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Therapeutic ultrasound for carpal tunnel syndrome

  1. Matthew J Page1,*,
  2. Denise O'Connor1,
  3. Veronica Pitt2,
  4. Nicola Massy-Westropp3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group

Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 27 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009601.pub2

How to Cite

Page MJ, O'Connor D, Pitt V, Massy-Westropp N. Therapeutic ultrasound for carpal tunnel syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD009601. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009601.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Monash University, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  2. 2

    National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  3. 3

    University of South Australia, Health Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

*Matthew J Page, School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, The Alfred Centre, 99 Commercial Road, Melbourne, Victoria, 3004, Australia. matthew.page@monash.edu.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New search for studies and content updated (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 28 MAR 2013

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[Figure 1]
Figure 1. Study flow diagram.
[Figure 2]
Figure 2. Methodological quality summary: review authors' judgements about each methodological quality item for each included study.
[Analysis 1.1]
Analysis 1.1. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 1 Short-term overall improvement (number of participants with good to excellent improvement) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.2]
Analysis 1.2. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (number of participants with complete remission of subjective symptoms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.3]
Analysis 1.3. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain score) (2 months or less).
[Analysis 1.4]
Analysis 1.4. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (pain and/or paraesthesia) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.5]
Analysis 1.5. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (sensory loss) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.6]
Analysis 1.6. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (nocturnal waking) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.7]
Analysis 1.7. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in functional ability (hand grip strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.8]
Analysis 1.8. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 8 Short-term improvement in functional ability (pinch strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.9]
Analysis 1.9. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 9 Short-term improvement in motor distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.10]
Analysis 1.10. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 10 Short-term improvement in motor nerve conduction velocity (m/s) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.11]
Analysis 1.11. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 11 Short-term improvement in sensory distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.12]
Analysis 1.12. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 12 Short-term improvement in sensory nerve conduction velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 1.13]
Analysis 1.13. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 13 Long-term improvement in CTS symptoms (>3 months) (number of participants who did not have an overall unsatisfactory outcome).
[Analysis 1.14]
Analysis 1.14. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 14 Long-term improvement in CTS symptoms (number of participants with complete remission of subjective symptoms) (>3 months).
[Analysis 1.15]
Analysis 1.15. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 15 Long-term improvement in CTS symptoms (pain and/or paraesthesia) (>3 months).
[Analysis 1.16]
Analysis 1.16. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 16 Long-term improvement in CTS symptoms (sensory loss) (>3 months).
[Analysis 1.17]
Analysis 1.17. Comparison 1 Therapeutic ultrasound versus placebo, Outcome 17 Long-term improvement in functional ability (grip and pinch strength) (>3 months).
[Analysis 2.1]
Analysis 2.1. Comparison 2 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying frequency), Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 2.2]
Analysis 2.2. Comparison 2 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying frequency), Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (paraesthesia) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 2.3]
Analysis 2.3. Comparison 2 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying frequency), Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (superficial sensation) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 2.4]
Analysis 2.4. Comparison 2 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying frequency), Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Tinel's sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 2.5]
Analysis 2.5. Comparison 2 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying frequency), Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Phalen's sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 2.6]
Analysis 2.6. Comparison 2 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying frequency), Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in functional ability (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.1]
Analysis 3.1. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.2]
Analysis 3.2. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in functional ability (hand grip strength, N) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.3]
Analysis 3.3. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in functional ability (pinch strength, N) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.4]
Analysis 3.4. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in motor distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.5]
Analysis 3.5. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude (mV) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.6]
Analysis 3.6. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in thumb sensory latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.7]
Analysis 3.7. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in thumb sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude (µV) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.8]
Analysis 3.8. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 8 Short-term improvement in index sensory latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 3.9]
Analysis 3.9. Comparison 3 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus low-level laser therapy, Outcome 9 Short-term improvement in index sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude (µV) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.1]
Analysis 4.1. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.2]
Analysis 4.2. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (night pain / paraesthesia) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.3]
Analysis 4.3. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (nocturnal awakening) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.4]
Analysis 4.4. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in motor distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.5]
Analysis 4.5. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in motor nerve conduction velocity (m/s) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.6]
