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Foam dressings for venous leg ulcers

  1. Susan O'Meara*,
  2. Marrissa Martyn-St James

Editorial Group: Cochrane Wounds Group

Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 25 OCT 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009907.pub2


How to Cite

O'Meara S, Martyn-St James M. Foam dressings for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 5. Art. No.: CD009907. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009907.pub2.

Author Information

  1. University of York, Department of Health Sciences, York, UK

*Susan O'Meara, Department of Health Sciences, University of York, Area 2 Seebohm Rowntree Building, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK. susan.omeara@york.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 31 MAY 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Andersen 2002 {published data only}
  • Andersen KE, Franken CPM, Gad P, Larsen AM, Larsen JR, van Neer PAFA, et al. A randomized, controlled study to compare the effectiveness of two foam dressings in the management of lower leg ulcers. Ostomy Wound Management 2002;48(8):34-41.
  • Franken K, Neuman HAM, Andersen KE, Larsen AM. The preliminary results of a comparative study on performance characteristics of a new foam dressing Biatain versus Allevyn on venous leg ulcers. 9th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1999, 9-11 November; Harrogate UK. 1999.
  • Larsen AM, Franken K, Vuerstaek J, Wuite J, van Neer PAFA, Andersen KE, et al. A randomised comparative study on performance and safety of Biatain non-adhesive dressing versus Allevyn hydrocellular dressing on venous leg ulcers. 11th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2001 17-19 May; Dublin, Ireland. 2001.
Andriessen 2009 {published data only}
  • Andriessen A, Polignano R, Abel M. Monitoring the microcirculation to evaluate dressing performance in patients with venous leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care 2009;18(4):148-50.
  • Polignano R, Abel M, Andriessen A. The effect of moist wound healing dressing on microcirculation in leg ulcers. A pilot study. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting; 2004 ,8-13 July; Paris. 2004.
Banerjee 1990 {published data only}
  • Banerjee AK, Levy DW, Rawlinson D. A comparative study of Synthaderm and conventional dressings. Care of the Elderly 1990;2(3):123-5.
Bowszyc 1995 {published data only}
  • Bowszyc J, Silny W, Bowszyc-Dmochowska M, Kazmierowski M, Ben Amer HM, Garbowska T, et al. A randomised controlled comparative clinical trial of Lyofoam versus Granuflex in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. 3rd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1993, 19-22 October; Harrogate, UK. 1994.
  • Bowszyc J, Silny W,   Bowszyc-Dmochowska M, Kaźmierowski M, Ben-Amer HM, Garbowska T, et al. Comparison of two dressings in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care 1995;4(3):106-10.
Callam 1992 {published and unpublished data}
  • Callam MJ, Harper DR, Dale JJ, Brown D, Gibson B, Prescott RJ, et al. Lothian and Forth Valley leg ulcer healing trial Part 1: Elastic versus non-elastic bandaging in the treatment of chronic leg ulceration. Phlebology 1992;7(4):136-41.
  • Callam MJ, Harper DR, Dale JJ, Brown D, Gibson B, Prescott RJ, et al. Lothian and Forth Valley leg ulcer healing trial Part 2: Knitted viscose dressing versus a hydrocellular dressing in the treatment of chronic leg ulceration. Phlebology 1992;7(4):142-5.
  • Smith, Nephew. The Lothian and Forth Valley Leg Ulcer Study. CTR87/29. Final report of a study to compare elastic versus non-elastic bandaging and knitted viscose dressings (Tricotex) versus hydrophilic polyurethane dressings (Allevyn) in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers. Volume 1. 1 July 1991.
  • Smith, Nephew. The Lothian and Forth Valley Leg Ulcer Study. Report CTR87/29. Volume 2. Statistical report. 1 July 1991.
Charles 2002 {published data only}
  • Charles H, Callicot C, Mathurin D, Ballard K, Hart J. Randomised, comparative study of three primary dressings for the treatment of venous ulcers. British Journal of Community Nursing 2002;7(6 Suppl):48-54.
  • Charles H, Callicott C, Mathurin D, Ballard K, Hart J. A randomised, comparative study of a recently introduced hydroactive foam dressing versus two well established hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of venous leg ulcers using short-stretch compression bandages. Fourth Australian Wound Management Association Conference; 2002, 7-10 March; Adelaide, South Australia. 2002.
