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Atypical antipsychotics for psychosis in adolescents

  1. Ajit Kumar1,
  2. Soumitra S Datta2,3,*,
  3. Stephen D Wright4,
  4. Vivek A Furtado5,
  5. Paul S Russell6

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 15 OCT 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 18 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009582.pub2


How to Cite

Kumar A, Datta SS, Wright SD, Furtado VA, Russell PS. Atypical antipsychotics for psychosis in adolescents. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD009582. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009582.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Leeds and York Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Psychiatry, Leeds, UK

  2. 2

    Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, London, UK

  3. 3

    Tata Medical Centre, Department of Palliative Care & Psycho-oncology, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

  4. 4

    Leeds Partnerships NHS Foundation Trust, Central & North West Community Mental Health Team, Leeds, West Yorkshire, UK

  5. 5

    Institute of Mental Health, Forensic Psychiatry, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK

  6. 6

    Christian Medical College, Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

*Soumitra S Datta, Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, De Crespigny Park, London, SE5 8AF, UK. ssdatta2000@yahoo.com. ssdatta@doctors.org.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 15 OCT 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Aranda 2007 {published data only}
  • Aranda OR, Zabala A, Bombn I, Burdalo M, Sancho AR, Moreno D, et al. Quetiapine and olanzapine cognitive efficacy in adolescents with early onset psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):456.
  • Parellada MJ, Moreno D, Ruiz-Sancho A, Medina O, Arango C. Open-label randomized trial comparing the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine and olanzapine in first episode psychosis in adolescents. Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;16(Suppl 4):S377.
  • Robles O, Zabala A, Parellada MJ, Ruiz A, Moreno MD, Burdalo MT, et al. Cognitive efficacy of quetiapine and olanzapine in early onset first episode psychosis. Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 2006;16(Suppl 4):S381.
DelBello 2008 {published data only}
  • DelBello MP, Versavel M, Ice K, Keller D, Miceli J. Tolerability of oral ziprasidone in children and adolescents with bipolar mania, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2008;18(5):491-9. [PUBMED: 18928413]
  • DelBello MP, Versavel M, Ice K, Keller D, Miceli J. Ziprasidone dosing study in pediatric patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. 13th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia Research, 2006 February 4-10, Davos, Switzerland.
Findling 2008 {published data only}
  • Carson WH, Nyilas M, Forbes RA, Pikalov A, McQuade RD, Owen R, et al. A 6-week study of the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole in pediatric patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2008;98:41-2.
  • Carson WH, Nyilas M, Forbes RA, Pikatov A, McQuade RD, Owen R, et al. A 6-week study of the efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole in pediatric patients with schizophrenia. 14th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders, 2008 February 3-7, Montreux, Switzerland.
  • Findling RL, Robb A, Nyilas M, Forbes RA, Jin N, Ivanova S, et al. A multiple-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral aripiprazole for treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2008;165(11):1432-41. [PUBMED: 18765484]
  • Nyilas M, Findling RL, Johnson B, Forbes RA, Pikalov A, Marcus R, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia. 46th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 2007 December 9-13, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
  • Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization Inc. Aripiprazole in adolescents with schizophrenia, 2005. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Haas 2009 {published data only}
  • Haas M, Eerdekens M, Kushner S, Singer J, Augustyns I, Quiroz J, et al. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of two dosing regimens in adolescent schizophrenia: double-blind study. The British Journal of Psychiatry 2009;194(2):158-64. [PUBMED: 19182179]
Huo 2007 {published data only}
  • Huo W-H, Ma Y-B, Li G-Z. A controlled study of risperidone in child schizophrenia [利培酮治疗儿童少年精神分裂症的对照研究]. Medical Journal of Chinese People's Health [中国民康医学] 2007;19(11):472-3. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Jensen 2008 {published data only}
  • Jensen J, Sculz SC. A comparative study of new medications for psychosis in adolescents, 2005. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
  • Jensen JB, Kumra S, Leitten W, Oberstar J, Anjum A, White T, et al. A comparative pilot study of second-generation antipsychotics in children and adolescents with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2008;18(4):317-26. [PUBMED: 18759641]
  • Jensen JB, Leitten W, Wozniak J, Anjum A, White T, Oberstar J, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of atypical antipsychotics in adolescents with psychosis. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):434.
Kryzhanovskaya 2009 {published data only}
  • Dittmann RW, Krzyhanovskaya L, Schulz C, McDougle CJ, Frazier JA, Robertson-Plouch C, et al. Results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of olanzapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S133.
  • Eli Lilly, Company. Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia. Eli Lilly and Company Clinical Trial Registry, 2002.
  • Eli Lilly, Company. Olanzapine versus placebo in the treatment of adolescents with schizophrenia, 2003. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
  • Joan S, Earley WR, Kryzhanovskaya L, Miner C, Dittmann RW. Olanzapine in the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents: an ongoing double-blind placebo-controlled study. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31:489.
  • Kryzhanovskaya L, Schulz C, McDougle CJ, Frazier JA, Dittmann RW, Robertson-Plouch C, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of olanzapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. 13th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia Research, 2006 February 4-10, Davos, Switzerland.
  • Kryzhanovskaya L, Schulz C, McDougle CJ, Frazier JA, Dittmann RW, Robertson-Plouch C, et al. Results from a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of olanzapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. 5th International Conference on Early Psychosis, 2006 October 4-6, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
  • Kryzhanovskaya L, Schulz C, McDougle CJ, Frazier JA, Dittmann RW, Tohen MF. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of olanzapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. 159th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 2006 May 20-25, Toronto, Canada.
  • Kryzhanovskaya L, Schulz C, McDougle CJ, Frazier JA, Shen J, Dittman R, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of olanzapine in adolescents with schizophrenia. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;30(Suppl 1):S258-9.
  • Kryzhanovskaya L, Schulz SC, McDougle C, Frazier J, Dittmann R, Robertson-Plouch C, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo in adolescents with schizophrenia: a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2009;48(1):60-70. [PUBMED: 19057413]
Kumra 1996 {published data only}
  • Frazier JA, Gordon CT, McKenna K, Lenane MC, Jih D, Rapoport JL. An open trial of clozapine in 11 adolescents with childhood onset schizophrenia. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 1994, issue 5:658-63. [MEDLINE: 94334254; PMID: 8056728]
  • Gordon CT, Frazier JA, McKenna K, Giedd J, Zametkin A, Zahn T, et al. Childhood-onset schizophrenia: an NIMH study in progress. Schizophrenia Bulletin 1994, issue 4:697-712. [MEDLINE: 95215796; PMID: 7701277]
