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Long-acting beta2-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  1. Kayleigh M Kew1,*,
  2. Chris Mavergames2,
  3. Julia AE Walters3

Editorial Group: Cochrane Airways Group

Published Online: 15 OCT 2013

Assessed as up-to-date: 12 JUN 2013

DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010177.pub2


How to Cite

Kew KM, Mavergames C, Walters JAE. Long-acting beta2-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD010177. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010177.pub2.

Author Information

  1. 1

    St George's, University of London, Population Health Sciences and Education, London, UK

  2. 2

    The Cochrane Collaboration, Freiburg, Germany

  3. 3

    University of Tasmania, School of Medicine, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

*Kayleigh M Kew, Population Health Sciences and Education, St George's, University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London, SW17 0RE, UK. kkew@sgul.ac.uk.

Publication History

  1. Publication Status: New
  2. Published Online: 15 OCT 2013

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References

References to studies included in this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Aalbers 2002 {published data only}
  • Aalbers R, Ayres J, Backer V, Decramer M, Lier PA, Magyar P, et al. Formoterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized, controlled, 3-month trial. European Respiratory Journal 2002;19(5):936-43. [0903-1936]
  • Sybrecht GW. Inhaled formoterol was an effective and safe treatment in COPD patients. European Respiratory Society; 1999 October 9-13; Madrid, p 2510.
Bogdan 2011 {published data only}
  • Bogdan M, Aizawa H, Fukuchi Y, Mishima M, Nishimura M, Ichinose M. Efficacy and safety of inhaled formoterol 4.5 and 9 microg twice daily in Japanese and European COPD patients: Phase III study results. BMC Pulmonary Medicine 2011;11(1):51. [1471-2466]
  • Bogdan MA, Kudo T, Umemiya M. Efficacy and safety of inhaled formoterol 4.5 and 9 1/4g twice daily in Japanese and European patients with COPD: results of a Phase III study [Abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2010;181:A4494.
  • Ichinose M, Aizawa H, Fukuchi Y, Mishima M, Nishimura M, Bogdan M. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and reliever use in Japanese and European patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving formoterol 4.5 and 9 microg twice daily: Results of the OCEAN phase III study [Abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2010 Sep 18-22; Barcelona, p 4591.
Brusasco 2003 {published data only}
  • Bateman ED, Hodder R, Miravitlles M, Lee A, Towse L, Serby C. A comparative trial of tiotropium, salmeterol and placebo: health-related quality of life. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18(Suppl 33):26s.
  • Bateman ED, Jenkins C, Korducki L, Keston S. Tiotropium (TIO) improves health care resource utilization (HRU) and patient disability in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A111.
  • Brusasco V, Hodder R, Miravitlles M, Korducki L, Towse L, Kesten S. Health outcomes following treatment for six months with once daily tiotropium compared with twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD. Thorax 2003;58(5):399-404.
  • Brusasco V, Menjoge SS, Kesten S. Flow and volume responders following treatment with tiotropium and salmeterol in patients with COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, Poster 420.
  • Brusasco V, Menjoge SS, Kesten S. Flow and volume responders over 12 hours following treatment with tiotropium or salmeterol in patients with COPD [Abstract]. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society; 2006 May 19-24; San Diego, A110 [Poster J10].
  • Brusasco V, Thompson P, Vincken W, Lee A, Towse L, Witek TJ. Improvement of dyspnea following of six months treatment with tiotropium but not with salmeterol in patients with COPD. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18(Suppl 33):26s.
  • Donohue JF. Alterations in bronchodilator effectiveness over six months with Tiotropium and Salmeterol. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A227.
  • Donohue JF, Menjoge S, Kesten S. Tolerance to bronchodilating effects of salmeterol in COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2003;97(9):1014-20.
  • Donohue JF, van Noord JA, Bateman ED, Langley SJ, Lee A, Witek TJ, et al. A 6-month, placebo-controlled study comparing lung function and health status changes in COPD patients treated with tiotropium or salmeterol. Chest 2002;122(1):47-55. [0012-3692]
  • Donohue JF, van Noord JA, Langley SJ, Lee A, Kesten S, Towse LJ. Superior bronchodilation of once daily tiotropium compared to twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18(Suppl 33):26s.
  • Gunther K, Lee A, Kesten S, Towse L. Superior bronchodilation of once daily tiotropium compared with twice daily salmeterol in patients with COPD [Abstract]. International Primary Care Respiratory Group Congress; 2002 Jun 7-9; Amsterdam, p 112.