  • Charles H, Hart J. Pain and pain relief in the treatment of venous leg ulceration. Fourth Australian Wound Management Association Conference; 2002, 7-10 March; Adelaide, South Australia. 2002.
  • Hart J, Charles H, Callicot C, Mathurin D, Ballard C,   Harding KG. A randomised comparative study of a new hydroactive foam dressing versus two hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of venous ulcers. 8th Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society ; 1998, August 27-30; Copenhagen, Denmark. 1998.
  • Hart J, Charles H, Callicot C, Mathurin D, Ballard K, Bale S, et al. Randomised, comparative study of Cutinova foam versus Comfeel and Granuflex (improved formulation) in the treatment of venous leg ulcers - interim results. 7th Annual Meeting European Tissue Repair Society; 1997, 23-26 August; Koln, Germany. 1997.
  • Hart J, Charles H, Callicot C, Mathurin D, Ballard K, Harding K. A randomized comparative study of a new hydroactive foam dressing versus two hydrocolloid dressings in the treatment of venous ulcers. Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1998, 26-28 April; Madrid, Spain. 1999.
Franks 2007 {published data only}
  • Franks P, Moody M, Moffatt C. Randomised trial of four layer and cohesive short stretch compression in venous ulceration. Journal of Tissue Viability 2003;13(4):170.
  • Franks PJ, Moody M, Moffatt CJ. Randomised trial of a soft silicone dressing a foam dressing in patients with chronic venous ulceration. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2003, 22-24 May; Pisa, Italy. 2003.
  • Franks PJ, Moody M, Moffatt CJ, Hiskett G, Gatto P, Davies C, et al. Randomized trial of two foam dressings in the management of chronic venous ulceration. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2007;15(2):197-202.
  • Franks PJ, Moody M,   Moffatt CJ, Martin R, Blewett R, Seymour E, et al. Randomized trial of cohesive short-stretch versus four-layer bandaging in the management of venous ulceration. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2004;12(2):157-62.
  • Moffatt CJ, Moody M, Franks PJ. Randomised trial comparing four layer with cohesive short stretch compression bandaging in the management of chronic venous ulceration. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2003, 22-24 May; Pisa, Italy. 2003.
  • Moody M, Moffatt CJ, Franks PJ. Relative performance of a soft silicone dressing and a foam dressing in patients with chronic venous ulceration. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2003, 22-24 May; Pisa, Italy. 2003.
Norkus 2005 {published data only}
  • Jørgensen B, Thomsen JK. Safety and efficacy of a new hydrocapillary dressing in the treatment of leg ulcers. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2003, 22-24 May; Pisa, Italy. 2003.
  • Norkus A, Dargis V, Thomsen JK, Harding KG, Ivins N, Serra N, et al. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study. Journal of Wound Care 2005;14(9):429-32.
Thomas 1997 {published data only}
  • Thomas S, Banks V, Fear-Price M, Hagelstein S, Harding KG, Orpin J, et al. A comparison of two dressings in the management of chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care 1997;6(8):383-6.
Vanscheidt 2004 {published data only}
  • Jones V. Comparison of the new multilayer composite wound dressing Versiva with Allevyn hydrocellular for managing venous leg ulcers: results of an international multicentre randomised trial. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2003, 22-24 May; Pisa, Italy. 2004.
  • Vanscheidt W, Sibbald RG, Eager CA. Comparing a foam composite to a hydrocellular foam dressing in the management of venous leg ulcers: a controlled clinical study. Ostomy Wound Management 2004;50(11):42-55.
Weiss 1996 {published data only}
  • Weiss RA, Weiss MA, Ford RW. Randomized comparative study of Cutinova foam and Allevyn with Jobst UlcerCare stockings for the treatment of venous stasis ulcers. Phlebology 1996;11(Suppl 1):S14-6.
Zuccarelli 1992 {published data only}
  • Zuccarelli F. A comparative study of the hydrocellular dressing Allevyn and the hydrocolloid dressing Duoderm in the local treatment of leg ulcers [Étude comparative du pansement hydrocellulaire Allevyn et du pansement hydrocolloide Duoderm dans le traitement local des ulcères de jambe]. Phlébologie 1992;45(4):529-33.
  • Zuccarelli F. A study to evaluate and compare the performance of a hydrocellular dressing with a hydrocolloid dressing in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. 2nd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1992, 20-23 October; Harrogate, UK. 1993.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Anonoymous 1997 {published data only}
  • Anonymous. Differential therapy of chronic wounds [Ein neuer weg zur therapie von dermatomykosen]. Hautarzt 1997;48(2 Suppl):1-4.
