Intervention Review

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Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus

  1. Shanshan Han1,*,
  2. Caroline A Crowther2,
  3. Philippa Middleton1,
  4. Emer Heatley2

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 16 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009275.pub2

How to Cite

Han S, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Heatley E. Different types of dietary advice for women with gestational diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD009275. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009275.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, The Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

  2. 2

    The University of Adelaide, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Shanshan Han, ARCH: Australian Research Centre for Health of Women and Babies, The Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The University of Adelaide, Women's and Children's Hospital, 72 King William Road, Adelaide, South Australia, 5006, Australia. shan.han@adelaide.edu.au.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. 'Risk of bias' graph: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item presented as percentages across all included studies.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. 'Risk of bias' summary: review authors' judgements about each risk of bias item for each included study.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 1 Macrosomia (birthweight greater than 4000 g).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 2 Large-for-gestational age (birthweight ≥ 90th percentile for gestational age).
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 3 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 4 Operative vaginal birth.
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 5 Normal vaginal birth.
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 6 Birthweight (g).
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 7 Gestational age at birth.
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 8 Small-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 9 Induction of labour.
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 10 Preterm birth (< 37 weeks' gestation).
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Low-moderate GI food versus high-moderate food, Outcome 11 Insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agent required for hyperglycaemia.
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 1 Macrosomia (birthweight greater than 4000 g).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 2 Large-for-gestational age (birthweight ≥ 90th percentile for gestational age).
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 3 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 4 Birthweight (g).
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 5 Gestational age at birth (weeks).
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 6 Preterm birth.
[Analysis 2.7]
Analysis 2.7. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 7 Small-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 2.8]
Analysis 2.8. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 8 Ponderal index (kg/m3).
[Analysis 2.9]
Analysis 2.9. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 9 Weight gain during pregnancy (kg).
[Analysis 2.10]
Analysis 2.10. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 10 Adherence to dietary intervention.
[Analysis 2.11]
Analysis 2.11. Comparison 2 Low-GI diet versus high-fibre moderate-GI diet, Outcome 11 Insulin required for hyperglycaemia.
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 1 Fetal mortality.
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 2 Macrosomia.
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 3 Large-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 4 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 5 Operative vaginal birth.
[Analysis 3.6]
Analysis 3.6. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 6 Normal vaginal birth.
[Analysis 3.7]
Analysis 3.7. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 7 Induction of labour.
[Analysis 3.8]
Analysis 3.8. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 8 Pre-eclampsia.
[Analysis 3.9]
Analysis 3.9. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 9 Insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agent required for hyperglycaemia.
[Analysis 3.10]
Analysis 3.10. Comparison 3 Energy-restricted diet versus no energy restriction diet, Outcome 10 Insulin sensitivity.
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (≤ 45% total energy from CHO) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 1 Macrosomia (birthweight greater than 4000 g).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (≤ 45% total energy from CHO) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 2 Caesarean section.
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (≤ 45% total energy from CHO) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 3 Operative vaginal birth.
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (≤ 45% total energy from CHO) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 4 Normal vaginal birth.
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (≤ 45% total energy from CHO) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 5 Birthweight (g).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet (≤ 45% total energy from CHO) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 6 Gestational age at birth (weeks).
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 1 Macrosomia (birthweight greater than 4000 g).
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 2 Large-for-gestational age.
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 3 Birthweight (g).
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 4 Gestational age at birth (weeks).
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 5 Pre-eclampsia.
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 6 Insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agent required for hyperglycaemia.
[Analysis 5.7]
Analysis 5.7. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 7 Maternal weight at late pregnancy (third trimester) (kg).
[Analysis 5.8]
Analysis 5.8. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 8 Maternal BMI at late pregnancy (third trimester) (kg/m2).
[Analysis 5.9]
Analysis 5.9. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 9 Maternal postpartum BMI (> 4 months postpartum) (kg/m2).
[Analysis 5.10]
Analysis 5.10. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 10 Development of type 2 diabetes.
[Analysis 5.11]
Analysis 5.11. Comparison 5 High-monounsaturated fat (MUFA) diet (≥ 20% total energy from MUFA) versus high-CHO diet (≥ 50% total energy from CHO), Outcome 11 Development of glucose intolerance without meeting type 2 diabetes diagnostic criteria.
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Standard ADA diet (20 g fibre/day) versus fibre-enriched diet (80 g fibre/ day), Outcome 1 Birthweight (g).
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Standard ADA diet (20 g fibre/day) versus fibre-enriched diet (80 g fibre/ day), Outcome 2 Gestational age at birth (weeks).
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 Standard ADA diet (20 g fibre/day) versus fibre-enriched diet (80 g fibre/ day), Outcome 3 Insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agent required for hyperglycaemia.
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 Standard ADA diet (20 g fibre/day) versus fibre-enriched diet (80 g fibre/ day), Outcome 4 Gestational weight gain (kg).