Appendix 5. Glossary of terms
Cancer that begins in glandular (secretory) cells. Glandular cells are found in tissue that lines certain internal organs and makes and releases substances in the body, such as mucus, digestive juices, or other fluids.
Adenomatous colonic polyps
Small growths in the large bowel that are not cancer but may be associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Start in gland-like cells of the epithelial tissue (thin layer of tissue that covers organs, glands, and other structures within the body).
portion before the outlet, which is lined by mucosa and does not produce acid.
Pertaining to a wasting or decrease in size of a body organ, tissue, or part owing to disease, injury, or lack of use.
Pertaining to a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome.
Pertaining to the science dealing with the chemistry of living matter.
Pertaining to the application of the natural sciences, especially the biological and physiological sciences, to clinical medicine.
Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs
The cardia is the anatomical term for the part of the stomach attached to the oesophagus.
A type of chronic, progressive liver disease in which liver cells are replaced by scar tissue.
The use of drugs to prevent disease.
Chromoendoscopy involves the topical application of stains or pigments to improve tissue localisation, characterisation, or diagnosis during endoscopy.
A group of individuals who share a common trait.
Cost per life-year saved
A number used in risk analysis to compare the cost-benefit ratios of different interventions in health and safety. As death is inevitable, it focusses on the avoidance of premature death. In this context, were a patient with an ordinary life expectancy of 80 years to be diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer at the age of 55 and saved, compared with a late stage cancer that might carry a survival prognosis of 1 year, this would represent 24 life years saved. This would be the denominator in a cost per life-year saved equation. The overall individualised cost of the intervention for that patient, including the cost of screening for the condition and the treatment and rehabilitation involved would represent the numerator.
The body of the stomach.
Spread out over a large area; not concentrated.
An alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells.
Pertaining to a procedure that uses an endoscope to examine the inside of the body. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
Endoscopic mucosal resection
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is a technique used for the staging and treatment of superficial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique of therapeutic endoscopy for superficial gastrointestinal tumours involving the mucosa.
Foveolar cells are mucus producing cells which cover the inside of the stomach, protecting it from the corrosive nature of gastric acid.
Pertaining to the stomach.
Inflammation of the lining of the stomach.
A column-shaped cell found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, which secretes the main component of mucus.
A type of bacterium that causes inflammation and ulcers in the stomach or small intestine. People with Helicobacter pylori infections may be more likely to develop cancer in the stomach. Also called H pylori.
Pertaining to the study of tissues and cells under a microscope.
Two or more cancers appearing at different points in time.
A change of cells to a form that does not normally occur in the tissue in which it is found.
Pertaining to the form and structure of an organism considered as a whole.
A term used for death rate, or the number of deaths in a certain group of people in a certain period of time.
The moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities (such as the nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach).
Pertaining to neoplasia, which is abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth, commonly associated with cancer.
A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.
A substance made by cells in the stomach. Acid in the stomach changes pepsinogen to pepsin, which breaks down proteins in food during digestion.
The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
A term used to describe a condition that may (or is likely to) become cancer. Also called precancerous.
The opening from the stomach into the duodenum (small intestine).
Biological molecules found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease.
A mucin containing sulfuric esters in its mucopolysaccharides or glycoproteins.
A treatment plan that involves closely watching a patient’s condition but not giving any treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse.
The description of an anatomic region or a special part.
vacAs1 and vacAm1 genotypes
Key toxins of the H pylori pathogen that help determine the disease outcome for infected patients.