Intervention Review

You have free access to this content

Preventive interventions for postnatal psychosis

  1. Adib Essali1,*,
  2. Samer Alabed2,
  3. Aisha Guul3,
  4. Norah Essali4

Editorial Group: Cochrane Schizophrenia Group

Published Online: 6 JUN 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 13 NOV 2012

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009991.pub2

How to Cite

Essali A, Alabed S, Guul A, Essali N. Preventive interventions for postnatal psychosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 6. Art. No.: CD009991. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009991.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    Modern Psychiatry Hospital, Psychiatry Centre, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic

  2. 2

    University of Oxford, Continuing Education, Oxford, UK

  3. 3

    Sunderland Royal Hospital, Sunderland, UK

  4. 4

    Kalamoon University, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic

*Adib Essali, Psychiatry Centre, Modern Psychiatry Hospital, 27 Al Zahrawi Street, Rawda, Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: Edited (no change to conclusions)
  2. Published Online: 6 JUN 2013



References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. References to ongoing studies
  3. Additional references
Destounis 1965 {published data only}
  • Destounis N, Pinto A, Johnson C, Cooper M. Clinical trial isocarboxazid. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical and Experimental 1965;7:257-61. [: AN:14276017]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. References to ongoing studies
  3. Additional references
Nakigudde 2008 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Nakigudde J. Impact of family psychoeducation on psychosis. 2008. [: NCT01172106]
Paykel 2000 {published data only (unpublished sought but not used)}
  • Paykel ES. Prophylaxis of puerperal psychosis. National Research Register 2000. [: NRR - N0287023379]