Analysis 4.6. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in sensory distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 4.7]
Analysis 4.7. Comparison 4 Therapeutic ultrasound (varying intensity), Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in sensory nerve conduction velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 5.1]
Analysis 5.1. Comparison 5 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus local corticosteroid injection plus splint, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 5.2]
Analysis 5.2. Comparison 5 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus local corticosteroid injection plus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 5.3]
Analysis 5.3. Comparison 5 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus local corticosteroid injection plus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in functional ability (functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 5.4]
Analysis 5.4. Comparison 5 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus local corticosteroid injection plus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in functional ability (grip strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 5.5]
Analysis 5.5. Comparison 5 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus local corticosteroid injection plus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in median nerve motor distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 5.6]
Analysis 5.6. Comparison 5 Therapeutic ultrasound (single intervention) versus local corticosteroid injection plus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in median sensory nerve conduction velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.1]
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.2]
Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Levine) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.3]
Analysis 6.3. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Phalen sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.4]
Analysis 6.4. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Tinel sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.5]
Analysis 6.5. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (Levine) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.6]
Analysis 6.6. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in functional ability (hand grip strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.7]
Analysis 6.7. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in functional ability (pinch strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.8]
Analysis 6.8. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 8 Short-term improvement in motor distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.9]
Analysis 6.9. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 9 Short-term improvement in sensory distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 6.10]
Analysis 6.10. Comparison 6 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 10 Long-term improvement in CTS symptoms (>3 months).
[Analysis 7.1]
Analysis 7.1. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.2]
Analysis 7.2. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Levine) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.3]
Analysis 7.3. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Phalen sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.4]
Analysis 7.4. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Tinel sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.5]
Analysis 7.5. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (Levine) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.6]
Analysis 7.6. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in functional ability (hand grip strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.7]
Analysis 7.7. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in functional ability (pinch strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.8]
Analysis 7.8. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 8 Short-term improvement in motor distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.9]
Analysis 7.9. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 9 Short-term improvement in sensory distal latency (ms) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 7.10]
Analysis 7.10. Comparison 7 Therapeutic ultrasound plus exercises plus splint versus exercises plus splint, Outcome 10 Long-term improvement in CTS symptom (>3 months).
[Analysis 8.1]
Analysis 8.1. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 1 Short-term overall improvement (completely normal hands based on electroneuromyography) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 8.2]
Analysis 8.2. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term overall improvement (patient satisfaction) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 8.3]
Analysis 8.3. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 8.4]
Analysis 8.4. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 8.5]
Analysis 8.5. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 8.6]
Analysis 8.6. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in median nerve motor distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 8.7]
Analysis 8.7. Comparison 8 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus splint, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in second digit-wrist median nerve sensory velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.1]
Analysis 9.1. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 1 Short-term overall improvement (completely normal hands based on electroneuromyography) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.2]
Analysis 9.2. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term overall improvement (patient satisfaction) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.3]
Analysis 9.3. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.4]
Analysis 9.4. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.5]
Analysis 9.5. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.6]
Analysis 9.6. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in median nerve motor distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 9.7]
Analysis 9.7. Comparison 9 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus low-level laser therapy plus splint, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in second digit-wrist median nerve sensory velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 10.1]
Analysis 10.1. Comparison 10 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification versus dexamethasone iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (BCTQ symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 10.2]
Analysis 10.2. Comparison 10 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification versus dexamethasone iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain on movement) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 10.3]
Analysis 10.3. Comparison 10 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification versus dexamethasone iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain at rest) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 10.4]
Analysis 10.4. Comparison 10 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification versus dexamethasone iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain at night) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 10.5]
Analysis 10.5. Comparison 10 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification versus dexamethasone iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (BCTQ functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 10.6]