  • Kumra S, Frazier JA, Jacobsen LK, McKenna K, Gordon CT, Lenane MC, et al. Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a double-blind clozapine-haloperidol comparison. Archives of General Psychiatry 1996;53(12):1090-7. [MEDLINE: 97115273; : PMID 8956674]
  • Kumra S, Jacobsen LK, Rapoport JL. Childhood-onset schizophrenia—a double-blind clozapine trial. 149th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 1996 May 4-9, New York, NY, USA. [MEDLINE: 97115273; PMID: 8956674]
  • Piscitelli SC, Frazier JA, McKenna K, Albus KE, Grothe DR, Gordon CT, et al. Plasma clozapine and haloperidol concentrations in adolescents with childhood-onset schizophrenia: association with response. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 1994, issue Suppl B:94-7. [MEDLINE: 95050401; PMID: 7961584]
Kumra 2008 {published data only}
  • Kumra S, Kranzler H, Gerbino-Rosen G, Kester HM, DeThomas C, Kafantaris V, et al. Clozapine and "high-dose" olanzapine in refractory early-onset schizophrenia: a 12-week randomized and double-blind comparison. Biological Psychiatry 2008;63(5):524-9. [EMBASE: 2008071168; MEDLINE: 0; MEDLINE: 17651705; : PsycINFO]
  • Kumra S, Kranzler H, Moise F, McCarthy J, Kafantaris V, Kane JM. Treating refractory childhood schizophrenia, 2002. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Sikich 2004 {published data only}
  • Sikich L, Hamer RM, Bashford RA, Sheitman BB, Lieberman JA. A pilot study of risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol in psychotic youth: a double-blind, randomized, 8-week trial. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29(1):133-45. [: EMBASE: 2004025276; 14583740 PMID]
  • Sikich L, Hooper SR, Malekpour AH, Sheitman BB, Lieberman JA. A double blind comparison of typical versus atypical antipsychotic agents on selected neurocognitive functions in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders. Schizophrenia Research 2001, issue 1,2:245. [MEDLINE: 21416786; PMID: 11525078]
  • Sikich L, Horrigan JP, Lieberman JA, Barnhill LJ Jr, Sheitman BB, Courvoisie HE. Comparative use of olanzapine and risperidone in psychotic youth. 155th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 2002 May 18-23, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
  • Sikich L, Horrigan JP, Lieberman JA, Barnhill LJ, Sheitman BB, Courvoisie HE. Comparative use of olanzapine and risperidone in psychotic youth. 154th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 2001 May 5-10, New Orleans, LA, USA. [MEDLINE: 21185887; PMID: 11290639]
  • Sikich L, Williamson K, Malekpour A, Bashford RA, Hooper S, Sheitman B, et al. Interim results of a randomized controlled trial of haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine in psychotic youth. 38th Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 1999 December 12-16, Acapulco, Mexico.
Sikich 2008 {published data only}
  • Sikich L. Treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders in children and adolescents, 2003. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
  • Sikich L, Frazier JA, McClellan J, Findling RL, Vitiello B, Ritz L, et al. Double-blind comparison of first- and second-generation antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and schizo-affective disorder: findings from the treatment of early-onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders (TEOSS) study. The American Journal of Psychiatry 2008;165(11):1420-31. [PUBMED: 18794207]
Swadi 2010 {published data only}
  • Swadi HS, Craig BJ, Pirwani NZ, Black VC, Buchan JC, Bobier CM. A trial of quetiapine compared with risperidone in the treatment of first onset psychosis among 15- to 18-year-old adolescents. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 2010;25(1):1-6. [PUBMED: 19809337]
Xiong 2004 {published data only}
  • Xiong Y. Comparison study of childhood schizophrenia treated with risperidone and chlorpromazine. Guizhou Medical Journal 2004;28(8):697-8. [MEDLINE: 939850; : ]

