Diagnostic Test Accuracy Review

You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article

Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults

  1. Karen R Steingart1,*,
  2. Ian Schiller2,
  3. David J Horne3,
  4. Madhukar Pai4,
  5. Catharina C Boehme5,
  6. Nandini Dendukuri4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group

Published Online: 21 JAN 2014

Assessed as up-to-date: 7 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009593.pub3


How to Cite

Steingart KR, Schiller I, Horne DJ, Pai M, Boehme CC, Dendukuri N. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD009593. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009593.pub3.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group, Liverpool, UK

  2. 2

    McGill University Health Centre, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Montreal, QC, Canada

  3. 3

    University of Washington, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA

  4. 4

    McGill University, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, Montreal, QC, Canada

  5. 5

    Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), Geneva, Switzerland

*Karen R Steingart, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, UK. karen.steingart@gmail.com.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions), comment added to review
  2. Published Online: 21 JAN 2014

SEARCH

References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Al-Ateah 2012 {published data only}
  • Al-Ateah SM, Al-Dowaidi MM, El-Khizzi NA. Evaluation of direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory and non-respiratory clinical specimens using the Cepheid Gene Xpert® system. Saudi Medical Journal 2012;33(10):1100-5.
Balcells 2012 {published data only}
  • Balcells ME, García P, Chanqueo L, Bahamondes L, Lasso M, Gallardo AM, et al. Rapid molecular detection of pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in Santiago, Chile. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(10):1349-53.
Barnard 2012 {published data only}
  • Barnard M, Gey van Pittius NC, van Helden PD, Bosman M, Coetzee G, Warren RM. The diagnostic performance of the GenoType MTBDRplus version 2 line probe assay is equivalent to that of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2012;50(11):3712-6.
Boehme 2010a {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(11):1005-15.
Boehme 2010b {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(11):1005-15.
Boehme 2010c {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(11):1005-15.
Boehme 2010d {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(11):1005-15.
Boehme 2010e {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(11):1005-15.
Boehme 2011a {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Boehme 2011b {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Boehme 2011c {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Boehme 2011d {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Boehme 2011e {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Boehme 2011f {published data only}
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Bowles 2011 {published data only}
  • Bowles EC, Freyée B, van Ingen J, Mulder B, Boeree M J, van Soolingen D. Xpert MTB/RIF®, a novel automated polymerase chain reaction-based tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011;15(7):988-9.
Carriquiry 2012 {published data only}
  • Carriquiry G, Otero L, González-Lagos E, Zamudio C, Sánchez E, Nabeta P, et al. A diagnostic accuracy study of Xpert®MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with high clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima, Peru. PLoS One 2012;7(9):e44626.
Ciftci 2011 {published data only}
  • Ciftçi IH, Aslan MH, Aşik G. [Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF results for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples]. Mikrobiyoloji bülteni 2011;45(1):43-7.
Friedrich 2011 {published data only}
  • Friedrich SO, Venter A, Kayigire XA, Dawson R, Donald PR, Diacon AH. Suitability of Xpert MTB/RIF and genotype MTBDRplus for patient selection for a tuberculosis clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(8):2827-31.
Hanif 2011 {published data only}
  • Hanif SN, Eldeen HS, Ahmad S, Mokaddas E. GeneXpert® MTB/RIF for rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary samples. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011;15(9):1274-5.
Hanrahan 2013 {published data only}
  • Hanrahan CF, Selibas K, Deery CB, Dansey H, Clouse K, et al. Time to treatment and patient outcomes among TB suspects screened by a single point-of-Care Xpert MTB/RIF at a primary care clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. PLoS ONE 2013;8(6):e65421.
Helb 2010 {published data only}
  • Helb D, Jones M, Story E, Boehme C, Wallace E, Ho K, et al. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and rifampin resistance by use of on-demand, near-patient technology. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010;48(1):229-37.
Ioannidis 2011 {published data only}
  • Ioannidis P, Papaventsis D, Karabela S, Nikolaou S, Panagi M, Raftopoulou E, et al. Cepheid GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection and rifampin resistance identification in patients with substantial clinical indications of tuberculosis and smear-negative microscopy results. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(8):3068-70.
Kurbatova 2013 {published data only}