Bale 1998 {published data only}
  • Bale S. A cost-effectiveness study comparing Allevyn* and a hydrocolloid dressing in 100 patients seen in the community. Personal communication, abstract only 1998.
  • Bale S, Hagelstein S, Banks V, Harding KG. Costs of dressings in the community. Journal of Wound Care 1998;7(7):327-30.
  • Harding K, Bale S, Banks V, Orpin J. A cost effectiveness study using Allevyn hydrocellular dressings. Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1994, September 6-9; Copenhagen, Denmark. 1995.
Banks 1997 {published data only}
  • Banks V, Bale S, Harding K, Harding EF. A randomized, stratified, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of a new polyurethane foam dressing (Lyofoam Extra) versus a hydrocellular dressing in the treatment of moderate to heavily exuding wounds. Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1995, 21-24 November; Harrogate, UK. 1997.
  • Banks V, Bale S, Harding K, Harding EF. An interim analysis of a randomized stratified controlled parallel-group clinical trial of a new polyurethane foam dressing versus a hydrocellular dressing in the treatment of moderate to heavily exuding wounds. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1995, 21-24 November; Harrogate, UK. 1996.
  • Banks V, Bale S, Harding K, Harding EF. Evaluation of a new polyurethane foam dressing. Journal of Wound Care 1997;6(6):266-9.
  • Banks V, Fear M, Orpin J, Hagelstein S, Thomas N, Colgate G, et al. A comparative open multi-center trial of hydropolymer dressing and hydrocolloid. 9th Annual Symposium on Advanced Wound Care and 6th Annual Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair; 1996, April 20-24; Atlanta. 1996.
  • Banks V, Hagelstein S, Bale S, Harding KG. A comparison of a new polyurethane dressing versus a hydrocellular dressing in the treatment of moderate to heavily exuding wounds. 1996 Symposium on Advanced Wound Care and Medical Research Forum on Wound Repair. 1996.
Berard 1986 {published data only}
  • Bérard P, Montandon S, Jedynak D, Saubier EC. Trial of a hydrocolloid in occlusive dressings in the treatment of skin wounds, "Duoderm" [Ensayo de un hidrocoloide en apósito oclusivo en el tratamiento de escaras cutáneas «Duoderm»]. Revista de Enfermeria 1986;9(1):17-20.
Bressieux 2007 {published data only}
  • Bressieux J, Gerard J, Schmutz J, Bohbot N, Bohbot S. Leg ulcers and a new foam dressing: results of two French multicenter clinical studies. 39th Annual Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Annual Conference. Journal of Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nursing. 2007; Vol. 34:S67. Abstract 1427.
Brown-Etris 2004 {published data only}
  • Brown-Etris M, Limova M. Clinical evaluation of a new foam dressing in the management of venous insufficiency ulcers. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting; 2004 ,8-13 July; Paris. 2004.
Capillas Pérez 2000 {published data only}
  • Capillas Pérez R, Cabré Aguilar V, Gil Colomé AM, Gaitano García A, Torra i Bou JE. Comparison of the effectiveness and cost of treatment with humid environment as compared to traditional cure. Clinical trial on primary care patients with venous leg ulcers and pressure ulcers [Comparación de la efectividad y coste de la cura en ambiente húmedo frente a la cura tradicional]. Revista de Enfermería 2000;23(1):17-24.
Cherry 1984 {published data only}
Colgan 1996 {published data only}
  • Colgan MP, Teevan M, McBride C, O'Sullivan L, Moore D, Shanik G. Cost comparisons in the management of venous ulceration. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1995, 21-24 November; Harrogate, UK. 1996.
Collier 1992 {published data only}
  • Collier J. A moist, odour-free environment. A multicentred trial of a foamed gel and a hydrocolloid dressing. Professional Nurse 1992;7(12):804, 806, 808.
Dmochowska 1999 {published data only}
  • Dmochowska M, Prokop J, Bielecka S, Urasinska K, Krolicki A, Nagaj E, et al. A randomized, controlled, parallel group clinical trial of a polyurethane foam dressing versus a calcium alginate dressing in the treatment of moderately to heavily exuding venous leg ulcers. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 1999;11(1):21-8.