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Amminger 2006 {published data only}
  • Amminger GP, Schafer MR. Indicated prevention with omega-3 fatty acids in adolescents at ultra-high risk for psychosis—rationale, methods, and 3-months outcome. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S97-8.
  • Amminger GP, Schafer MR. Is it feasible to conduct a RCT in ultra-high risk individuals at a child and adolescent psychiatric service?. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S98.
Antropov 1981 {published data only}
  • Antropov IUF. Various methods of overcoming resistance to therapy in childhood and adolescent schizophrenia [O nekotorykh metodakh preodoleniia terapevticheskoi rezistentnosti pri shizofrenii u detei i podrostkov]. Zhurnal Nevropatologii i Psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova 1981, issue 10:1522-6. [MEDLINE: 82087113; PMID: 6118983]
Berger 2007 {published data only}
  • Berger G. A naturalistic, prospective, single centre, double blinded, fixed dose, randomised, four week comparison study investigating efficacy, tolerability and safety of 200 mg per day versus 400 mg per day quetiapine fumarate in 200 drug naïve first episode psychosis patients aged 15 to 25 years, 2007. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Bertelsen 2005 {published data only}
  • Bertelsen M. Randomized controlled trial of two years integrated treatment versus standard treatment of patients with first episode of schizophrenia or psychosis, five years follow-up. The OPUS trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2005;31:519-20.
Buchsbaum 2007 {published data only}
  • Buchsbaum MS, Haznedar MM, Aronowitz J, Brickman AM, Newmark RE, Bloom R, et al. FDG-PET in never-previously medicated psychotic adolescents treated with olanzapine or haloperidol. Schizophrenia Research 2007;94(1-3):293-305. [MEDLINE: 0; MEDLINE: 17574821; : PsycINFO]
  • Buchsbaum MS, Haznedar MM, Hazlett E. Antipsychotic response prediction with FDG-PET in schizophrenia. Thematic Conference of the World Psychiatric Association on "Treatments in psychiatry: an update," 2004 November 10-13, Florence, Italy.
Chen 2007 {published data only}
  • Chen P. [Title available only in Chinese characters] [利培酮与奋乃静治疗少儿精神分裂症对照观察]. Linchuang Jingshen Yixue Zazhi [临床精神医学杂志] 2007;17(1):54. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Davidson 2004 {published data only}
  • Davidson M. Reducing the risk of early transition to psychosis: using long-acting atypical antipsychotics in young patients. Thematic Conference of the World Psychiatric Association on "Treatments in psychiatry: an update," 2004 November 10-13, Florence, Italy.
Gao 2007 {published data only}
  • Gao C. A comparative study of risperidone and perphenazine in the treatment of child schizophrenia [利培酮和奋乃静治疗儿童精神分裂症对照研究]. Chinese Journal of Health Psychology [中国健康心理学杂志] 2007;15(10):950-1. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Jenner 2004 {published data only}
  • Jenner J, Van De Willige G. Results of integrated treatment (HIT) in early psychoses: a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research 2004;70(1):16.
Johnson 2004 {published data only}
  • Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research & Development LLC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study of the efficacy and safety of risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents, 2004. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Killackey 2006 {published data only}
  • Killackey E, Jackson H, McGorry P. Vocational intervention in a specialist early psychosis service: first results of a pilot randomised controlled trial. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S28-9.
Klier 2005 {published data only}
  • Klier C, Hollmann M, Schlögelhofer M, Mossaheb N, Friedrich M, Amminger PG. Indicated prevention with omega-3 fatty acids (EPA/DHA) in adolescents with "at-risk-mental-state" for psychosis. XIII World Congress of Psychiatry, 10-15 September 2005, Cairo, Egypt.
Leblanc 2006 {published data only}
  • Leblanc J, Letourneau K, Demers MF, Bouchard RH, Roy MA. The impact of modafinil as an adjunct to a second generation antipsychotic on cognitive functioning in patients with first psychotic episode. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S131.
Leclerc 2006 {published data only}
  • Leclerc C, Gauvin D, Lecomte T. CBT group to maintain and improve relationships and intimacy abilities of young adults with a first psychotic episode—a pilot study. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S138-9.
Liang 2003 {published data only}