  • Rutten-van Mölken MP, Oostenbrink JB, Miravitlles M, Monz BU. Modelling the 5-year cost effectiveness of tiotropium, salmeterol and ipratropium for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain. The European Journal of Health Economics: Health Economics in Prevention and Care 2007;8(2):123-35.
Calverley 2003a {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A placebo-controlled 12-month efficacy study of the fixed combination budesonide/formoterol compared to budesonide and formoterol as monotherapies in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). SD-039-0670. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/ (accessed 12 December 2012).
  • Borgstrom L, Asking L, Olsson H, Peterson S. Lack of interaction between disease severity and therapeutic response with budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference; 2004 May 21-26; Orlando, C22 Poster 505.
  • Calverley PM, Boonsawat W, Cseke Z, Zhong N, Peterson S, Olsson H. Maintenance therapy with budesonide and formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(6):912-9. [0903-1936]
  • Calverley PM, Szafranski W, Anderson JA. Budesonide/formoterol is a well-tolerated long term maintenance therapy for COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):Abstract No. 1917.
  • Calverley PMA, Cseke Z, Peterson S. Budesonide/formoterol reduces the use of oral corticosteroids in the treatment of COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract No. P436.
  • Calverley PMA, Kuna P, Olsson H. COPD exacerbations are reduced by budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract No. P1587.
  • Calverley PMA, Olsson H, Symbicort International CSG. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler sustains improvements in lung function over 12 months compared with monocomponents and placebo in patients with COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, B024 Poster 418.
  • Calverley PMA, Peterson S. Combining budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler reduces exacerbation frequency in COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, D092 Poster 211.
  • Calverley PMA, Sthal E, Jones PW. Budesonide/formoterol improves the general health status of patients with COPD [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 2005 International Conference; 2005 May 20-25; San Diego, B93 Poster 303.
  • Calverley PMA, Thompson NC, Olsson H. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler sustains lung function improvements in COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract No. P435.
  • Halpin D, Stahl E, Lundback B, Anderson F, Peterson S. Treatment costs and number needed to treat (NNT) with budesonide/formoterol to avoid one exacerbation of COPD [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference; 2004 May 21-26; Orlando, D22 Poster 525.
  • Halpin DMG, Larsson T, Calverley PMA. How many patients with COPD must be treated with budesonide/formoterol compared with formoterol alone to avoid 1 day of oral steroid use? [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 2005 International Conference; 2005 May 20-25; San Diego, B93 Poster 314.
  • Jones PW, Stahl E. Budesonide /formoterol sustains clinically relevant improvements in health status in COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):Abstract No. 1352.
  • Jones PW, Stahl E. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler improves health status in patients with COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, B024 Poster 419.
  • Lofdahl CG. Reducing the impact of COPD exacerbations: clinical efficacy of budesonide/formoterol. European Respiratory Review 2004;13(88):14-21.
  • Lofdahl CG, Andreasson E, Svensson K, Ericsson A. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler improves overall health status in patients with COPD without increasing healthcare costs [abstract].. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, A035 Poster D46.
  • Lofdahl CG, Andreassson E, Svensson K, Ericsson A. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler improves health status in patients with COPD without increasing healthcare costs [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract No. P433.
  • Lofdahl CG, Ericsson A, Svensson K, Andreasson E. Cost effectiveness of budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler for COPD compared with each monocomponent used alone. Pharmacoeconomics 2005;23(4):365-75. [1170-7690]
Calverley 2003b [TRISTAN] {published data only}
  • Calverley P, Pauwels R, Vestbo J. Erratum: Combined salmeterol and fluticasone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361(9369):449-56. [0140-6736]
  • Calverley P, Pauwels R, Vestbo J, Jones P, Pride N, Gulsvik A, et al. Combined salmeterol and fluticasone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361(9356):449-56. [0140-6736]
  • Calverley P, Pauwels RA, Jones PW, Anderson JA, Vestbos J. The severity of airways obstruction as a determinant of treatment response in COPD. International Journal of COPD 2006;1(3):209-18.