  • Jasiel E, Nowak A, Gwiezdzinski Z, Bowszyc J, Szarmach H, Blaszsyc. A randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial of a new polyurethane foam dressing (Lyofoam Extra) versus a calcium alginate dressing (Sorbsan) plus a low-adherence dressing (Melolin) in the treatment of moderate to heavily exuding venous leg ulcers. Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1-4 October, 1996; Amsterdam. 1996.
  • Nowak A, Bowszyc P, Blaszczyk M. A randomised, controlled, parallel group clinical trial of a new polyurethane foam dressings versus calcium alginate dressing in the treatment of moderately to heavily exuding venous ulcers. Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1995, 21-24 November; Harrogate, UK. 1996.
Kurring 1994 {published data only}
  • Kurring PA, Roberts CD, Quinlan D. Evaluation of a hydrocellular dressing in the management of exuding wounds in the community. British Journal of Nursing 1994;3(20):1049-53.
Larsen 2005 {published data only}
  • Larsen AM, Vogensen H, Haase L, Jensen N, Florboe NN. Evaluation of a foam dressing with a new soft adherent layer. European Wound Management Association Conference; 2005, 15-17 September; Stuttgart, Germany. 2005.
Meaume 2012 {published data only}
  • Meaume S, Dompmartin A, Schmutz J-L, Ourabah Z, Thirion V, Thirion V, et al. Management of venous leg ulcers with two active wound dressings. Results of a randomized clinical trial. 18th Conference of the European Wound Management Association, 14-16 May 2008, Lisbon, Portugal. 2008.
  • Meaume S, Schmutz J-L, Dompmartin A, Fays S, Ourabah Z, Thirion V, et al. Management of venous leg ulcers with two active wound dressings. Results of a randomized clinical trial. 3rd Congress of the World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting; 2008, 4-8 June; Toronto, Canada,  2008. Abstract number OR047. 2008.
  • Meaume S, Truchetet F, Cambazard F, Lok C, Debure C, Dalac S, et al. A randomized, controlled, double-blind prospective trial with a Lipido-Colloid Technology-Nano-OligoSaccharide Factor wound dressing in the local management of venous leg ulcers. Wound Repair and Regeneration 2012;20(4):500-11.
  • Schmutz J-L, Meaume S, Fays S, Ourabah Z, Guillot B, Thirion V, et al. Evaluation of the nano-oligosaccharide factor lipido-colloid matrix in the local management of venous leg ulcers: results of a randomised, controlled trial. International Wound Journal 2008;5(2):172-82.
Moffatt 1992 {published data only}
  • Moffatt CJ, Oldroyd MI, Dickson D. A trial of hydrocolloid dressing in the management of indolent ulceration. Journal of Wound Care 1992;1(3):20-2.
Moody 1991 {published data only}
  • Moody M. Tissue viability. Calcium alginate: a dressing trial. Nursing Standard 1991;13(Special supplement):3-6.
Mulder 1995 {published data only}
  • Mulder G, Jensen J, Seeley J. Use of a hyrocellular [sic] dressing versus a calcium alginate in the treatment of venous leg ulcers. 5th Annual Meeting of the European Tissue Repair Society; 1995, August 30-September 2; Padova, Italy. 1995.
Pessenhofer 1992 {published data only}
  • Pessenhofer H, Stangl M. The effect of a two-layered polyurethane foam wound dressing on the healing of venous leg ulcers. Journal of Tissue Viability 1992;2(57):57-61.
  • Pessenhofer H, Stangl M. The effect on wound healing of venous leg ulcers of a two-layered polyurethane foam wound dressing [Beinflussung des heilungsverlaufs von venösen ulcera cruris durch eine zweischichtige polyurethan-schaumstoff-wundauflage]. Arzneimittel-Forschung 1989;39(9):1173-7.
Pottle 1987 {published data only}
  • Pottle B. Leg ulcers. Trial of a dressing for non-healing ulcers. Nursing Times 1987;83(12):54-8.
Price 2004 {published data only}
  • Price P. Health-related quality of life aspects after treatment with a foam dressing and a silver containing foam dressing in chronic leg ulcers. 2nd World Union of Wound Healing Societies Meeting; 2004, 8-13 July; Paris. 2004.
Reynolds 2004 {published data only}
  • Reynolds T, Russell L, Deeth M, Jones H, Birchall L. A randomised controlled trial comparing Drawtex with standard dressings for exuding wounds. Journal of Wound Care 2004;13(2):71-4.