  • Liang Ligui. A clinical trial of risperidone in treatment of childhood patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychological Medicine 2003, issue 01.
Linszen 2006 {published data only}
  • Linszen D, De Haan L, Dingemans P, Lenior R, Van Amelsvoort T, Wouters L. The Amsterdam critical period intervention in the early phase of schizophrenia-like psychoses. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S61.
Lv 2004 {published data only}
  • Lv L-X, Guo S-Q, Chen W, Li Q, Cheng J, Zhang H-Y, et al. Effects of clozapine and risperidone on serum interleukin-2,-10,-18 in adolescent schizophrenia patients. Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics 2004;19(11):983-6. [EMBASE: 2004428997; MEDLINE: ]
Malik 1980 {published data only}
  • Malik SC, Kumar K. Loxapine in adolescent schizophrenia—a comparative study with trifluoperazine. Current Therapeutic Research Clinical and Experimental 1980;28(3):432-46. [MEDLINE: 88249199; : PMID 3381314]
Mathai 2004 {published data only}
  • Mathai J, Bourne A. Pilot study investigating the effect of intercessory prayer in the treatment of child psychiatric disorders. Australasian Psychiatry 2004;12(4):386-9.
McConville 2003 {published data only}
  • McConville B, Carrero L, Sweitzer D, Pott Larry, Chaney R, Foster K, et al. Long-term safety, tolerability, and clinical efficacy of quetiapine in adolescents: an open-label extension trial. Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2003, issue 1:75-82.
McGlashan 2003 {published data only}
  • Hawkins KA, Addington J, Keefe RS, Christensen B, Woods SW, Zipursky RB, et al. Effect of olanzapine vs. placebo on the neuropsychological status of prodromal subjects. 12th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia, 2004 February 7-13, Davos, Switzerland.
  • Hoffman RE, Woods SW, Hawkins KA, Pittman B, Tohen M, Preda A, et al. Extracting spurious messages from noise and risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in prodromal population. British Journal of Psychiatry 2007;191(2):355-6.
  • McGlashan TH, Miller TJ, Zipursky RB, Woods SW, Perkins DO, Hawkins KA, et al. Intervention in the schizophrenic prodrome: the prevention through risk identification, management, and education initiative. 156th Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, 2003 May 17-22, San Francisco, CA, USA.
  • McGlashan TH, Zipursky RB, Perkins D, Addington J, Miller TJ, Woods SW, et al. The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. I. Study rationale and design. Schizophrenia Research 2003;61(1):7-18. [MEDLINE: 12648731; MEDLINE: 22536522]
  • McGlashan TH, Zipursky RB, Perkins DO, Addington J, Woods SW, Miller TJ, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo treatment of the schizophrenia prodrome: one year results. Schizophrenia Research 2003;60:295.
  • Miller TJ, Zipursky RB, Perkins D, Addington J, Woods SW, Hawkins KAHR, et al. The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. II. Baseline characteristics of the "prodromal" sample. Schizophrenia Research 2003;61(1):19-30. [MEDLINE: 12648732; MEDLINE: 22536523]
  • Woods SW, Breier A, Zipursky RB, Perkins DO, Addington J, Miller TJ, et al. Olanzapine versus placebo for prodromal symptoms. Schizophrenia Research 2003;60:306-7.
  • Woods SW, Breier A, Zipursky RB, Perkins DO, Addington J, Miller TJ, et al. Randomized trial of olanzapine versus placebo in the symptomatic acute treatment of the schizophrenic prodrome. Biological Psychiatry 2003;54(4):453-64. [MEDLINE: 12915290; : ]
  • Woods SW, Breier A, Zipursky RB, Perkins DO, Addington J, Miller TJ, et al. Randomized trial of olanzapine versus placebo in the symptomatic acute treatment of the schizophrenic prodrome. [erratum appears in Biological Psychiatry 2003 Aug 15;54(4):497]. Biological Psychiatry 2003, issue 4:453-64.
McGorry 2007 {published data only}
  • McGorry PD, Phillips LJ, Nelson B, Leicester S, Baker K, Krstev H, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of low-dose risperidone, cognitive-behaviour therapy, and befriending in young people with subthreshold symptoms at incipient risk of psychotic disorder: six month outcome data. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):446.
  • Nelson B, Phillips LJ, Yung AR, Francey SM, Leicester S, Baker K, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of low-dose risperidone, intensive psychological treatment and supportive therapy in young people with subthreshold symptoms at incipient risk of psychotic disorder: baseline characteristics of the sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):450.