  • Calverley PMA, Pauwels R, Vestbo J, Jones P, Pride NB, Gulsvik A, et al. Safety of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for one year [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1572.
  • Calverley PMA, Pauwels RA, Vestbo J, Jones PW, Pride NB, Gulsvik A, et al. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination for one year provides greater clinical benefit than its individual components in COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A226.
  • Ferguson G, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Troy S, Compton C, et al. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.
  • Ferguson GT, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Reisner C. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in COPD. Chest 2003;123(6):1817-24.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to compare the efficacy and safety of the salmeterol/FP combination product at a strength of 50/500mcg bd with salmeterol 50mcg bd alone and FP 500mcg bd alone, delivered via the DISKUS™/ACCUHALER™, in the treatment of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for 12 months. SFCB3024. http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/ (accessed 14 December 2012).
  • Hunjan MK, Chandler F. Numbers needed to treat (NNT) to avoid an exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (SFC) and associated costs [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference; 2004 May 21-26; Orlando, D22 Poster 503.
  • Hunjan MK, Williams DT. Costs of avoiding exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treated with salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (seretide) and salmeterol [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):291s.
  • Hunjan MK, Williams DT. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination is clinically effective in avoiding exacerbations in patients with moderate/severe COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):513s.
  • Jones PW, Edin HM, Anderson J. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination improves health status in COPD patients. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A111.
  • Khamis RY, Rajakulasingam RK. Combined salmeterol and fluticasone for COPD. Lancet 2003;361(9369):1652; author reply 1652-3. [0140-6736]
  • Nitschmann S. Inhalational combination therapy in chronic obstructive lung disease: Tristan study. Internist 2004;45(6):727-8. [0020-9554]
  • Pauwels RA, Calverley PMA, Vestbo J, Jones P, Pride NB, Gulsvik A, et al. Reduction of exacerbations with salmeterol/fluticasone combination 50/500mcg bd in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1569.
  • Pauwels RA, Vestbo J, Calverley PMA, Jones PW, Pride NB, Gulsvik A, et al. Characterization of exacerbations in the TRISTAN study of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) combination in moderate to severe COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, D092 Poster 215.
  • Spencer MD, Karia N, Anderson J. The clinical significance of treatment benefits with the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/500mcg combination in COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):290s.
  • Vestbo J, Calverley PMA, Pauwels R, Jones P, Pride NB, Gulsvik A, et al. Absence of gender susceptibility to the combination of salmeterol and fluticasone in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1570.
  • Vestbo J, Pauwels R, Anderson JA, Jones P, Calverley P. Early onset of effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax 2005;60(4):301-4. [0040-6376]
  • Vestbo J, Pauwels RA, Calverley PMA, Jones PW, Pride NB, Gulsvik A, et al. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination produces improvement in lung function detectable within 24 hours in moderate to severe COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, A035 Poster D48.
  • Vestbo J, Soriano JB, Anderson JA, Calverley P, Pauwels R, Jones P. Gender does not influence the response to the combination of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate in COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2004;98(11):1045-50. [0954-6111]
Calverley 2007 [TORCH] {published data only}
  • Allegra L. TORCH study: an invitation to clinical considerations. Giornale Italiano delle Malattie del Torace 2007;61(1):15-23.
  • Briggs AH, Glick HA, Lozano-Ortega G, Spencer M, Calverley PMA, Jones PW, et al. Is treatment with ICS and LABA cost-effective for COPD? Multinational economic analysis of the TORCH study. European Respiratory Journal 2010;35(3):532-9.
  • Calverley P, Celli B, Anderson J, Ferguson G, Jenkins C, Jones P, et al. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination (SFC) improves survival in COPD over three years: on-treatment analysis from the TORCH study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2009 May 15-20; San Diego, A6191 (Poster 219).
