Intervention Review

You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article

Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women

  1. Shayesteh Jahanfar1,*,
  2. Patricia A Janssen1,
  3. Louise M Howard2,
  4. Therese Dowswell3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 DEC 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009414.pub2

How to Cite

Jahanfar S, Janssen PA, Howard LM, Dowswell T. Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD009414. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009414.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    University of British Columbia, Department of Public Health, School of Population and Public Health, Vancouver, British Colombia, Canada

  2. 2

    King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK

  3. 3

    The University of Liverpool, Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Liverpool, UK

*Shayesteh Jahanfar, Department of Public Health, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Colombia, VT6 1Z3, Canada. jahanfar2000@yahoo.com. shayeste@interchange.ubc.ca.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Calderon 2008 {published data only}
  • Calderon SH, Gilbert P, Jackson R, Kohn MA, Gerbert B. Cueing prenatal providers effects on discussions of intimate partner violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2008;34(2):134-7.
  • Gilbert P. The health in pregnancy (HIP) study. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00540319 (accessed 20 February 2008).
  • Humphreys J, Tsoh JY, Kohn MA, Gerbert B. Increasing discussions of intimate partner violence in prenatal care using Video Doctor plus Provider Cueing: a randomized, controlled trial. Womens Health Issues 2011;21(2):136-44.
Cripe 2010 {published data only}
  • Cripe SM, Sanchez SE, Sanchez E, Ayala Quintanilla B, Hernandez Alarcon C, Gelaye B, et al. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: a pilot intervention program in Lima, Peru. Journal of Interpersonal Violence 2010;25(11):2054-76.
Curry 2006 {published data only}
Kiely 2010 {published data only}
  • El-Khorazaty MN, Johnson AA, Kiely M, El-Mohandes AAE, Subramanian S, Laryea HA, et al. Recruitment and retention of low-income minority women in a behavioral intervention to reduce smoking, depression, and intimate partner violence during pregnancy. BMC: Public Health 2007;7:233.
  • El-Mohandes A, Kiely M, El-Khorazaty N, Gantz M, Blake S, Subramanian S. Reduction of intimate partner violence in pregnancy: the effect of an integrated intervention in an African-American low income population [abstract]. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2005 May 14-17; Washington DC, USA. 2005:Abstract no: 2402.
  • El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, Gantz MG, El-Khorazaty MN. Very preterm birth is reduced in women receiving an integrated behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial. Maternal & Child Health Journal 2011;15(1):19-28.
  • El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, Joseph JG, Subramanian S, Johnson AA, Blake SM, et al. An intervention to improve postpartum outcomes in African-American mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2008;112(3):611-20.
  • El-Mohandes AAE, for the NIH-DC initiative to reduce infant mortality. An integrated psycho-behavioral intervention during pregnancy has significant effects in reducing risks during the post-partum period in African-American women. Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting; 2005 May 14-17; Washington DC, USA. 2005:Abstract no: 39.
  • Joseph JG, El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, El-Khorazaty MN, Gantz MG, Johnson AA, et al. Reducing psychosocial and behavioral pregnancy risk factors: results of a randomized clinical trial among high-risk pregnant African American women. American Journal of Public Health 2009;99(6):1053-61. [PUBMED: 19372532]
  • Kiely M, El-Mohandes AA, El-Khorazaty MN, Gantz MG. An integrated intervention to reduce intimate partner violence in pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2010;115(2 Pt 1):273-83.
McFarlane 2000 {published data only}
Nagle 2002 {published data only}
  • Nagle GA. Maternal participation, depression and partner violence in a state run child abuse prevention program: Louisiana nurse home visitation 1999-2002 [thesis]. Louisiana: Tulane University, 2002.
Olds 2004 {published data only}
  • Olds DL, Robinson J, Pettitt L, Luckey DW, Holmberg J, Ng RK, et al. Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics 2004;114(6):1560-8. [PUBMED: 15574615]