Newton 2005 {published data only}
Otsuka 2005 {published data only}
  • Otsuka Pharmaceutical Development & Commercialization Inc. A phase II study to test PK tolerability in children and adolescents, 2005. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Power 2004 {published data only}
  • Power P, Craig T, Garety P, Rahaman N, Colbert S, Fornells-Ambrojo M. Lambeth early onset (LEO) trial: a randomised controlled trial of assertive community follow-up in early psychosis: initial 6 month data. Unknown source 1994. [MEDLINE: 9111852; : ]
  • Power P, Craig T, Mcguire P, Iacoponi E, Garety P, Russell M. A randomised controlled trial of an early detection team in first episode psychosis: the LEO cat trial. Schizophrenia Research 2004;67(1):36. [ISI: 000188788100082; MEDLINE: ]
Schepp 1999 {published data only}
  • Schepp KG. Self-management therapy for youth with schizophrenia, 1999. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Sela 2003 {published data only}
  • Sela B-A, Stahl Z, Gavendo S, Ruderman V, Belmaker RH, Levine J. Homocysteine reducing strategy in young male schizophrenic patients: effects on symptoms and cognition. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 2003;26(Suppl 1):102.
Stain 2006 {published data only}
  • Stain HJ, Startup M, Carr V, Baker A, Schall U. The depth project: a multisite RCT for youths at risk for psychosis. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S51-2.
Tandon 2005 {published data only}
  • Tandon R, Sitholey P, Katiyar M, Kumar A. Short term tolerability of risperidone in children and adolescents with acute and transient psychotic disorders. XIII World Congress of Psychiatry, 10-15 September 2005, Cairo, Egypt.
Ueland 2004 {published data only}
  • Ueland T, Rund BR. A controlled randomized treatment study: the effects of a cognitive remediation program on adolescents with early onset psychosis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2004, issue 1:70-4.
  • Ueland T, Rund BR. Cognitive remediation for adolescents with early onset psychosis: a 1-year follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 2005;111(3):193-201. [PUBMED: 15701103]
van Bruggen 2003 {published data only}
  • van Bruggen J, Tijssen J, Dingemans P, Gersons B, Linszen D. Symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone in young adults with recent onset schizophrenia. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 2003;18(6):341-6.
van Nimwegen 2006 {published data only}
  • van Nimwegen L, de Haan L. Early withdrawal in a double-blind randomized clinical trial with olanzapine and risperidone performed in adolescents with first psychosis. Psychopathology 2006;39(3):158. [EMBASE: 160407; MEDLINE: 16531692]
  • van Nimwegen L, de Haan L, van Beveren N, Laan W, van de Brink W, Linszen D. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in a randomized double blind study with olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with recent-onset schizophrenia or related disorders. 13th Biennial Winter Workshop on Schizophrenia, 6-10 February 2006, Davos, Switzerland.
  • van Nimwegen L, de Haan L, van Beveren N, Laan W, van den Brink W, Linszen D. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a randomized, double-blind study with olanzapine or risperidone in young patients with early psychosis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2008;28(2):214-8. [EMBASE: 2008140943; MEDLINE: 0; MEDLINE: 18344733; : PsycINFO]
Versiani 1978 {published data only}
  • Versiani Marcis, da Silva JA, Frota LH, Mundim FD. Double-blind comparison between loxapine and haloperidol in the treatment of adolescent schizophrenic patients. Current Therapeutic Research 1978;24:559-66. [: PsycINFO 63-03832]
Wang 2007 {published data only}
  • Wang H. [Title available only in Chinese characters] [奎硫平和利培酮治疗儿童精神分裂症对照研究]. Linchuang Jingshen Yixue Zazhi [临床精神医学杂志] 2007;17(3):199-200. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Wykes 2007 {published data only}
  • Newton E, Landau S. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT): a new psychological treatment for young patients with schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S143-4.
  • Wykes T. Cognitive remediation for young people with schizophrenia. Current Controlled Trials 2006. [ISRCTN: 75187865; MEDLINE: ]
  • Wykes T. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT)) for young people with schizophrenia. 2nd International Conference on Early Psychosis, 2000 Mar 31-Apr 2, New York, NY, USA. [EMBASE:: 2004180181; MEDLINE: ]