  • Kurbatova EV, Kaminski DA, Erokhin VV, Volchenkov GV, Andreevskaya SN, Chernousova LN, et al. Performance of Cepheid® Xpert MTB/RIF® and TB-Biochip® MDR in two regions of Russia with a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2013;32(6):735-43.
Lawn 2011 {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Brooks SV, Kranzer K, Nicol MP, Whitelaw A, Vogt M, et al. Screening for HIV-associated tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance before antiretroviral therapy using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay: a prospective study. PLoS Medicine 2011;8(7):e1001067.
Malbruny 2011 {published data only}
  • Malbruny B, Le Marrec G, Courageux K, Leclercq R, Cattoir V. Rapid and efficient detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory and non-respiratory samples. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011;15(4):553-5.
Marlowe 2011 {published data only}
  • Marlowe EM, Novak-Weekley SM, Cumpio J, Sharp SE, Momeny MA, Babst A, et al. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in respiratory specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(4):1621-3.
Miller 2011 {published data only}
  • Miller MB, Popowitch EB, Backlund MG, Ager EP. Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF RUO Assay and IS6110 Real-Time PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in clinical samples. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(10):3458-62.
Moure 2011 {published data only}
  • Moure R, Muñoz L, Torres M, Santin M, Martín R, Alcaide F. Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampin resistance in smear-negative clinical samples by use of an integrated real-time PCR method. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(3):1137-9.
Rachow 2011 {published data only}
  • Rachow A, Zumla A, Heinrich N, Rojas-Ponce G, Mtafya B, Reither K, et al. Rapid and accurate detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples by Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF assay--a clinical validation study. PLoS One 2011;6(6):e20458.
Safianowska 2012 {published data only}
  • Safianowska A, Walkiewicz R, Nejman-Gryz P, Grubek-Jaworska H. [Two selected commercially based nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis]. Pneumonologia Alergologia Polska 2012;80(1):6-12.
Scott 2011 {published data only}
  • Scott LE, McCarthy K, Gous N, Nduna M, Van Rie A, Sanne I, et al. Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF with other nucleic acid technologies for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective study. PLoS Medicine 2011;8(7):e1001061.
Teo 2011 {published data only}
  • Teo J, Jureen R, Chiang D, Chan D, Lin R. Comparison of two nucleic acid amplification assays, the Xpert MTB/RIF and the amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct assay, for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory and non-respiratory specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(10):3659-62.
Theron 2011 {published data only}
  • Theron G, Peter J, van Zyl-Smit R, Mishra H, Streicher E, Murray S, et al. Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in a high HIV prevalence setting. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 2011;184(1):132-40.
Van Rie 2013 {published data only}
  • Van Rie A, Page-Shipp L, Hanrahan CF, Schnippel K, Dansey H, Bassett J, et al. Point-of-care Xpert® MTB/RIF for smear-negative tuberculosis suspects at a primary care clinic in South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2013;17(3):368-72.
Williamson 2012 {published data only}
  • Williamson DA, Basu I, Bower J, Freeman JT, Henderson G, Roberts SA. An evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and detection of false-positive rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease 2012;74(2):207-9.
Zeka 2011 {published data only}
  • Zeka AN, Tasbakan S, Cavusoglu C. Evaluation of the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay for the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis and detection of RIF-resistance in pulmonary and extrapulmonary specimens. Journal of Clinical Micobiology 2011;49(12):4138-41.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Alvarez-Uria 2012 {published data only}
  • Alvarez-Uria G, Azcona J M, Midde M, Naik PK, Reddy S, Reddy R. Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients. Comparison of LED fluorescent microscopy and the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay in a district hospital in India. Tuberculosis Research and Treatment 2012;Article ID: 932862:1-4.
Andersen 2011 {published data only}
  • Andersen AB, Lillebæk T, Bang D, Prahl J. [Treatment and diagnostics of tuberculosis: moving slowly forward]. Ugeskrift for Laeger 2011;173(12):897-9.
Armand 2011 {published data only}
  • Armand S, Vanhuls P, Delcroix G, Courcol R, Lemaître N. Comparison of the Xpert MTB/RIF test with an IS6110-TaqMan real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(5):1772-6.
Banada 2010 {published data only}
  • Banada PP, Sivasubramani SK, Blakemore R, Boehme C, Perkins MD, Fennelly K, et al. Containment of bioaerosol infection risk by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and its applicability to point-of-care settings. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010;48(10):3551-7.
Bates 2013 {published data only}
  • Bates M, O'Grady J, Maeurer M, Tembo J, Chilukutu L, Chabala C, et al. Assessment of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for diagnosis of tuberculosis with gastric lavage aspirates in children in sub-Saharan Africa: a prospective descriptive study. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2013;13(1):36-42.