Romanelli 1999 {published data only}
  • Romanelli M, Schipani E, Piaggesi A, Barachini P. Evaluation of maceration under moist wound healing dressings. Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1998, 26-28 April; Madrid, Spain. 1998.
Rubin 1990 {published data only}
  • Rubin JR, Alexander J, Plecha EJ, Marman C. Unna's boot vs polyurethane foam dressings for the treatment of venous ulceration. A randomized prospective study. Archives of Surgery 1990;125(4):489-90.
Schulze 2001 {published data only}
  • Schulze H-J, Lane C, Charles H, Ballard K, Hampton S, Moll I. Evaluating a superabsorbent hydropolymer dressing for exuding venous leg ulcers. Journal of Wound Care 2001;10(1):511-8.
Scurr 1993 {published data only}
  • Scurr JH, Wilson LA, Coleridge Smith PD. A comparison of the effects of semipermeable foam and film secondary dressings over alginate dressings on the healing and management of venous ulcers. Wounds: A Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice 1993;5(6):259-65.
Sironi 2003 {published data only}
  • Sironi G, Losa S, Di Luca G, Pezzoni F. Patients with venous leg ulcers in vascular surgery treatment with Intrasite gel, Opsite Flexigrid, Allevyn and Flexobande Legere/Forte:  a randomised comparative clinical evaluation - an interim report. 13th Conference of the European Wound Management Association; 2003, 22-24 May; Pisa, Italy. 2003.
  • Sironi G, Losa S, Di Luca G, Pezzoni F. Treatment of venous leg ulcers with Intrasite gel OpSite Flexigrid, Allevyn hydrocellular dressing and Flexobande (elastic compression bandage) in vascular surgery.  A protocol for clinical evaluations. 3rd European Conference on Advances in Wound Management; 1993, 19-22 October; Harrogate, UK. 1994.
van Rijswijk 1985 {published data only}
  • van Rijswijk L, Brown D, Friedman S, Degreef H, Roed Petersen J, Borglund E, et al. Comparing a foam composite to a hydrocellular foam dressing in the management of venous leg ulcers: a controlled clinical study. Ostomy Wound Management 2004;50(11):42-55.
Verdu Soriano 2006 {published data only}
  • Verdú Soriano J, Nolasco Bonmati A, López Casanova P, Torra i Bou J-E. "Auriga-04" study on the use of a range of Allevyn hydro-cellular dressings in the treatment of bed sores and leg ulcers by primary health care professionals [Estudio «Auriga-04» aplicación y utilidad de los resultados de la investigación con la gama de apósitos Allevyn en atención primaria]. Revista de Enfermeria 2006;29(4):43-9.
Winter 1996 {published data only}
  • Winter A, Hewitt H. Testing a hydrocolloid. Nursing Times 1990;86(50):59-62.
Wollina 1997 {published data only}
  • Wollina U. Topical therapy of chronic wounds with a new hydropolymer dressing - clinical experience in 478 patients [Lokaltherapie chronischer wunden mit einem neuen hydropolymerverband - klinische erfahrungen bei 478 patienten]. Zeitschrift für Hautkrankheiten 1997;72(7):500-6.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Jørgensen 2008 {published data only}
  • Jørgensen B, Sulcaite R, Vilkevicius G, Bech-Thomsen N, Rimdeika R, Gottrup F. A randomised, controlled trial on safety and performance of a new foam dressing on venous leg ulcers. EWMA Journal 2008;8(2 (Supp)):138, Abstract no. P69.
Romanelli 2008 {published data only}
  • Andriessen A, Dini V, Barbanera S, Bertone MS, Brilli C, Abel M, et al. Improvent of peri-wound skin condition increases venous leg ulcer healing rates: rct [sic] comparing a bio-cellulose dressing with a foam. EWMA Journal 2011;11(2 Suppl):69.
  • Romanelli M, Dini V, Barbanera S, Bertone MS, Brilli C, De Lorenzo A. Improvement of treatment in patients with venous leg ulcers by a new pain-reducing wound dressing with hydrobalance. EWMA Journal 2008;8(2 (Supp)):286, Abstract no. P366.

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Badiavas 2011 {published data only}
  • Badiavas E. A post marketing study of Apligraf in non-healing wounds of subjects with venous leg ulcers. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01327937?term=apligraf&rank=1 (accessed 22 Aug 2012).