Tiwari 2005 {published data only}
Zlotnick 2011 {published data only}
  • Zlotnick C, Capezza NM, Parker D. An interpersonally based intervention for low-income pregnant women with intimate partner violence: a pilot study. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2011;14(1):55-65. [PUBMED: 21153559]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Armstrong 1999 {published data only}
Bair-Merritt 2010 {published data only}
  • Bair-Merritt MH, Jennings JM, Chen R, Burrell L, McFarlane E, Fuddy L, et al. Reducing maternal intimate partner violence after the birth of a child: a randomized controlled trial of the Hawaii healthy start home visitation program. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 2010;164(1):16-23.
Blackmore 2006 {published data only}
  • Blackmore ER, Carroll J, Reid A, Biringer A, Glazier RH, Midmer D, et al. The use of the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) tool in the detection of psychosocial risk factors for postpartum depression: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC 2006;28(10):873-8.
  • Carroll JC, Reid AJ, Biringer A, Midmer D, Glazier RH, Wilson L, et al. Effectiveness of the antenatal psychosocial health assessment (ALPHA) form in detecting psychosocial concerns: A randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2005;173(3):253-9.
Bullock 2009 {published data only}
  • Bullock L, Everett KD, Mullen PD, Geden E, Longo DR, Madsen R. Baby BEEP: A randomized controlled trial of nurses' individualized social support for poor rural pregnant smokers. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2009;13(3):395-406. [PUBMED: 18496746]
Eddy 2008 {published data only}
  • Eddy T, Kilburn E, Chang C, Bullock L, Sharps P. Facilitators and barriers for implementing home visit interventions to address intimate partner violence: town and gown partnerships. Nursing Clinics of North America 2008;43(3):419-35, ix. [PUBMED: 18674673]
Janssen 2003 {published data only}
  • Janssen PA, Holt VL, Sugg NK, Emanuel I, Critchlow CM, Henderson AD. Intimate partner violence and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2003;188(5):1341-7.
Janssen 2011 {published data only}
  • Janssen P. Can safety planning improve perinatal outcome among pregnant women exposed to intimate partner violence?. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00831831 (accessed 15 February 2011).
Kataoka 2010 {published data only}
  • Kataoka Y, Yaju Y, Eto H, Horiuchi S. Self-administered questionnaire versus interview as a screening method for intimate partner violence in the prenatal setting in Japan: a randomised controlled trial. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2010;10:84.
Koziol-McLain 2010 {published data only}
  • Koziol-McLain J, Garrett N, Fanslow J, Hassall I, Dobbs T, Henare-Toka TA, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a brief emergency department intimate partner violence screening intervention. Annals of Emergency Medicine 2010;56(4):413-23.e1. [PUBMED: 20538369]
Lipsky 2003 {published data only}
  • Lipsky S, Holt VL, Easterling TR, Critchlow CW. Impact of police-reported intimate partner violence during pregnancy on birth outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2003;102(3):557-64.
Macy 2007 {published data only}
  • Macy RJ, Martin SL, Kupper LL, Casanueva C, Guo S. Partner violence among women before, during, and after pregnancy: multiple opportunities for intervention. Women's Health Issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health 2007;17(5):290-9. [PUBMED: 17659882]
Marcenko 1994 {published data only}
McFarlane 1996 {published data only}
  • McFarlane J, Parker B, Soeken K. Physical abuse, smoking and substance use during pregnancy: prevalence, interrelationships and effects on birth weight. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic and Neonatal Nursing 1996;25:313-20.
Miller 2011 {published data only}
  • Miller E, Decker MR, McCauley HL, Tancredi DJ, Levenson RR, Waldman J, et al. A family planning clinic partner violence intervention to reduce risk associated with reproductive coercion. Contraception 2011;83(3):274-80.
Parker 1999 {published data only}
Quinlivan 2003 {published data only}
Taft 2009a {published data only}
  • Taft A, Small R, Hegarty K, Lumley J, Watson L. Mosaic: the development phase of a randomised community intervention trial to reduce intimate partner abuse and depression in women pregnant or with children under five. [abstract]. Perinatal Society of Australia and New Zealand 7th Annual Congress; 2003 March 9-12; Tasmania, Australia. 2003:A30.
