Intervention Review

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Exercise for people with high cardiovascular risk

  1. Pamela Seron1,*,
  2. Fernando Lanas1,
  3. Hector Pardo Hernandez2,
  4. Xavier Bonfill Cosp3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Heart Group

Published Online: 13 AUG 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 26 NOV 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009387.pub2

How to Cite

Seron P, Lanas F, Pardo Hernandez H, Bonfill Cosp X. Exercise for people with high cardiovascular risk. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD009387. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009387.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera, CIGES - Departamento de Medicina Interna, Temuco, Araucania, Chile

  2. 2

    Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain

  3. 3

    CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain - Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Iberoamerican Cochrane Centre, Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

*Pamela Seron, CIGES - Departamento de Medicina Interna, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de La Frontera, Montt112, 3º piso., Temuco, Araucania, 4780000, Chile.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 13 AUG 2014



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Fukahori 1999 {published data only}
  • Fukahori M, Aono H, Saito I, Ikebe T, Ozawa H. Program of exercise training as total health promotion plan and its evaluation. Journal of Occupational Health 1999;41:76-82.
Hellenius 1993 {published data only}
  • Hellenius M, Faire U, Berglund B, Hamsten A, Krakau I. Diet and exercise are equally effective in reducing risk for cardiovascular disease. Results of a randomized controlled study in men with slightly to moderately raised cardiovascular risk factors. Atherosclerosis 1993;103:81-91.
Mendivil 2006 {published data only}
  • Mendivil C, Cortés E, Sierra I, Ramirez A, Lolano L, Tovar L, et al. Reduction of global cardiovascular risk with nutritional versus nutritional plus physical activity intervention in Colombian adults. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2006;13:947-65.
Nishijima 2007 {published data only}
  • Nishijima H, Satake K, Igarashi K, Morita N, Kanasawa N, Okita K. Effects of exercise in overweight Japanese with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 2007;39(6):926-33.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Anderssen 1995 {published data only}
  • Anderssen SA, Haaland A, Hjermann I, Urdal P, Gjesdal K, Holme I. Oslo diet and exercise study - A one-year randomized intervention trial. Effect on hemostatic variables and other coronary risk-factors. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 1995;5:189-200.
Avram 2011 {published data only}
  • Avram C, Iurciuc M, Craciun L, Avram A, Iurciuc S, Oancea C, Gaita D. Dietary and physical activity counseling in high-risk asymptomatic patients with metabolic syndrome - A primary care intervention. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 2011;9:16-9.
Cupples 1999 {published data only}
Englert 2007 {published data only}
Eriksson 2009 {published data only}
  • Eriksson MK, Franks PW, Eliasson M. A 3-year randomized trial of lifestyle intervention for cardiovascular risk reduction in the primary care setting: the Swedish Bjorknas study. PLoS ONE 2009;4:e5195.
From 2010 {published data only}
  • From S, Liira H, Remes-Lyly T, Frost A, Leppavuori J, Tikkanen H, Pitkala K. Exercise intervention and health promotion by a nurse in 35-45 year old men at elevated cardiovascular risk. Journal of Men's Health 2010;7(3):302.
Goodpaster 2010 {published data only}
  • Goodpaster BH, Delany JP, Otto AD, Kuller L, Vockley J, South-Paul JE, et al. Effects of diet and physical activity interventions on weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors in severely obese adults: a randomized trial. JAMA 2010;304:1795-802.
Hazar 2010 {published data only}
  • Hazar S. The effect of regular moderate exercise on muscle damage and inflammation at individuals of different cardiovascular risk groups. Scientific Research and Essays 2010;5:1172-80.
Hussein 2010 {published data only}
  • Hussein NA, Czojowski P, Prince D, Thomas MA, Zohman L. Effect of combined resistive and aerobic exercise versus aerobic exercise alone on coronary risk factors in obese coronary patients. PM&R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation 2010;1:S25-6.
Jennings 1986 {published data only}
  • Jennings G, Nelson L, Nestel P, Esler M, Korner P, Burton D, et al. The effects of changes in physical activity on major cardiovascular risk factors, hemodynamics, sympathetic function, and glucose utilization in man: a controlled study of four levels of activity. Circulation 1986;73:30-40.
Kokkinos 1991 {published data only}
  • Kokkinos PF, Hurley BF, Smutok MA, Farmer C, Reece C, Shulman R, et al. Strength training does not improve lipoproteinlipid profiles in men at risk for CHD. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 1991;23:1134-9.
Madden 2010 {published data only}
  • Madden KM, Lockhart C, Potter TF, Cuff D. Aerobic training restores arterial baroreflex sensitivity in older adults with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 2010;20:312-7.
Naito 2008 {published data only}
  • Naito M, Nakayama T, Okamura T, Miura K, Yanagita M, Fujieda Y, et al. Effect of a 4-year workplace-based physical activity intervention program on the blood lipid profiles of participating employees: The high-risk and population strategy for occupational health promotion (HIPOP-OHP) study. Atherosclerosis 2008;197:784-90.
Price 2008 {published data only}
  • Price HC, Tucker L, Griffin SJ, Holman RR. The impact of individualised cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk estimates and lifestyle advice on physical activity in individuals at high risk of CVD: a pilot 2 x 2 factorial understanding risk trial. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2008;7:21.
Rahimian 2010 {published data only}
  • Rahimian MZ, Attarzadeh HR, Ariannezhad J. The effect of aerobic training and diet on cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in overweight and obese women with hypertension. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism 2010;12:16-7.
Singh 1992 {published data only}