Bayer 2009 {published data only}
  • Bayer. Silica gel fiber wound dressing for chronic venous leg ulcers. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00998673?term=silica+gel+fiber+wound+dressing&rank=1 (accessed 22 Aug 2012).
Vas 2008 {published data only}
  • Vas J. Effectiveness of acupuncture, special dressings and simple, low-adherence dressings for healing venous leg ulcers in primary healthcare. http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/trial/2285898/leg+ulcers (accessed 12 May 2012).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Al-Kurdi 2008
Augustin 2012
  • Augustin M, Brocatti LK, Rustenbach SJ, Schäfer I, Herberger K. Cost-of-illness of leg ulcers in the community. International Wound Journal 2012;Oct 1:doi: 10.1111/j.1742-481X.2012.01089.x.
Becker 2011
  • Becker LA, Oxman AD. Chapter 22: Overviews of reviews. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
BNF 2013
  • British National Formulary, British Medical Association, British Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. British National Formulary 65. London: British Medical Association, 2012.
Briggs 2012
Cochrane Wounds Group Glossary
  • Cochrane Wounds Group Glossary. http://wounds.cochrane.org/glossary (accessed 23 April 2010).
Davies 2005
  • Davies CE, Turton G, Woolfrey G, Elley R, Taylor M. Exploring debridement options for chronic venous leg ulcers. British Journal of Nursing 2005;14(7):393-7.
Deeks 2011
  • Deeks JJ, Higgins JPT, Altman DG on behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group. Chapter 9:  Analysing data and undertaking meta-analyses. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Doughty 2007
  • Doughty DB, Holbrook R. Lower-extremity ulcers of vascular etiology. In: Bryant RA, Nix DP editor(s). Acute and chronic wounds: current management concepts. 3rd Edition. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Mosby, 2007.
Flemming 2001
Gohel 2005
  • Gohel MS, Taylor M, Earnshaw JJ, Heather BP, Poskitt KR, Whyman MR. Risk factors for delayed healing and recurrence of chronic venous leg ulcers - an analysis of 1324 legs. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2005;29(1):74-7.
Graham 2003
  • Graham ID, Margaret B, Harrison MB, Nelson EA, Lorimer K, Fisher A. Prevalence of lower-limb ulceration: a systematic review of prevalence studies. Advances in Skin and Wound Care 2003;16(6):305-16.
Herber 2007
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011a
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne JAC on behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group and the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Chapter 8: Assessing risk of bias in included studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Higgins 2011b
  • Higgins JPT, Altman DG, Sterne JAC on behalf of the Cochrane Statistical Methods Group and the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. Chapter 16: Special topics in statistics. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Iglesias 2004
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König 2005
  • König M, Vanscheidt W, Augustin M, Kapp H. Enzymatic versus autolytic debridement of chronic leg ulcers: a prospective randomised trial. Journal of Wound Care 2005;14(7):320-3.
Lefebvre 2011
  • Lefebvre C, Manheimer E, Glanville J, on behalf of the Cochrane Information Retrieval Methods Group. Chapter 6: Searching for studies. In: Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 (updated March 2011). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from www.cochrane-handbook.org.
Liberati 2009
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Lorimer 2003
  • Lorimer K, Harrisaon MB, Graham ID, Friedberg E, Davies B. Assessing venous ulcer population characteristics and practices in a home care community. Ostomy Wound Management 2003;49(5):32-43.
Margolis 2002
Margolis 2004
Moffatt 1995
  • Moffatt CJ, Dorman MC. Recurrence of leg ulcers within a community ulcer service. Journal of Wound Care 1995;4(2):57-61.
Moffatt 2004
Moffatt 2007
  • Moffatt C. Compression therapy in practice. Aberdeen: Wounds UK Publishing, 2007.
Morris 2003
  • Morris L. Descriptive evaluation of Alione hydrocapillary dressing. British Journal of Nursing 2003;12(10):630-5.
Nelzen 2008
  • Nelzen O. Prevalence of venous leg ulcer: the importance of the data collection method. Phlebolymphology 2008;15(4):143-50.
O'Meara 2007
  • O'Meara SM. Studies in chronic wound healing: synthesising data and measuring ulcer dimensions. PhD thesis. University of York 2007.
O'Meara 2009
O'Meara 2010
Ovington 2007
Palfreyman 2006
Palfreyman 2007
Parmar 1998
Persoon 2004
Ragnarson Tennvall 2005
Ravaghi 2006
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Winter 1963