Intervention Review

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Non pharmacological interventions for spasticity in multiple sclerosis

  1. Bhasker Amatya1,*,
  2. Fary Khan1,2,3,
  3. Loredana La Mantia4,
  4. Marina Demetrios1,
  5. Derick T Wade5

Editorial Group: Cochrane Multiple Sclerosis and Rare Diseases of the CNS Group

Published Online: 28 FEB 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009974.pub2

How to Cite

Amatya B, Khan F, La Mantia L, Demetrios M, Wade DT. Non pharmacological interventions for spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD009974. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009974.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Royal Melbourne Hospital, Royal Park Campus, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  2. 2

    Monash University, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  3. 3

    University of Melbourne, Department of Medicine, Dentistry & Health Sciences, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

  4. 4

    I.R.C.C.S. Santa Maria Nascente Fondazione Don Gnocchi, Unit of Neurology - Multiple Sclerosis Center, Milano, Italy

  5. 5

    University of Oxford, Oxford Centre for Enablement, Oxford, UK

*Bhasker Amatya, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Royal Park Campus, Poplar Road, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, 3052, Australia.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 28 FEB 2013



References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Giovannelli 2007 {published data only}
  • Giovannelli M, Borriello G, Castri P, Prosperini L, Pozzilli C. Early physiotherapy after injection of botulinum toxin increases the beneficial effects on spasticity in patients with multiple sclerosis. Clinical Rehabilitation 2007;21(4):331-7.
Lappin 2003 {published data only}
  • Lappin MS, Lawrie FW, Richards TL, Kramer ED. Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 2003;9:38-48.
Miller 2007 {published data only}
  • Miller L, Mattison P, Paul L, Wood L. The effects of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2007;13:527-33.
Mori 2010 {published data only}
Mori 2011 {published data only}
  • Mori F, Ljoka C, Magni E, Codeca C, Kusayanagi H, Monteleone F, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation primes the effects of exercise therapy in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology 2011;258(7):1281-7.
Nielsen 1996 {published data only}
  • Nielsen JF, Sinkjaer T, Jakobsen J. Treatment of spasticity with repetitive magnetic stimulation; a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Multiple Sclerosis 1996;2(5):227-32.
Richards 1997 {published data only}
  • Richards TL, Lappin MS, Acosta-Urquidi J, Kraft GH, Heide AC, Lawrie FW, et al. Double-blind study of pulsing magnetic field effects on multiple sclerosis. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 1997;3(1):21-9.
Schyns 2009 {published data only}
  • Schyns F, Paul L, Finlay K, Ferguson C, Noble E. Vibration therapy in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study exploring its effects on tone, muscle force, sensation and functional performance. Clinical Rehabilitation 2009;23(9):771-81.
Velkonja 2010 {published data only}
  • Velikonja O, Curic K, Ozura A, Jazbec SS. Influence of sports climbing and yoga on spasticity, cognitive function, mood and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery 2010;112(7):597-601.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. Additional references
Bernhardt 2011 {published data only}
  • Bernhardt L, Marziniak M. Specific resistance training for patients with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2011;17:S465.
Castro-Sanchez 2012 {published data only}
  • Castro-Sanchez AM, Mataran-Penarrocha GA, Lara-Palomo I, Saavedra-Hernandez M, Arroyo-Morales M, Moreno-Lorenzo C. Hydrotherapy for the treatment of pain in people with Multiple Sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternatative Medicine 2012;[Epub ahead of print]:DOI: 10.1155/2012/473963.
Chiara 1998 {published data only}
  • Chiara T, Carlos J Jr, Martin D, Miller R, Nadeau S. Cold effect on oxygen uptake, perceived exertion, and spasticity in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 1998;79:523-8.
Farenelli 1999 {published data only}
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Huges 2009 {published data only}
  • Hughes CM, Smyth S, Lowe-Strong AS. Reflexology for the treatment of pain in people with multiple sclerosis: a double-blind randomised sham-controlled clinical trial. Multiple Sclerosis 2009;15:1329-38.
Leocani 2012 {published data only}
  • Leocani L, Nuara A, Formenti A, Rossi P, Zangen A, Comola M, et al. Deep rTMS with H-Coil associated with rehabilitation enhances improvement of walking abilities in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis: randomized, controlled, double blind study. Neurology 2012;259(Suppl 1):S1–S236.
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Shaygannejad 2011 {published data only}
  • Shaygannejad V, Ashtari F, Haghighi S, Vaezi A. The effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulations on spasticity in Multiple Sclerosis patients in comparison with baclofen: a randomised single-blinded clinical trial. Multiple Sclerosis 2011;17:S246.
Sosnoff 2009 {published data only}
  • Sosnoff J, Motl RW, Snook EM, Wynn D. Effect of a 4-week period of unloaded leg cycling exercise on spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Neurorehabilitation 2009;24:327-31.
Szecsi 2009 {published data only}
  • Szecsi J, Schlick C, Schiller M, Pollmann W, Koenig N, Straube A. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted cycling of patients with Multiple Sclerosis: biomechanical and functional outcome - a pilot study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 2009;41:674-80.

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  3. Additional references
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