Torjesen 1997 {published data only}
  • Torjesen PA, Birkeland KI, Anderssen SA, Hjermann I, Holme I, Urdal P. Lifestyle changes may reverse development of the insulin resistance syndrome - The Oslo Diet and Exercise Study: A randomized trial. Diabetes Care 1997;20:26-31.
Tuthill 2007 {published data only}
  • Tuthill A, Quinn A, McColgan D, McKenna M, O'Shea D, McKenna TJ. A prospective randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention on quality of life and cardiovascular risk score in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 2007;9:917-9.
Vadheim 2010 {published data only}
Watkins 2003 {published data only}
  • Watkins LL, Sherwood A, Feinglos M, Hinderliter A, Babyak M, Gullette E, et al. Effects of exercise and weight loss on cardiac risk factors associated with syndrome X. Archives of Internal Medicine 2003;163:1889-95.
Wu 2007 {published data only}
  • Wu TY, Yeh HI, Chan P, Chiou YF, Tsai JC. The effects of simple eight-week regular exercise on cardiovascular disease risk factors in middle-aged women at risk in Taiwan. Acta Cardiologica Sinica 2007;23:169-76.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Boraita 2008
  • Boraita Perez A. Exercise as the cornerstone of cardiovascular prevention [Ejercicio, piedra angular de la prevencion cardiovascular]. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia 2008;61(5):514-28. [PUBMED: 18462655]
Braith 2006
Bull 2004
  • Bull F,  Armstrong T, Dixon T,  Ham S, Neiman A, Pratt M. Chapter 10: physical inactivity. In: Ezzati M, Lopez A,  Rodgers A, Murray C editor(s). Comparative Quantification of Health Risks. Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors. World Health Organization, 2004.
D'Agostino 2008
  • D'Agostino RB Sr, Vasan RS, Pencina MJ, Wolf PA, Cobain M, Massaro JM, et al. General cardiovascular risk profile for use in primary care: the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 2008;117(6):743-53. [PUBMED: 18212285]
Emberson 2003
  • Emberson JR, Whincup PH, Morris RW, Walker M. Re-assessing the contribution of serum total cholesterol, blood pressure and cigarette smoking to the aetiology of coronary heart disease: impact of regression dilution bias. European Heart Journal 2003;24(19):1719-26. [PUBMED: 14522566]
Ertek 2012
  • Ertek S, Cicero A. Impact of physical activity on inflammation: effects on cardiovascular disease risk and other inflammatory conditions. Archives of Medical Science 2012;8(5):794-804.
Franco 2005
  • Franco OH, de Laet C, Peeters A, Jonker J, Mackenbach J, Nusselder W. Effects of physical activity on life expectancy with cardiovascular disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 2005;165(20):2355-60. [PUBMED: 16287764]
Graham 2007
  • Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K, Boysen G, Burell G, Cifkova R, et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation 2007;14 Suppl 2:S1-113. [PUBMED: 17726407]
Grandjean 2000
  • Grandjean PW, Crouse SF, Rohack JJ. Influence of cholesterol status on blood lipid and lipoprotein enzyme responses to aerobic exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 2000;89(2):472-80. [PUBMED: 10926628]
Halbert 1999
  • Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane P, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Exercise training and blood lipids in hyperlipidemic and normolipidemic adults: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;53(7):514-22. [PUBMED: 10452405]
Heran 2011
  • Heran BS, Chen JMH, Ebrahim S, Moxham T, Oldridge N, Rees K, Thompson DR, Taylor RS. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heartdisease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, (Issue 7):Art. No.: CD001800. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD001800.pub2.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Jackson 2005
  • Jackson R, Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Milne RJ, Rodgers A. Treatment with drugs to lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol based on an individual's absolute cardiovascular risk. Lancet 2005;365(9457):434-41. [PUBMED: 15680460]
Kelley 2000
Kelley 2005
  • Kelley GA, Kelley KS, Vu Tran Z. Aerobic exercise, lipids and lipoproteins in overweight and obese adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. International Journal of Obesity 2005;29(8):881-93. [PUBMED: 15824746]
King 1995
  • King AC, Haskell WL, Young DR, Oka RK, Stefanick ML. Long-term effects of varying intensities and formats of physical activity on participation rates, fitness, and lipoproteins in men and women aged 50 to 65 years. Circulation 1995;91(10):2596-604. [PUBMED: 7743622]
Lefebvre 2011
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Metkus 2010
Mozaffarian 2008
Murray 2012
  • Murray CJ, Vos T, Lozano R, Naghavi M, Flaxman AD, Michaud C, et al. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 291 diseases and injuries in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2012;380:2197–223.
NICE 2006
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Hypertension: management of hypertension in adult in primary care. Clinical Guideline 34. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2006.
NICE 2008
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Lipid Modification: cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Clinical Guideline 67. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, 2008.
Pescatello 1991
Pinto 2012
  • Pinto A, Di Raimondo D, Tuttolomondo A, Buttà C, Milio G, Licata G. Effects of physical exercise on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis. Current Pharmaceutical Design 2012;18(28):4326-49.
Schuler 2013
Shaw 2006
Teo 2009
  • Teo K, Chow CK, Vaz M, Rangarajan S, Yusuf S. The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study: examining the impact of societal influences on chronic noncommunicable diseases in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. American Heart Journal 2009;158(1):1-7.e1. [PUBMED: 19540385]
Thomas 2006
Ussher 2008
Whelton 2002
  • Whelton SP, Chin A, Xin X, He J. Effect of aerobic exercise on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;136(7):493-503. [PUBMED: 11926784]
Wilson 1998
Yusuf 2004
  • Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, Dans T, Avezum A, Lanas F, et al. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004;364(9438):937-52. [PUBMED: 15364185]