Blakemore 2010 {published data only}
  • Blakemore R, Story E, Helb D, Kop J, Banada P, Owens MR, et al. Evaluation of the analytical performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010;48(7):2495-501.
Blakemore 2011 {published data only}
  • Blakemore R, Nabeta P, Davidow A L, Vadwai V, Tahirli R, Munsamy V, et al. A multi-site assessment of the quantitative capabilities of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay. American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 2011;184(9):1076-84.
Causse 2011 {published data only}
  • Causse M, Ruiz P, Gutiérrez-Aroca JB, Casal M. Comparison of two molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(8):3065-7.
Chegou 2011 {published data only}
  • Chegou NN, Hoek KG, Kriel M, Warren RM, Victor TC, Walzl G. Tuberculosis assays: Past, present and future. Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy 2011;9(4):457-69.
Clouse 2012 {published data only}
  • Clouse K, Page-Shipp L, Dansey H, Moatlhodi B, Scott L, Bassett J, et al. Implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF for routine point-of-care diagnosis of tuberculosis at the primary care level. South African Medical Journal 2012;102(10):805-7.
Cuevas 2011 {published data only}
Dorjee 2012 {published data only}
  • Dorjee K, Salvo F, Dierberg KL. Xpert® MTB/RIF diagnosed disseminated smear-negative MDR-TB in a sub-district hospital in India. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(11):1560-1.
Dorman 2012 {published data only}
  • Dorman SE, Chihota VN, Lewis JJ, Shah M, Clark D, Grant AD, et al. Performance characteristics of the Cepheid Xpert MTB/RIF test in a tuberculosis prevalence survey. PLoS One 2012;7(8):e43307.
Dowdy 2011 {published data only}
  • Dowdy DW, Cattamanchi A, Steingart KR, Pai M. Is scale-up worth it? Challenges in economic analysis of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis. PLoS Medicine 2011;8(7):e1001063.
Evans 2011 {published data only}
Farga 2011 {published data only}
  • Farga Cuesta, V. [New challenges in tuberculosis] [Nuevos desafíos en tuberculosis]. Revista chilena de enfermedades respiratorias 2011;27(2):161-8.
Fenner 2011 {published data only}
  • Fenner L, Boulle A, Egger M. In reply to 'Pre-screening with GeneXpert® MTB/RIF may increase use of isoniazid preventive therapy in antiretroviral programmes'. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011;15(9):1273-4.
Ferrara 2011 {published data only}
  • Ferrara G, O'Grady J, Zumla A, Maeurer M. Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis. Lancet 2011;378(9790):482.
FIND 2011 {published data only}
  • Foundation for Innovative Diagnostics. Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF Version G4 assay, Version and date: 1.0/30 Nov 2011, Project: 7210. Accessed at http://www.stoptb.org/wg/gli/assets/documents/map/findg4cartridge.pdf 2011:1-8.
Friedrich 2011a {published data only}
  • Friedrich SO, von Groote-Bidlingmaier F, Diacon AH. Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(12):4341-2.
Gotuzzo 2011 {published data only}
  • Gotuzzo E. Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2011;11(11):802-3.
Hesseling 2011 {published data only}
Hillemann 2011 {published data only}
  • Hillemann D, Rüsch-Gerdes S, Boehme C, Richter E. Rapid molecular detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis by the automated GeneXpert MTB/RIF system. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(4):1202-5.
Hoek 2011 {published data only}
  • Hoek KG, Van Rie A, van Helden PD, Warren RM, Victor TC. Detecting drug-resistant tuberculosis: the importance of rapid testing. Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy 2011;15(4):189-94.
Ioannidis 2010 {published data only}
  • Ioannidis P, Papaventsis D, Nikolaou S, Karabela S, Konstantinidou E, Marinou I, et al. Tuberculosis resistance detection rate to the two main anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin, using molecular techniques: Experience of the Hellenic National Reference Center for Mycobacteria. Acta Microbiologica Hellenica 2010;55:175-82.
Kim 2012 {published data only}
  • Kim SY, Kim H, Kim SY, Ra EK, Joo SI, Shin S, et al. The Xpert® MTB/RIF assay evaluation in South Korea, a country with an intermediate tuberculosis burden. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(11):1471-6.
Kirwan 2012 {published data only}
  • Kirwan DE, Cárdenas MK, Gilman RH. Rapid implementation of new TB diagnostic tests: is it too soon for a global roll-out of Xpert MTB/RIF?. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2012;87(2):197-201.
Lawn 2011a {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Nicol MP. Xpert® MTB/RIF assay: development, evaluation and implementation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. Future Microbiology 2011;6(9):1067-82.
Lawn 2011b {published data only}
  • Lawn SD. Pre-screening with GeneXpert® MTB/RIF may increase use of isoniazid preventive therapy in antiretroviral programmes. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011;15(9):1272-3.
Lawn 2012 {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Ghebrekristos Y, Whitelaw A, Wood R. Characteristics and early outcomes of patients with Xpert MTB/RIF-negative pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed during screening before antiretroviral therapy. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;54(8):1071-9.
Lawn 2012a {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt, M, Wood R. High diagnostic yield of tuberculosis from screening urine samples from HIV-infected patients with advanced immunodeficiency using the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2012;60(3):289-94.