  • Wykes T, Newton E, Landau S, Rice C, Thompson N, Frangou S. Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) for young early onset patients with schizophrenia: an exploratory randomized controlled trial. Schizophrenia Research 2007;94(1-3):221-30. [PUBMED: 17524620]
  • Wykes T, Newton E, Landau S, Rice C, Thompson N, Frangou S. Remediation in adolescent onset results of a randomised control trial. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(2):610.
  • Wykes T, Reeder C, Williams C, Corner J, Rice C, Everitt B. Are the effects of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) durable? Results from an exploratory trial in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 2003;61(2-3):163-74. [MEDLINE:  12729868; : CN-00456712.]
Xiu 2004 {published data only}
  • Xiu L, Jie W. Effects of the nursing care of mutual participation model on the rehabilitation of inpatients with early schizophrenia. Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation 2004;8(24):4958-9.
Yang 2007 {published data only}
  • Yang W, Liu X-Q, Li X-W. A ramdomized controlled clinical study of aripiprazole in the treatment of childhood schizophrenia [阿立呱唑治疗儿童精神分裂症多中心随机对照研究]. Hunan Medical Journal 2007;24(6):942-4. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Yao 2003 {published data only}
  • Yao H. A study of risperidone in the treatment of child schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychological Medicine 2003, issue 02.
Yi 2006 {published data only}
  • Yi Q-M, Fan W-L, Chen Z-Q. The contrast investigation between quetiapine and perphenazlne in the treatment of first episode of schizophrenia in children [奎硫平与奋乃静治疗儿童首发精神分裂症对照研究]. Journal of the North Sichuan Medical College 2006;2(6):522-4. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Zhang 2007 {published data only}
  • Zhang Y, Zhang H, Gu W. A control study of aripiprazole in the treatment of childhood schizophrenia [阿立哌唑治疗儿童精神分裂症对照研究]. Journal of Clinical Psychosomatic Diseases [临床心身疾病杂志] 2007;13(2):122-4. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
Zhou 2007 {published data only}
  • Zhou Z-H, Yuan G-Z, Zhu H-M. Effects of olanzapine treatment on the auditory evoked event-related potential P300 in childhood and adolescent schizophrenia [奥氮平对儿少期精神分裂症患者听觉事件相关电位P_(300)的影响]. Chinese Journal of Behavioral Medical Science [中国行为医学科学] 2007;16(10):906-7. [CHINESE: Academic Journals; MEDLINE: ]
杨玲 2004 {published data only}
  • 杨玲, 杨庆南, 侯永花, 刘涛, 严宏力. [only Chinese Title available] [抗精神病药物对精神分裂症患儿心电图的影响]. Journal of Applied Clinical Pediatrics [实用儿科临床杂志] 2004;19(12):1076-7.
谭友果 2002 {published data only}
  • 谭友果, 刘成文, 刘勇, 甘枝勤. [only Chinese Title available] [首发青少年精神分裂症药物疗效的纵向比较]. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 2002;28(5):365-7.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
Alaghband-rad 2006 {published data only}
  • Alaghband-rad J, Shahrivar Z, Mahmoodi J, Salesian N. First episode psychoses among Iranian adolescents. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S65.
  • Alaghband-rad J, Sharifi V, Amini H, Shahrivar Z, Mottaghipour Y, Mahmoodi J, et al. Management of first episode psychoses in Iran: unique features and challenges. Schizophrenia Research 2006;86(Suppl 1):S42.
AstraZeneca 2004 {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A 6-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, phase 3b study of the efficacy and safety of quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel™) immediate-release tablets compared with placebo in adolescents with schizophrenia, 2004. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
AstraZeneca 2005 {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A 26-week, multicenter, open-label phase 3b study of the safety and tolerability of quetiapine fumarate (Seroquel™) immediate-release tablets in daily doses of 400 mg to 800 mg in children and adolescents with bipolar I disorder and adolescents with schizophrenia, 2005. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Bechdolf 2007 {published data only}
  • Bechdolf A. Development and pilot evaluation of modified cognitive behavioural therapy for adolescents with early onset psychosis, 2007. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Pfizer 2005 {published data only}
  • Pfizer. Six week, double-blind, placebo controlled phase III trial evaluating the efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics of flexible doses of oral ziprasidone in adolescent subjects with schizophrenia, 2005. http:www.clinicaltrials.gov.

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  3. References to ongoing studies
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