  • Taft AJ, Small R, Hegarty KL, Lumley J, Watson LF, Gold L. MOSAIC (MOthers' Advocates In the Community): protocol and sample description of a cluster randomised trial of mentor mother support to reduce intimate partner violence among pregnant or recent mothers. BMC Public Health 2009;9:159.
  • Taft AJ, Small R, Hegarty KL, Watson LF, Gold L, Lumley JA. Mothers' AdvocateS In the Community (MOSAIC)--non-professional mentor support to reduce intimate partner violence and depression in mothers: a cluster randomised trial in primary care. BMC Public Health 2011;11:178.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Loree 2008 {published data only}
  • Loree A, Ondersma SJ, Beatty JR, Tzilos G, Chase SK, Schuster CR. Brief, universal intervention for child maltreatment prevention among high-risk parents: effects on substance use, mental health, and intimate partner violence. Proceedings of the 70th Annual Scientific Meeting of the College on Problems of Drug Dependence; 2008 June 14-19; San Juan, Puerto Rico, USA. 2008:11.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Arias 2002
  • Arias I, Dankwort J, Douglas U, Dutton MA, Stein K. Violence against women: the state of batterer prevention programs. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 2002;30(3 Suppl):157-65. [PUBMED: 12508520]
Babu 2009
Bacchus 2004
Ballard 1998
Beydoun 2010
  • Beydoun HA, Al-Sahab B, Beydoun MA, Tamim H. Intimate partner violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression among Canadian women in the Maternity Experience Survey. Annals of Epidemiology 2010;20(8):575-83.
Bohn 1996
Browne 1997
  • Browne A. When Battered Women Kill. 2nd Edition. Australia: Collier MacMillan Publication, 1997:232.
Campbell 1992
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics 2000
  • Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics. Family violence in Canada: a statistical profile. Cat no 85-224-XIE. Ottawa: Statistics Canada, 2000.
Canterino 1999
  • Canterino JC, VanHorn LG, Harrigan JT, Ananth CV, Vintzileos AM. Domestic abuse in pregnancy: a comparison of a self-completed domestic abuse questionnaire with a directed interview. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1999;181(5 Pt 1):1049-51.
Chamberlain 2000
  • Chamberlain L, Perham-Hester KA. Physicians' screening practices for female partner abuse during prenatal visits. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000;4(2):141-8.
Coker 2012
  • Coker AL, Garcia LS, Williams CM, Crawford TN, Clear ER, McFarlane J, et al. Universal psychosocial screening and adverse pregnancy outcomes in an academic obstetric clinic. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2012;119(6):1180-9. [PUBMED: 22617583]
Daoud 2012
  • Daoud N, Urquia ML, O'Campo P, Heaman M, Janssen PA, Smylie J, et al. Prevalence of abuse and violence before, during, and after pregnancy in a national sample of Canadian women. American journal of public health 2012;102(10):1893-901. [PUBMED: 22897526]
Diaz-Olavarrieta 2002
  • Diaz-Olavarrieta C, Ellertson C, Paz F, De Leon SP, Alarcon-Segovia D. Prevalence of battering among 1780 outpatients at an internal medicine institution in Mexico. Social Science & Medicine 2002;55(9):1589-602.
Dugan 2003
  • Dugan L, Nagin DS, Rosenfeld R. Do domestic violence services save lives?. National Institute of Justice Journal  2003;250:20-5.
El 2005
El-Mohandes 2008
  • El-Mohandes AA, Kiely M, Joseph JG, Subramanian S, Johnson AA, Blake SM, et al. An intervention to improve postpartum outcomes in African-American mothers: a randomized controlled trial. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2008;112(3):611-20. [PUBMED: 18757660]
Ezechi 2004
  • Ezechi OC, Kalu BK, Ezechi LO, Nwokoro CA, Ndububa VI, Okeke GC. Prevalence and pattern of domestic violence against pregnant Nigerian women. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 2004;24(6):652-6.
Family Violence Prevention Fund 1999
  • Family Violence Prevention Fund. Preventing Domestic Violence: Clinical Guidelines on Routine Screening. US Department of Health and Human Services, 1999.
Feder 2009
  • Feder G, Ramsay J, Dunne D, Rose M, Arsene C, Norman R, et al. How far does screening women for domestic (partner) violence in different health-care settings meet criteria for a screening programme? Systematic reviews of nine UK National Screening Committee criteria. Health Technology Assessment 2009;13(16):iii-iv, xi-xiii, 1-113, 137-347.