Lawn 2012b {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Kerkhoff, AD, Wood R. Reply to Theron et al "Characteristics of Xpert MTB/RIF-negative patients with pulmonary tuberculosis". Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;55(3):473-4.
Lawn 2012c {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Wood R. Clinical significance of lipoarabinomannan detection in urine using a low-cost point-of-care diagnostic assay for HIV-associated tuberculosis. AIDS 2012;26(13):1635-43.
Lawn 2012d {published data only}
  • Lawn SD, Kerkhoff AD, Vogt M, Wood R. Diagnostic accuracy of a low-cost, urine antigen, point-of-care screening assay for HIV-associated pulmonary tuberculosis before antiretroviral therapy: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Diseases 2012;12(3):201-9.
Ligthelm 2011 {published data only}
  • Ligthelm LJ, Nicol MP, Hoek KG, Jacobson R, van Helden PD, Marais BJ, et al. Xpert MTB/RIF for rapid diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis from fine-needle-aspiration biopsy specimens. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(11):3967-70.
Melzer 2011 {published data only}
  • Melzer M. An automated molecular test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and resistance to rifampin (Xpert MTB/RIF) is sensitive and can be carried out in less than 2 h. Evidence Based Medicine 2011;16(1):19.
Miotto 2012 {published data only}
  • Miotto P, Bigoni S, Migliori GB, Matteelli A, Cirillo DM. Early tuberculosis treatment monitoring by Xpert(R) MTB/RIF. European Respiratory Journal 2012; Vol. 39, issue 5:1269-71.
Morris 2010 {published data only}
Morris 2011 {published data only}
  • Morris K. The new face of tuberculosis diagnosis. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2011;11(10):736-7.
Moure 2012 {published data only}
  • Moure R, Martin, R, Alcaide F. Effectiveness of an integrated real-time PCR method for detection of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in smear-negative extrapulmonary samples in an area of low tuberculosis prevalence. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2012;50(2):513-5.
Muñoz 2013 {published data only}
  • Muñoz L, Moure R, Porta N, Gonzalez L, Guerra R, Alcaide F, et al. GeneXpert® for smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis: does it play a role in low-burden countries?. Diagnostic Microbiology Infectious Disease 2013;75(3):325-6.
Narasimooloo 2012 {published data only}
  • Narasimooloo R, Ross A. Delay in commencing treatment for MDR TB at a specialised TB treatment centre in KwaZulu-Natal. South African Medical Journal 2012;102(6 Pt 2):360-2.
Nhu 2013 {published data only}
  • Nhu NT, Ha DT, Anh ND, Thu DD, Duong TN, Quang ND, et al. Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF and MODS assay for the diagnosis of pediatric tuberculosis. BMC Infectious Diseases 2013;13:31.
Nicol 2011 {published data only}
  • Nicol MP, Workman L, Isaacs W, Munro J, Black F, Eley B, et al. Accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children admitted to hospital in Cape Town, South Africa: a descriptive study. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2011;11(11):819-24.
Ntinginya 2012 {published data only}
  • Ntinginya EN. Squire SB, Millington KA, Mtafya B, Saathoff E, Heinrich N, et al. Performance of the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay in an active case-finding strategy: a pilot study from Tanzania. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(11):1468-70.
O'Grady 2012 {published data only}
  • O'Grady J, Bates M, Chilukutu L, Mzyece J, Cheelo B, Chilufya M, et al. Evaluation of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay at a tertiary care referral hospital in a setting where tuberculosis and HIV infection are highly endemic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;55(9):1171-8.
Perkins 2011 {published data only}
  • Perkins MD, Alland D, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Boehme CC. Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis. Authors' reply. Lancet 2011;378(9790):482-3.
Peter 2012a {published data only}
  • Peter JG, Theron G, Muchinga TE, Govender U, Dheda K. The diagnostic accuracy of urine-based Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-infected hospitalized patients who are smear-negative or sputum scarce. PLoS One 2012;7(7):e39966.
Peters 2012 {published data only}
  • Peters D, Theron G, Peter J, Dheda K. Should Xpert® MTB/RIF be rolled out in low-income countries?. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(5):702-3.
Rachow 2012 {published data only}
  • Rachow A, Clowes P, Saathoff E, Mtafya B, Michael E, Ntinginya EN, et al. Increased and expedited case detection by Xpert MTB/RIF assay in childhood tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;54(10):1388-96.
Salvo 2011 {published data only}
  • Salvo F, Sadutshang TD, Migliori GB, Zumla A, Cirillo DM. Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis. Lancet 2011;378(9790):481-2.
Scott 2012 {published data only}
  • Scott LE, Gous N, Cunningham BE, Kana BD, Perovic O, Erasmus L, et al. Dried culture spots for Xpert MTB/RIF external quality assessment: results of a phase 1 pilot study in South Africa. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2012;49(12):4356-60.
Swaminathan 2012 {published data only}
Tansey 2009 {published data only}
  • Tansey B. Cepheid unveils fast TB test to aid developing countries. AIDS Reader 2009;19(6):229.
