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Fortification of rice with vitamins and minerals for addressing micronutrient malnutrition

  1. Joseph Ashong1,
  2. Sumithra Muthayya2,
  3. Luz Maria De-Regil3,
  4. Arnaud Laillou4,
  5. Christophe Guyondet4,
  6. Regina Moench-Pfanner4,
  7. Belinda J Burford5,
  8. Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas3,*

Editorial Group: Cochrane Public Health Group

Published Online: 13 JUN 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009902


How to Cite

Ashong J, Muthayya S, De-Regil LM, Laillou A, Guyondet C, Moench-Pfanner R, Burford BJ, Peña-Rosas JP. Fortification of rice with vitamins and minerals for addressing micronutrient malnutrition (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD009902. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009902.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA

  2. 2

    NSW Health, Centre for Health Innovation and Partnership, North Parramatta, NSW, Australia

  3. 3

    World Health Organization, Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, Geneva, Switzerland

  4. 4

    Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Nutrition Programs, Geneva, Switzerland

  5. 5

    The University of Melbourne, Jack Brockhoff Child Health and Wellbeing Program, The McCaughey Centre, Melbourne School of Population Health, Parkville, VIC, Australia

*Juan Pablo Peña-Rosas, Evidence and Programme Guidance, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, Geneva, 1211, Switzerland. penarosasj@who.int.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 13 JUN 2012

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Table 1. Description of various forms of rice (Dexter 1998)

Forms of riceDescription of rice

Rough rice (paddy rice)Rice kernels still enclosed in an inedible, protective hull

Brown riceRice with only the hull removed. Bran layers and rice germ remain, giving the rice a brown colour

Parbolied riceRice pressurized to gelatinised the starch within the rice kernel, resulting in a firmer,more separate grain that is more stable and less susceptible to overcooking than regular-milled white rice

Regular-milled white rice (Milled rice)Polished whole rice, or polished rice. hull, bran layer and germ have all been removed

Precooked riceRegular milled white rice, parboiled milled white rice, and brown rice can be precooked and dehydrated before packaging. Examples of precooked rice are quick-cooking rice, instant rice, and boil-in-the-bag rice

Individually Quick Frozen (IQF) riceCooked grains are individually frozen before packaging

Crisped/Puffed/Expanded RiceKernels can be processed in a number of different ways and shapes to meet particular manufacturing need