Feldhaus 1997
  • Feldhaus KM, Koziol-McLain J, Amsbury HL, Norton IM, Lowenstein SR, Abbott JT. Accuracy of 3 brief screening questions for detecting partner violence in the emergency department. JAMA 1997;277(17):1357-61.
Flach 2011
Ford-Gilboe 2011
  • Ford-Gilboe M, Merritt-Gray M, Varcoe C, Wuest J. A theory-based primary health care intervention for women who have left abusive partners. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science 2011;34(3):198-214. [PUBMED: 21654310]
Gazmararian 1996
  • Gazmararian JA, Lazorick S, Spitz AM, Ballard TJ, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. Prevalence of violence against pregnant women. JAMA 1996;275(24):1915-20.
Gazmararian 2000
  • Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Spitz AM, Goodwin MM, Saltzman LE, Marks JS. Violence and reproductive health: current knowledge and future research directions. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000;4(2):79-84. [PUBMED: 10994575]
Goodwin 1990
Harwin 2006
Hedin 1999
  • Hedin LW, Grimstad H, Moller A, Schei B, Janson PO. Prevalence of physical and sexual abuse before and during pregnancy among Swedish couples. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 1999;78(4):310-5.
Hedin 2000
  • Hedin LW, Janson PO. Domestic violence during pregnancy. The prevalence of physical injuries, substance use, abortions and miscarriages. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 2000;79(8):625-30.
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Horiuchi 2009
  • Horiuchi S, Yaju Y, Kataoka Y, Grace Eto H, Matsumoto N. Development of an evidence-based domestic violence guideline: supporting perinatal women-centred care in Japan. Midwifery 2009;25(1):72-8. [PUBMED: 17399864]
Howard 2010
Jahanfar 2007
  • Jahanfar S, Kamarudin EB, Sarpin MA, Zakaria NB, Abdul Rahman RB, Samsuddin RD. The prevalence of domestic violence against pregnant women in Perak, Malaysia. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2007;10(3):376-278. [PUBMED: 17604477]
Janssen 2006
  • Janssen P, Dascal-Weichhendler H, McGregor M. Assessment for intimate partner violence: where do we stand?. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM 2006;19(4):413-5. [PUBMED: 16809657]
Jejeebhoy 1998
Jewkes 2001
  • Jewkes R, Penn-Kekana L, Levin J, Ratsaka M, Schrieber M. Prevalence of emotional, physical and sexual abuse of women in three South African provinces. South African Medical Journal 2001;91(5):421-8.
Kramer 2004
  • Kramer A, Lorenzon D, Mueller G. Prevalence of intimate partner violence and health implications for women using emergency departments and primary care clinics. Women's Health Issues 2004;14(1):19-29. [PUBMED: 15001185]
Lewis 2007
  • Lewis G, editor. The Seventh Report on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2003–2005. London: CEMACH, 2007.
Lewis 2011
  • Lewis G, editor. The Eighth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths 'Saving Mothers' Lives: Reviewing maternal deaths to make motherhood safer: 2006-2008. London: National Patient Safety Agency, Scottish Programme for Clinical Effectiveness in Reproductive Health, Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety of Northern Ireland and the States of Jersey and Guernsey, and Isle of Man, 2011.
McCloskey 2006
  • McCloskey LA, Lichter E, Williams C, Gerber M, Wittenberg E, Ganz M. Assessing intimate partner violence in health care settings leads to women's receipt of interventions and improved health. Public Health Reports (Washington, D.C.: 1974) 2006;121(4):435-44. [PUBMED: 16827445]
McFarlane 2006
  • McFarlane JM, Groff JY, O'Brien JA, Watson K. Secondary prevention of intimate partner violence: a randomized controlled trial. Nursing Research 2006;55(1):52-61. [PUBMED: 16439929]
Mezey 2000
  • Mezey G, Bewley S, Bacchus L, Haworth A. Prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy in a UK population: impact on maternal health and obstetric outcome: research briefing. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists London 2000.
Nagassar 2010
  • Nagassar RP, Rawlins JM, Sampson NR, Zackerali J, Chankadyal K, Ramasir C, et al. The prevalence of domestic violence within different socio-economic classes in Central Trinidad. West Indian Medical Journal 2010;59(1):20-5. [PUBMED: 20931908]
Nelson 2012
  • Nelson HD, Bougatsos C, Blazina I. Screening Women for Intimate Partner Violence and Elderly and Vulnerable Adults for Abuse. Systematic Review to Update the 2004 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation. Evidence Syntheses, No. 92. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), 2012. [PUBMED: 22675737]