  • Calverley P, Celli B, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) study: salmeterol/fluticasone propionate improves survival in COPD over three years [Abstract]. Respirology 2006;11(Suppl 5):A149 [PS-3-8].
  • Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. Cardiovascular events in patients with COPD: TORCH study results. Thorax 2010;65(8):719-25.
  • Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. New England Journal of Medicine 2007;356(8):775-89.
  • Calverley PM, Celli B, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The towards a revolution in COPD health (TORCH) study: fluticasone propionate /salmeterol improves survival in COPD over three years [Abstract]. Chest 2006;130(4):122s.
  • Calverley PMA, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New England Journal of Medicine 2007;356(8):775-89.
  • Calverley PMA, Celli B, Andersen JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The TORCH (towards a revolution in COPD health) study salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) improves survival in COPD over three years [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):34s [E311].
  • Celli B, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones P, et al. The TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health (TORCH) Study: salmeterol/fluticasone propionate reduces the rate of exacerbations over three years [Abstract]. Respirology 2006;11(Suppl 5):A140 [O-9-2].
  • Celli B, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The towards a revolution in COPD health (TORCH) study: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol reduces the rate of exacerbations over 3 years [Abstract]. Chest 2006;130(4):177s.
  • Celli B, Calverley PMA, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The TORCH (towards a revolution in COPD health) study salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) improves health status reduces exacerbations and improves lung function over three years [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):34s [E312].
  • Celli B, Emmett A, Crater G, Kalberg C. Fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FSC) improves the inspiratory to total lung capacity ratio (IC/TLC) and exercise endurance time in patients with COPD [Abstract]. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society; 2006 May 19-24; San Diego, A320 Poster 323.
  • Celli B, Ferguson GT, Anderson JA, Jenkins CR, Jones PW, Vestbo J, et al. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) improves lung function and reduces the rate of decline over three years in the TORCH survival study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, A763.
  • Celli B, Vestbo J, Jenkins CR, Jones PW, Ferguson GT, Calverley PMA, et al. Sex differences in mortality and clinical expressions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the TORCH experience. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183(3):317-22.
  • Celli BR, Thomas NE, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins CR, Jones PW, et al. Effect of pharmacotherapy on rate of decline of lung function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from the TORCH study. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2008;178(4):332-8.
  • Corhay JL, Louis R. Clinical study of the month: the TORCH study (TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health). [French]. Revue Medicale de Liege 2007;62(4):230-4.
  • Ferguson GT, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The towards a revolution in COPD health (TORCH) study: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol is well tolerated in patients with COPD over 3 years [Abstract]. Chest 2006;130(4):178s.
  • Ferguson GT, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Celli B, Jenkins CR, Jones PW, et al. Effect of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) on bone mineral density (BMD) and eye disorders over three years in the TORCH trial [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, A763.
  • Ferguson GT, Calverley PM, Anderson JA, Jenkins CR, Celli B, et al. Prevalence and progression of osteoporosis in patients with COPD: results from the Towards a Revolution in COPD health study. Chest 2009;136(6):1456-65. [0012-3692]
  • Ferguson GT, Calverley PMA, Anderson JA, Celli B, Jenkins C, Jones PW, et al. The TORCH (TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health) study: salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) improves survival in COPD over three years. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):34s.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group, placebo-controlled study to investigate the long-term effects of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SERETIDE/VIANI/ADVAIR) 50/500mcg bd, salmeterol 50mcg bd and fluticasone propionate 500mcg bd, all delivered via the DISKUS/ACCUHALER inhaler, on the survival of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) over 3 years of treatment. SCO30003. http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/ (accessed 10 December 2012).
