivors of stroke: a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial. International Journal of Stroke 2012 Dec 11. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00933.x. [Epub ahead of print].
ACTRN12611000792921 {published and unpublished data}
  • ACTRN12611000792921. Multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing the effect of general practitioner utilisation of a TIA electronic decision support tool in the management of TIA/minor stroke patients versus usual care on the subsequent 90 day stroke risk, degree of guideline adherence, and overall treatment costs. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ACTRN12611000792921 (accessed 05 July 2013).
ChiCTR-TRC-12002127 {published and unpublished data}
  • ChiCTR-TRC-12002127. Effects of clinical pharmacist interventions on the secondary prevention in the ischemic stroke patients. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=ChiCTR-TRC-12002127 (accessed 05 July 2013).
ISRCTN07607027 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN07607027. Promoting adherence to a regimen of risk factor modification by trained non-medical personnel evaluated against regular practice study PARTNERS. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN07607027 (accessed 05 July 2013).
  • Mayer C, Chan R, Hachinski V. Partners promoting adherence to regimen of risk factor modification by trained volunteers or nurses evaluated against regular practice study. International Journal of Stroke 2008;3 Suppl 1:321 (Abstract PO02-212).
ISRCTN08913646 {published and unpublished data}
  • ISRCTN08913646. The effect of a health empowerment intervention for stroke self-management (HEISS) on the self-management behaviour and health outcomes of stroke rehabilitation patients. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN08913646 (accessed 05 July 2013).
ISRCTN35701810 {published and unpublished data}
  • Dregan A, Toschke MA, Wolfe CD, Rudd A, Ashworth M, Gulliford MC, et al. Utility of electronic patient records in primary care for stroke secondary prevention trials. BMC Public Health 2011;11:86.
  • Dregan A, van Staa T, McDermott L, McCann G, Ashworth M, Charlton J, et al. Cluster randomized trial in the general practice research database: 2. secondary prevention after first stroke (eCRT study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2012;13:181.
  • ISRCTN35701810. Secondary prevention after first stroke. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN35701810 (accessed 05 July 2013).
ISRCTN97412358 {published data only}
  • ISRCTN97412358. ECG monitoring to detect atrial fibrillation after stroke. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN97412358 (accessed 05 July 2013).
JPRN-UMIN000007808 {published and unpublished data}
  • JPRN-UMIN000007808. Construction of a self-management patient education program and evidences for preventing recurrence of stroke in community settings. http://apps.who.int/trialsearch/Trial.aspx?TrialID=JPRN-UMIN000007808 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00355147 {published data only}
  • Damush TM, Ofner S, Yu Z, Plue L, Nicholas G, Williams LS. Implementation of a stroke self-management program: a randomized controlled pilot study of veterans with stroke: a randomized controlled pilot study of veterans with stroke. Translational Behavioral Medicine 2011;1(4):561-72.
  • NCT00355147. Adapting tools to implement stroke risk management to veterans (TOOLS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00355147 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00574808 {published and unpublished data}
  • Liddy C, Hogg W, Russell G, Wells G, Armstrong CD, Akbari A, et al. Improved delivery of cardiovascular care (IDOCC) through outreach facilitation: study protocol and implementation details of a cluster randomised controlled trial in primary care. Implementation Science 2011;6:110.
  • NCT00574808. Improved delivery of cardiovascular care through outreach facilitation (IDOCC). http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00574808 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00861081 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT00861081. Intervention to enable stroke survivors in Los Angeles county hospitals to "stay within the guidelines" SUSTAIN. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00861081 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT00931788 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT00931788. Preventing recurrent vascular events in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (PREVENTION). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00931788 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01122394 {published data only}
  • NCT01122394. Reducing Risk of Recurrence (RRR). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01122394 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01517542 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT01517542. Evaluation of effectiveness of nutritional counselling in patients after stroke. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01517542 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01550822 {published data only}
  • NCT01550822. HEALS (healthy eating and lifestyle after stroke). http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01550822 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01586702 {published and unpublished data}
  • Leistner S, Benik S, Laumeier I, Ziegler A, Nieweler G, Nolte CH, et al. Secondary prevention after minor stroke and TIA - usual care and development of a support program. PLoS ONE 2012;7(12):e49985.
  • Leistner S, Michelson G, Laumeier I, Ahmadi M, Smyth M, Nieweler G, et al. Intensified secondary prevention intending a reduction of recurrent events in TIA and minor stroke patients (INSPiRE-TMS): a protocol for a randomised controlled trial. BMC Neurology 2013;13:11.
  • NCT01586702. Intensified secondary prevention intending a reduction of recurrent events in TIA and minor stroke patients (INSPiRE-TMS). http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01586702 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01684176 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT01684176. Tailored intervention to improve patient adherence to secondary stroke prevention medication. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01684176 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01721538 {published data only}
  • NCT01721538. Secondary prevention of stroke through non-drug therapeutic weight reduction "SCENARIO". http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01721538 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01763203 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT01763203. The SUCCEED trial of secondary stroke prevention. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01763203 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01776034 {published data only}
  • NCT01776034. Health promotion and wellness program for stroke survivors. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01776034 (accessed 05 July 2013).
NCT01807793 {published and unpublished data}
  • NCT01807793. Targeted management intervention for African-American men with TIA or stroke. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01807793 (accessed 05 July 2013).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
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