Taylor 2012 {published data only}
  • Taylor N, Gaur RL, Baron EJ, Banaei N. Can a simple flotation method lower the limit of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in extrapulmonary samples analyzed by the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay?. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2012;50(7):2272-6.
Theron 2011a {published data only}
  • Theron G, Peter J, Dheda K. Xpert MTB/RIF test for tuberculosis. Lancet 2011;378(9790):481.
Theron 2012 {published data only}
  • Theron G, Peter J, Lenders L, van Zyl-Smit R, Meldau R, Govender U, et al. Correlation of mycobacterium tuberculosis specific and non-specific quantitative Th1 T-cell responses with bacillary load in a high burden setting. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e37436.
Theron 2012a {published data only}
  • Theron G, Pinto L, Peter J, Mishra HK, Mishra HK, van Zyl-Smit R, et al. The use of an automated quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Xpert MTB/RIF) to predict the sputum smear status of tuberculosis patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;54(3):384-8.
Theron 2012b {published data only}
  • Theron G, Pooran A. Peter J, van Zyl-Smit R, Kumar Mishra H, Meldau R, et al. Do adjunct tuberculosis tests, when combined with Xpert MTB/RIF, improve accuracy and the cost of diagnosis in a resource-poor setting?. European Respiratory Journal 2012;40(1):161-8.
Tortoli 2012 {published data only}
  • Tortoli E, Russo C, Piersimoni C, Mazzola E, Dal Monte P, Pascarella M, et al. Clinical validation of Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. European Respiratory Journal 2012;40(2):442-7.
Trebucq 2012 {published data only}
  • Trébucq A, Enarson DA, Chiang CY, Van Deun A, Harries AD, Boillot F, et al. Xpert® MTB/RIF for national tuberculosis programmes in low-income countries: when, where and how?. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;15(12):1567-72.
Trebucq 2012a {published data only}
  • Trebucq A, Harries AD, Rieder HL. Author reply: Should Xpert MTB/RIF be rolled out in low-income countries?. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(5):703-4.
Vadwai 2011 {published data only}
  • Vadwai V, Boehme C, Nabeta P, Shetty A, Alland D, Rodrigues C. Xpert MTB/RIF: a new pillar in diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis?. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2011;49(7):2540-5.
Vadwai 2012 {published data only}
  • Vadwai V, Boehme C, Nabeta P, Shetty A, Rodrigues C. Need to confirm isoniazid susceptibility in Xpert MTB/RIF rifampin susceptible cases. Indian Journal of Medical Research 2012;135(4):560-1.
Van Rie 2010 {published data only}
  • Van Rie A, Page-Shipp L, Scott L, Sanne I, Stevens W. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for point-of-care diagnosis of TB in high-HIV burden, resource-limited countries: hype or hope?. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 2010;10(7):937-46.
Van Rie 2011 {published data only}
  • Van Rie A. A single Xpert MTB/RIF test of sputum for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance shows high sensitivity and specificity and reduces diagnosis and treatment delays. Evidence Based Medicine 2011;16(6):174-5.
van Zyl-Smit 2011 {published data only}
  • van Zyl-Smit RN, Binder A, Meldau R, Mishra H, Semple PL, Theron G, et al. Comparison of quantitative techniques including Xpert MTB/RIF to evaluate mycobacterial burden. PLoS One 2011;6(12):e28815.
Walters 2012 {published data only}
  • Walters E, Gie RP, Hesseling AC, Friedrich SO, Diacon AH. Rapid diagnosis of pediatric intrathoracic tuberculosis from stool samples using the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay: a pilot study. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2012;31(12):1316.
Williamson 2012a {published data only}
  • Williamson DA, Roberts SA, Bower JE, Vaughan R, Newton S, Lowe O, et al. Clinical failures associated with rpoB mutations in phenotypically occult multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(2):216-20.
Wood 2012 {published data only}
  • Wood R, Racow K, Bekker LG, Middelkoop K, Vogt M, Kreiswirth BN, et al. Lipoarabinomannan in urine during tuberculosis treatment: association with host and pathogen factors and mycobacteriuria. BMC Infectious Diseases 2012;12:47.
Yoon 2012 {published data only}
  • Yoon C, Cattamanchi A, Davis JL, Worodria W, den Boon S, Kalema N, et al. Impact of Xpert MTB/RIF testing on tuberculosis management and outcomes in hospitalized patients in Uganda. PLoS One 2012;7(11):e48599.
Zar 2012 {published data only}
  • Zar HJ, Workman L, Isaacs W, Munro J, Black F, Eley B, et al. Rapid molecular diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children using nasopharyngeal specimens. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2012;55(8):1088-95.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Durovni 2013 {unpublished data only}
  • GeneXpert MTB/RIF, a new tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in two municipalities in Brazil. Ongoing study January 2012.
Luetkemeyer 2012 {unpublished data only}
  • Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for the rapid identification of TB and TB rifampin resistance in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients with presumed pulmonary tuberculosis. Ongoing study 24 April 2012.
Peter 2012 {unpublished data only}
  • A randomised control trial of sputum induction, and new and emerging technologies in a high HIV prevalence primary care setting. Ongoing study August 2009.