Additional references

  1. References to studies excluded from this review
  2. References to ongoing studies
  3. Additional references
Ahokas 2000
Altman 1996
Appleby 1998
Austin 1992
  • Austin MP. Puerperal affective psychosis: is there a case for lithium prophylaxis?. British Journal of Psychiatry 1992; Vol. 161:692-4.
Babu 2008
  • Babu GN, Subbakrishna DK, Chandra PS. Prevalence and correlates of suicidality among Indian women with post-partum psychosis in an inpatient setting. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 2008;42(11):976-80.
Benvenuti 1992
Bergink 2011
  • Bergink V, Kushner SA, Pop V, Kuijpens H, Lambregtse-van den Berg MP, Drexhage RC, et al. Prevalence of autoimmune thyroid dysfunction in postpartum psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 2011;198:264-8.
Bergink 2012
  • Bergink V, Bouvy PF, Vervoort JS, Koorengevel KM, Steegers EA, Kushner SA. Prevention of postpartum psychosis and mania in women at high risk. American Journal of Psychiatry 2012;169:609-15.
Bilszta 2010
  • Bilszta JL, Meyer D, Buist AE. Bipolar affective disorder in the postnatal period: investigating the role of sleep. Bipolar Disorders 2010; Vol. 12:568-78.
Bland 1997
Boissel 1999
  • Boissel JP, Cucherat M, Li W, Chatellier G, Gueyffier F, Buyse M, et al. The problem of therapeutic efficacy indices. 3. Comparison of the indices and their use [Apercu sur la problematique des indices d'efficacite therapeutique, 3: comparaison des indices et utilisation. Groupe d'etude des Indices d'efficacite]. Therapie 1999;54(4):405-11. [PUBMED: 10667106]
Chandra 2002
  • Chandra PS, Venkatasubramanian G, Thomas T. Infanticidal ideas and infanticidal behavior in Indian women with severe postpartum psychiatric disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 2002;190(7):457-61.
Chandra 2006
  • Chandra PS, Bhargavaraman RP, Raghunandan VN, Shaligram D. Delusions related to infant and their association with mother-infant interactions in postpartum psychotic disorders. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2006;9(5):285-8.
Chaudron 2003
Cohen 1995
Deeks 2000
  • Deeks J. Issues in the selection for meta-analyses of binary data. Proceedings of the 8th International Cochrane Colloquium; 2000 Oct 25-28; Cape Town. Cape Town: The Cochrane Collaboration, 2000.
Divine 1992
Donner 2002
Ebeid 2010
Egger 1997
Elbourne 2002
  • Elbourne D, Altman DG, Higgins JPT, Curtina F, Worthingtond HV, Vaile A. Meta-analyses involving cross-over trials: methodological issues. International Journal of Epidemiology 2002;31(1):140-9.
Freeman 2002
  • Freeman MP, Smith KW, Freeman SA, McElroy SL, Kmetz GE, Wright R, et al. The impact of reproductive events on the course of bipolar disorder in women. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2002;63(4):284-7.
Furukawa 2006
  • Furukawa TA, Barbui C, Cipriani A, Brambilla P, Watanabe N. Imputing missing standard deviations in meta-analyses can provide accurate results. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 2006;59(7):7-10.
Garfield 2004
Grof 2000
  • Grof P, Robbins W, Alda M, Berghoefer A, Vojtechovsky M, Nilsson A, et al. Protective effect of pregnancy in women with lithium-responsive bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 2000;61:31–9.
Gulliford 1999
  • Gulliford MC. Components of variance and intra class correlations for the design of community-based surveys and intervention studies: data from the Health Survey for England 1994. American Journal of Epidemiology 1999;149:876-83.
Heron 2008
Higgins 2003
Higgins 2011
  • Higgins JPT, Green S (editors). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [update March 2011]. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2011. Available from
Jones 2001
Jones 2007
  • Jones I, Hamshere M, Nagle JM, Bennett P, Middle F, Green E, et al. Bipolar affective puerperal psychosis: genome-wide significant evidence for linkage to chromosome 16. American Journal of Psychiatry 2007;164:1-6.
Kay 1986
  • Kay SR, Opler LA, Fiszbein A. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) Manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems, 1986.
Kumar 2003
  • Kumar C, McIvor RJ, Davies T, Brown N, Papadopoulos A, Wieck A, et al. Estrogen administration does not reduce the rate of recurrence of affective psychosis after childbirth. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2003; Vol. 64:112-8.
Leucht 2005
Leucht 2005a
  • Leucht S, Kane JM, Kissling W, Hamann J, Etschel E, Engel R. Clinical implications of brief psychiatric rating scale scores. British Journal of Psychiatry 2005;187:366-71. [PUBMED: 16199797]
Leucht 2007
  • Leucht S, Engel RR, Bauml J, Davis JM. Is the superior efficacy of new generation antipsychotics an artefact of LOCF?. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2007;33(1):183-91. [PUBMED: 16905632]
Marks 1992
  • Marks MN, Wieck A, Checkley SA, Kumar R. Contribution of psychological and social factors to psychotic and non-psychotic relapse after childbirth in women with previous histories of affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders 1992;24:253-63.
Marshall 2000
  • Marshall M, Lockwood A, Bradley C, Adams C, Joy C, Fenton M. Unpublished rating scales: a major source of bias in randomised controlled trials of treatments for schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry 2000;176:249-52.
McNeil 1986
Murray 1990
  • Murray D. Recurrence of puerperal psychosis not prevented by prophylactic progesterone administration. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1990; Vol. 178:537-8.
Nager 2005
Oates 2000
  • Oates M. Perinatal Maternal Mental Health Services. Council Report CR88. London: Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2000.
Overall 1962
Payne 2008
Pfuhlmann 1999
RCOG 2001
  • Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Why Mothers Die 1997-1999: The Fifth Report of the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, 2001.
Reed 1999
  • Reed P, Sermin N, Appleby L, Faragher B. A comparison of clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy in puerperal and non-puerperal psychoses. Journal of Affective Disorders 1999;54:255-60.
Robertson 1995
  • Robertson MMA, Jones I, Haque S, Craddock N. Risk of puerperal and non-puerperal recurrence of illness following affective puerperal (post-partum) psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry 1995;186:258-9.
Robling 2000
Schopf 1994
Schünemann 2008
  • Schünemann HJ, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Higgins JPT, Deeks JJ, Glasziou P, et al. Chapter 12: Interpreting results and drawing conclusions. In: Higgins JPT, Green S editor(s). Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008:359-83.
Sharma 2003
Sharma 2003a
Sharma 2006
  • Sharma V, Smith A, Mazmanian D. Olanzapine in the prevention of postpartum psychosis and mood episodes in bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disorders 2006; Vol. 8:400-4.
Sichel 1995
  • Sichel DA, Cohen LS, Robertson LM, Ruttenberg A, Rosenbaum JF. Prophylactic estrogen in recurrent postpartum affective disorder. Biological Psychiatry 1995; Vol. 38:814-8.
Sit 2006
Spinelli 2004
Spinelli 2009
Stewart 1988
  • Stewart DE. Prophylactic lithium in postpartum affective psychosis. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1988; Vol. 176:485-9.
Stewart 1991
Terp 1999
Ukoumunne 1999
  • Ukoumunne OC, Gulliford MC, Chinn S, Sterne JAC, Burney PGJ. Methods for evaluating area-wide and organisation-based intervention in health and health care: a systematic review. Health Technology Assessment 1999;3(5):1-75.
Valdimarsdottir 2009
  • Valdimarsdottir U, Hultman CM, Harlow B, Cnattingius S, Sparen P. Psychotic illness in first-time mothers with no previous psychiatric hospitalizations: a population-based study. PLoS Medicine 2009;6(2):e13.
Videbech 1995
Viguera 2000
  • Viguera AC, Nonacs R, Cohen LS, Tondon L, Murray A, Baldessarini RJ. Risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder in pregnant and nonpregnant women after discontinuing lithium maintenance. American Journal of Psychiatry 2000;157:179-84.
Wisner 2004
  • Wisner KL, Hanusa BH, Peindl KS, Perel JM. Prevention of postpartum episodes in women with bipolar disorder. Biological Psychiatry 2004; Vol. 56:592-6.
Xia 2009
  • Xia J, Adams CE, Bhagat N, Bhagat V, Bhoopathi P, El-Sayeh H, et al. Loss to outcomes stakeholder survey: the LOSS study. Psychiatric Bulletin 2009;33(7):254-7.
Yaffe 2012