Newberger 1992
  • Newberger E, Barkan S, Lieberman E. Abuse of pregnant women and adverse birth outcome. JAMA 1992;267:2370-2.
Ng 2005
  • Ng C, Peterson T. The Ninth Malaysia Plan: gender, rights and development. Universiti Malaya and UN Malaysia Conference on Progress and Challenges in Human Development in Malaysia: Ideas for the Ninth Malaysia Plan; 2005 July 11-12; Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2005:Abstract no: 1290.
O'Campo 2011
  • O'Campo P, Kirst M, Tsamis C, Chambers C, Ahmad F. Implementing successful intimate partner violence screening programs in health care settings: evidence generated from a realist-informed systematic review. Social Science & Medicine 2011;72(6):855-66. [PUBMED: 21330026]
O'Reilly 2010
  • O'Reilly R, Beale B, Gillies D. Screening and intervention for domestic violence during pregnancy care: a systematic review. Trauma, Violence & Abuse 2010;11(4):190-201. [PUBMED: 20688785]
Parker 1994
  • Parker B, McFarlane J, Soeken K. Abuse during pregnancy: effects on maternal complications and birth weight in adult and teenage women. Obstetrics & Gynecology 1994;84:323-8.
Parker 2002
Parsons 2000
  • Parsons L, Goodwin MM, Petersen R. Violence against women and reproductive health: toward defining a role for reproductive health care services. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2000;4(2):135-40.
Petersen 1997
Ramsay 2002
  • Ramsay J, Richardson J, Carter YH, Davidson LL, Feder G. Should health professionals screen women for domestic violence? Systematic review. BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 2002;325(7359):314. [PUBMED: 12169509]
Ramsay 2009
  • Ramsay J, Carter Y, Davidson L, Dunne D, Eldridge S, Hegarty K, et al. Advocacy interventions to reduce or eliminate violence and promote the physical and psychosocial well-being of women who experience intimate partner abuse. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005043.pub2]
RevMan 2011
  • The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration. Review Manager (RevMan). 5.1. Copenhagen: The Nordic Cochrane Centre, The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011.
Rodriguez 2001
  • Rodriguez E, Lasch KE, Chandra P, Lee J. The relation of family violence, employment status, welfare benefits, and alcohol drinking in the United States. Western Journal of Medicine 2001;174(5):317-23.
Rose 2010
  • Rose L, Alhusen J, Bhandari S, Soeken K, Marcantonio K, Bullock L, et al. Impact of intimate partner violence on pregnant women's mental health: mental distress and mental strength. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2010;31(2):103-11.
Saltzman 2003
  • Saltzman LE, Johnson CH, Gilbert BC, Goodwin MM. Physical abuse around the time of pregnancy: an examination of prevalence and risk factors in 16 states. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2003;7(1):31-43.
Shah 2010
  • Shah PS, Shah J. Maternal exposure to domestic violence and pregnancy and birth outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analyses. Journal of Women's Health 2010;19(11):2017-31. [PUBMED: 20919921]
Sharps 2008
  • Sharps PW, Campbell J, Baty ML, Walker KS, Bair-Merritt MH. Current evidence on perinatal home visiting and intimate partner violence. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing 2008;37(4):480-90; quiz 490-1. [PUBMED: 18754987]
Spangaro 2010
Stark 1999
  • Stark E, Flitcraft A. Frazier W. Medicine and patriarchal violence: the social construction of a "private" event. International Journal of Health Services 1999;9:461-93.
Taft 2009b
  • Taft AJ, Small R, Hegarty KL, Lumley J, Watson LF, Gold L. MOSAIC (MOthers' Advocates In the Community): protocol and sample description of a cluster randomised trial of mentor mother support to reduce intimate partner violence among pregnant or recent mothers. BMC Public Health 2009;9:159.
Valladares 2005
Wathen 2003
Wiist 1999
World Health Organization 2000
  • World Health Organization. National Report on Violence and Health, Malaysia. WHO, Center for Health Development, Kobe, Japan report (WHO/WKC/Tech.Se./05.2). Geneva: WHO, 2000.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Jahanfar 2011
  • Jahanfar S, Janssen PA, Howard L. Interventions for preventing or reducing domestic violence against pregnant women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 11. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009414]