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Abimbola 2012
  • Abimbola TO, Marston BJ, Date AA, Blandford JM, Sangrujee N, Wiktor SZ. Cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis diagnostic strategies to reduce early mortality among persons with advanced HIV infection initiating antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2012;60(1):e1-7.
Andrews 2012
  • Andrews JR, Lawn SD, Rusu C, Wood R, Noubary F, Bender MA, et al. The cost-effectiveness of routine tuberculosis screening with Xpert MTB/RIF prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a model-based analysis. AIDS 2012;26(8):987-95.
Boehme 2010
  • Boehme CC, Nabeta P, Hillemann D, Nicol MP, Shenai S, Krapp F, et al. Rapid molecular detection of tuberculosis and rifampin resistance. New England Journal of Medicine 2010;363(11):1005-15.
Boehme 2011
  • Boehme CC, Nicol MP, Nabeta P, Michael JS, Gotuzzo E, Tahirli R, et al. Feasibility, diagnostic accuracy, and effectiveness of decentralised use of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for diagnosis of tuberculosis and multidrug resistance: a multicentre implementation study. Lancet 2011;377(9776):1495-505.
Bossuyt 2003
  • Bossuyt PM, Reitsma JB, Bruns DE, Gatsonis CA, Glasziou PP, Irwig LM, et al. The STARD statement for reporting studies of diagnostic accuracy: explanation and elaboration. Clinical Chemistry 2003;49(1):7-18.
Bossuyt 2008
  • Bossuyt PM, Leeflang MM. Chapter 6: Developing Criteria for Including Studies. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Version 0.4 [updated September 2008]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008.
Boyles 2014
Buzoianu 2008
  • Buzoianu M, Kadane JB. Adjusting for verification bias in diagnostic test evaluation: a Bayesian approach. Statististics in Medicine 2008;27(13):2453-73.
CDC 2009
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated guidelines for the use of nucleic acid amplification tests in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 2009;58(1):7-10.
Cepheid 2009
  • Cepheid. Brochure: Xpert®MTB/RIF. Two-hour detection of MTB and resistance to rifampicin. http://www.cepheid.com/media/files/eu/brochures/XpertMTB_Broch_R9_EU.pdf. Sunnyvale, Accessed 17 June 2012:1-4.
Chaisson 2012
Chang 2012
  • Chang K, Lu W, Wang J, Zhang K, Jia S, Li F, et al. Rapid and effective diagnosis of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance with Xpert MTB/RIF assay: a meta-analysis. Journal of Infection 2012;64(6):580-8.
Chu 2009
  • Chu H, Chen S, Louis TA. Random effects models in a meta-analysis of the accuracy of two diagnostic tests without a gold standard. Journal of the American Statistical Association 2009;104(486):512-23.
Denkinger 2013
  • Denkinger CM, Nicolau I, Ramsay A, Chedore P, Pai M. Are peripheral microscopy centres ready for next generation molecular tuberculosis diagnostics?. European Respiratory Journal 2013;42(2):544-7.
Drobniewski 2012
  • Drobniewski F, Nikolayevskyy V, Balabanova Y, Bang D, Papaventsis D. Diagnosis of tuberculosis and drug resistance: what can new tools bring us?. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2012;16(7):860-70.
Flores 2005
  • Flores LL, Pai M, Colford JM Jr, Riley LW. In-house nucleic acid amplification tests for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum specimens: meta-analysis and meta-regression. BMC Microbiology 2005;5:55.
Getahun 2007
  • Getahun H, Harrington M, O'Brien R, Nunn P. Diagnosis of smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis in people with HIV infection or AIDS in resource-constrained settings: informing urgent policy changes. Lancet 2007;369(9578):2042-9.
Global Laboratory Initiative 2010
  • Global Laboratory Initiative. A roadmap for ensuring quality tuberculosis diagnostics services within national laboratory strategic plans. World Health Organization. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
Gopinath 2010
Greco 2006
  • Greco S, Girardi E, Navarra A, Saltini C. Current evidence on diagnostic accuracy of commercially based nucleic acid amplification tests for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Thorax 2006;61(9):783-90.
Hadgu 2005
  • Hadgu A, Dendukuri N, Hilden J. Evaluation of nucleic acid amplification tests in the absence of a perfect gold-standard test: a review of the statistical and epidemiologic issues. Epidemiology 2005;16(5):604–12.
Harries 2004
  • Harries A. How does the diagnosis of tuberculosis in persons infected with HIV differ from diagnosis in persons not infected with HIV?. In: Frieden T editor(s). Toman’s tuberculosis: case detection, treatment, and monitoring – questions and answers. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.334. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004:80-3.
Hartmann 1967
  • Hartmann G, Honikel KO, Knüsel F, Nüesch J. The specific inhibition of the DNA-directed RNA synthesis by rifamycin. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1967;145(3):843-4.
International Standards 2009
  • Tuberculosis coalition for technical assistance. International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). 2nd Edition. The Hague: Tuberculosis coalition for technical assistance, 2009.
Juni 1999
Ling 2008
Ling 2008a