Analysis 10.6. Comparison 10 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification versus dexamethasone iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in functional ability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 11.1]
Analysis 11.1. Comparison 11 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercise plus night splint plus activity modification versus placebo iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (BCTQ symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 11.2]
Analysis 11.2. Comparison 11 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercise plus night splint plus activity modification versus placebo iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain on movement) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 11.3]
Analysis 11.3. Comparison 11 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercise plus night splint plus activity modification versus placebo iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain at rest) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 11.4]
Analysis 11.4. Comparison 11 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercise plus night splint plus activity modification versus placebo iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain at night) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 11.5]
Analysis 11.5. Comparison 11 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercise plus night splint plus activity modification versus placebo iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (BCTQ functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 11.6]
Analysis 11.6. Comparison 11 Therapeutic ultrasound plus nerve and tendon gliding exercise plus night splint plus activity modification versus placebo iontophoresis plus nerve and tendon gliding exercises plus night splint plus activity modification, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in functional ability (Health Assessment Questionnaire) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.1]
Analysis 12.1. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Tinel's sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.2]
Analysis 12.2. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (Phalen's sign) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.3]
Analysis 12.3. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.4]
Analysis 12.4. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in functional ability (functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.5]
Analysis 12.5. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in functional ability (grip strength) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.6]
Analysis 12.6. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in motor distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.7]
Analysis 12.7. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in motor nerve conduction velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.8]
Analysis 12.8. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 8 Short-term improvement in sensory distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 12.9]
Analysis 12.9. Comparison 12 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus placebo ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 9 Short-term improvement in palm-wrist conduction velocity (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.1]
Analysis 13.1. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 1 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (pain and/or paraesthesia) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.2]
Analysis 13.2. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (frequency of awakening) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.3]
Analysis 13.3. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in median nerve sensory distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.4]
Analysis 13.4. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) (endpoint) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.5]
Analysis 13.5. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) (change from baseline) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.6]
Analysis 13.6. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in median nerve motor distal latency (change from baseline) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.7]
Analysis 13.7. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 7 Short-term improvement in compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (endpoint) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.8]
Analysis 13.8. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 8 Short-term improvement in compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (change from baseline) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 13.9]
Analysis 13.9. Comparison 13 Therapeutic ultrasound plus placebo versus sham ultrasound plus NSAID, Outcome 9 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 14.1]
Analysis 14.1. Comparison 14 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus sham ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 1 Adverse events.
[Analysis 14.2]
Analysis 14.2. Comparison 14 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus sham ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 14.3]
Analysis 14.3. Comparison 14 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus sham ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 14.4]
Analysis 14.4. Comparison 14 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus sham ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in functional ability (functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 14.5]
Analysis 14.5. Comparison 14 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus sham ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in median nerve motor distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 14.6]
Analysis 14.6. Comparison 14 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus sham ultrasound plus splint, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in median nerve sensory distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 15.1]
Analysis 15.1. Comparison 15 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus therapeutic ultrasound plus splint plus ketoprofen phonophoresis, Outcome 1 Adverse events.
[Analysis 15.2]
Analysis 15.2. Comparison 15 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus therapeutic ultrasound plus splint plus ketoprofen phonophoresis, Outcome 2 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (VAS pain) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 15.3]
Analysis 15.3. Comparison 15 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus therapeutic ultrasound plus splint plus ketoprofen phonophoresis, Outcome 3 Short-term improvement in CTS symptoms (symptom severity score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 15.4]
Analysis 15.4. Comparison 15 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus therapeutic ultrasound plus splint plus ketoprofen phonophoresis, Outcome 4 Short-term improvement in functional ability (functional status score) (3 months or less).
[Analysis 15.5]
Analysis 15.5. Comparison 15 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus therapeutic ultrasound plus splint plus ketoprofen phonophoresis, Outcome 5 Short-term improvement in median nerve motor distal latency (3 months or less).
[Analysis 15.6]
Analysis 15.6. Comparison 15 Therapeutic ultrasound plus splint versus therapeutic ultrasound plus splint plus ketoprofen phonophoresis, Outcome 6 Short-term improvement in median nerve sensory distal latency (3 months or less).