  • Ling DI, Flores LL, Riley LW, Pai M. Commercial nucleic-acid amplification tests for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in respiratory specimens: meta-analysis and meta-regression. PLoS One 2008;3(2):e1536.
Lunn 2000
  • Lunn DJ, Thomas A, Best N, Spiegelhalter D. WinBUGS - a Bayesian modelling framework: concepts, structure, and extensibility. Statistics and Computing 2000;10:325-37.
Macaskill 2010
  • Macaskill P, Gatsonis C, Deeks JJ, Harbord RM, Takwoingi Y. Analysing and Presenting Results. In: Deeks JJ, Bossuyt PM, C Gatsonis editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. Version 0.9.0. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2010.
Meyer-Rath 2012
  • Meyer-Rath G, Schnippel K, Long L, MacLeod W, Sanne I, Stevens W, et al. The impact and cost of scaling up GeneXpert MTB/RIF in South Africa. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e36966.
Nahid 2012
  • Nahid P, Kim PS, Evans CA, Alland D, Barer M, Diefenbach J, et al. Clinical research and development of tuberculosis diagnostics: moving from silos to synergy. Journal of Infectious Disease 2012;205(Suppl 2):S159-68.
Pantoja 2013
  • Pantoja A, Fitzpatrick C, Vassall A, Weyer K, Floyd K. Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis and drug-resistant tuberculosis: a cost and affordability analysis. European Respiratory Journal 2013;42(3):708-20.
Perkins 2007
  • Perkins MD, Cunningham J. Facing the crisis: improving the diagnosis of tuberculosis in the HIV era. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007;196(Suppl 1):S15-27.
R 2008
  • R Development Core Team. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Version 2.15.1. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2008.
Raizada 2013
  • Raizada N, Sachdeva KS, Sreenivas A, Vadera B, Parmar M, Kulsange S, et al. Feasibility of decentralised deployment of Xpert MTB/RIF test In resource constraint settings in India data (as supplied 11 October 2013). Data on file.
Reitsma 2005
  • Reitsma JB, Glas AS, Rutjes AW, Scholten RJ, Bossuyt PM, Zwinderman AH. Bivariate analysis of sensitivity and specificity produces informative summary measures in diagnostic reviews. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2005;58(10):982-90.
Review Manager 5
Schnippel 2012
  • Schnippel K, Meyer-Rath G, Long L, MacLeod W, Sanne I, et al. Scaling up Xpert MTB/RIF technology: the costs of laboratory- vs. clinic-based roll-out in South Africa. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2012;17(9):1142-51.
Small 2011
  • Small PM, Pai M. Tuberculosis diagnosis - time for a game change. New England Journal of Medicine 2011;363(111):1070-1.
Stata
Steingart 2006
  • Steingart KR, Henry M, Ng V, Hopewell PC, Ramsay A, Cunningham J, et al. Fluorescence versus conventional sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2006;6(9):570-81.
Steingart 2006a
  • Steingart KR, Ng V, Henry M, Hopewell PC, Ramsay A, Cunningham J, et al. Sputum processing methods to improve the sensitivity of smear microscopy for tuberculosis: a systematic review. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2006;6(10):664-74.
Steingart 2015
  • Steingart KR, Schiller I, Dendukuri N, Lalli M, Houben R, Churchyard G, et al. In reply to 'False-positive Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assays in previously treated patients'. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 19(3):366-7.
Telenti 1993
  • Telenti A, Imboden P, Marchesi F, Lowrie D, Cole S, Colston MJ, et al. Detection of rifampicin-resistance mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lancet 1993;341(8846):647-50.
The Gates Foundation 2012
  • The Gates Foundation. Public-private partnership announces immediate 40 percent cost reduction for rapid TB test. http://www.gatesfoundation.org/press-releases/Pages/public-private-partnership-40-percent-reduction-TB-test.aspx 6 August 2012.
Theron 2013
  • Theron G, Zijenah L, Chanda D, Clowes P, Andrea Rachow A, Lesosky M, et al. Feasibility, accuracy, and clinical impact of point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF testing for tuberculosis in primary-care settings in Africa: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2013 October 25 [Epub ahead of print]. [DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62073-5]
Toman 2004
  • Toman K. How many bacilli are present in a sputum specimen found positive by smear microscopy?. In: Frieden T editor(s). Toman’s tuberculosis: case detection, treatment, and monitoring – questions and answers. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.334. 2nd Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004:11-13.
Toman 2004a
  • Toman K. How reliable is smear microscopy?. In: Frieden T editor(s). Toman’s tuberculosis: case detection, treatment, and monitoring – questions and answers. WHO/HTM/TB/2004.334. 2nd Edition. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004:14-22.
Trébucq 2011
  • Trébucq A, Enarson DA, Chiang CY, Van Deun A, Harries AD, Boillot F, et al. Xpert® MTB/RIF for national tuberculosis programmes in low-income countries: when, where and how?. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011;15(12):1567-72.
UNITAID 2012
  • UNITAID. UNITAID approves US$30 million for innovative project to roll out ground-breaking tuberculosis test at reduced cost. http://www.unitaid.eu/resources/news/releases/943-unitaid-approves-us-30-million-for-innovative-project-to-roll-out-ground-breaking-tuberculosis-test-at-reduced-cost 13 June 2012.
UNITAID 2013
Van Deun 2009
  • Van Deun A, Barrera L, Bastian I, Fattorini L, Hoffmann H, Kam KM, et al. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with highly discordant rifampin susceptibility test results. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2009;47(11):3501-6.
Van Deun 2013
  • Van Deun A, Aung KJ, Bola V, Lebeke R, Hossain MA, de Rijk WB, et al. Rifampin drug resistance tests for tuberculosis: challenging the gold standard. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2013;51(8):2633-40.
Vassall 2011
  • Vassall A, van Kampen S, Sohn H, Michael JS, John KR, den Boon S, et al. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay in high burden countries: a cost-effectiveness analysis. PLoS Medicine 2011;8(11):e1001120.
Whiting 2005
  • Whiting P, Harbord R, Kleijnen J. No role for quality scores in systematic reviews of diagnostic accuracy studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology 2005;5:19.
Whiting 2011
  • Whiting PF, Rutjes AW, Westwood ME, Mallett S, Deeks JJ, Reitsma JB, et al. QUADAS-2: a revised tool for the quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies. Annals of Internal Medicine 2011;155(8):529-36.
WHO Drug Resistance 2008
  • World Health Organization. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world: fourth global report. WHO/HTM/TB/2008.394. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
WHO Global Report 2013
  • World Health Organization. Global tuberculosis report 2013. WHO/HTM/TB/2013.11. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013.
WHO M/XDR-TB 2010
  • World Health Organization. Multidrug and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB): 2010 global report on surveillance and response. WHO/HTM/TB/2010.3. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2010.
WHO Policy DST 2008
  • World Health Organization. Policy guidance on drug-susceptibility testing (DST) of second-line antituberculosis drugs. WHO/HTM/TB/2008.392. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008.
WHO Policy Framework 2010
  • World Health Organization. Policy framework for implementing new tuberculosis diagnostics. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011.
WHO Policy Line Probe Assays 2008
  • World Health Organization. Molecular line probe assays for rapid screening of patients at risk of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Geneva: World Health Organization, 2008:1-9.
WHO Policy Smear-positive TB Case 2007
  • World Health Organization. Definition of a new sputum smear-positive TB case. http://www.who.int/tb/laboratory/policy_sputum_smearpositive_tb_case/en/index.html 2007.
WHO Policy Xpert MTB/RIF 2011
  • World Health Organization. Policy statement: automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system. WHO/HTM/TB/2011.4. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011.
WHO Rapid Implementation 2011
  • World Health Organization. Rapid implementation of the Xpert MTB/RIF diagnostic test. Technical and operational ‘How-to’. Practical considerations. WHO/HTM/TB/2011.2. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011.
WHO Xpert MTB/RIF Checklists 2011
  • World Health Organization. Checklist of prerequisites to country implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF and key action points at country level. WHO/HTM/TB/2011.12. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2011.
WHO Xpert MTB/RIF Policy Update 2013
  • World Health Organization. Automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneousdetection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children: policy update WHO/HTM/TB/2013.14. Automated real-time nucleic acid amplification technology for rapid and simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance: Xpert MTB/RIF system for the diagnosis of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB in adults and children: policy update. WHO/HTM/TB/2013.14. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2013.
World Bank 2012
  • World Bank. World Bank List of Economies http://www.healthsystemsglobal.org/Portals/0/files/World_bank_list_july2012.pdf. Washington (District of Columbia): World Bank, 2012.
Wright 2009
  • Wright A, Zignol M, Van Deun A, Falzon D, Gerdes SR, Feldman K, et al. Epidemiology of antituberculosis drug resistance 2002-07: an updated analysis of the Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. Lancet 2009;373(9678):1861-73.
Zignol 2012
  • Zignol M, van Gemert W, Falzon D, Sismanidis C, Glaziou P, Floyd K, et al. Surveillance of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world: an updated analysis, 2007-2010. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2012;90(2):111-119D.
Zumla 2012
  • Zumla A, Abubakar I, Raviglione M, Hoelscher M, Ditiu L, McHugh TD, et al. Drug-resistant tuberculosis--current dilemmas, unanswered questions, challenges, and priority needs. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012;205(Suppl 2):S228-40.

References to other published versions of this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to ongoing studies
  4. Additional references
  5. References to other published versions of this review
Steingart 2013