  • Glick H, Briggs A, Lozano-Ortega G, Spencer M, Vestbo J, Calverley P. Is treatment with ICS/LABA combination good value for money in COPD? Evidence from the TORCH study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, C97.
  • Jenkins C, Celli B, Anderson J, Ferguson G, Calverley P, Jones P, et al. Salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) is efficacious in GOLD stage II COPD patients: analysis from the TORCH study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2009 May 15-20; San Diego, A6186 Poster 213.
  • Jenkins CR, Celli B, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jones PW, Vestbo J, et al. Seasonality and determinants of moderate and severe COPD exacerbations in the TORCH study. European Respiratory Journal 2012;39(1):38-45.
  • Jenkins CR, Celli B, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jones PW, Vestbo J, et al. The TORCH survival study: consistent efficacy results seen in geographic regions in a multi-national study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, C97.
  • Jenkins CR, Jones PW, Calverley PM, Celli B, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, et al. Efficacy of salmeterol/fluticasone propionate by GOLD stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: analysis from the randomised, placebo-controlled TORCH study. Respiratory Research 2009;10:59.
  • Jones PW, Anderson JA, Calverley PM, Celli BR, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, et al. Health status in the TORCH study of COPD: treatment efficacy and other determinants of change. Respiratory Research 2011;12:71.
  • Jones PW, Calverley PM, Celli B, Anderson JA, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, et al. The towards study a revolution in COPD health (TORCH) study: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol improves and sustains health status in COPD over 3 years [Abstract]. Chest 2006;130(4):177s.
  • Jones PW, Vestbo J, Anderson JA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins CR, et al. Informative withdrawal in a COPD study. An example from the TORCH Study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, C97.
  • Keene ON, Vestbo J, Anderson JA, Calverley PMA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, et al. Methods for therapeutic trials in COPD: lessons from the TORCH trial. European Respiratory Journal 2009;34(5):1018-23.
  • McDonough C, Blanchard AR. TORCH study results: pharmacotherapy reduces lung function decline in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hospital Practice (1995) 2010;38(2):92-3.
  • McGarvey LP, John M, Anderson JA, Zvarich M, Wise RA, Committee TCE. Ascertainment of cause-specific mortality in COPD: operations of the TORCH Clinical Endpoint Committee. Thorax 2007;62(5):411-5.
  • Mehta RS, Kathman SJ, Daley-Yates PT, Cahn T, Beerahee M, Kunka RL, et al. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in COPD patients following long-term twice-daily treatment with salmeterol/fluticasone propionate (SFC) 50/500mg and the individual components [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, Poster A41.
  • Sacchetta A. Long term therapy and outcome of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with or without co-morbidity: the TORCH study. Italian Journal of Medicine 2008;2(3):11-5.
  • Vestbo J, Anderson JA, Calverley PMA, Celli B, Ferguson GT, Jenkins C, et al. Bias due to withdrawal in long-term randomised trials in COPD: evidence from the TORCH study. Clinical Respiratory Journal 2011;5(1):44-9.
  • Vestbo J, Calverley P, Celli B, Ferguson G, Jenkins C, Jones P, et al. The TORCH (TOwards a Revolution in COPD Health) survival study protocol. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(2):206-10. [0903-1936]
Campbell 2005 {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A 6-month study to compare the efficacy and safety of 9microg formoterol (Oxis) Turbuhaler b.i.d. with placebo b.i.d. in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Furthermore to compare formoterol 4.5microg as needed with terbutaline 0.5 mg as needed. SD-037-0709. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/ (accessed 12 December 2012).
  • Bogdan M, Eliraz A, McKinnon C, Nihlen U, Radeczky E, Soliman S, et al. Formoterol turbuhaler is an effective maintenance and maintenance plus reliever therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) irrespective of the level of lung function impairment and reversibility [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress. 2002 Sep 14-18:P1578.
  • Campbell M, Eliraz A, Johansson G, Tornling G, Nihlen U, Bengtsson T, et al. Formoterol for maintenance and as-needed treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory Medicine 2005;99(12):1511-20.
  • Campbell M, Rabe KF, Andersson A. Formoterol turbuhaler for maintenance and as-needed use is effective and well tolerated in patients with COPD [abstract]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, B024 Poster 417.
  • Eliraz A, Bengtsson T, Bogdan M, Coenen PDM, Johanson G, Osmanilev D, et al. Formoterol turbuhaler is effective and safe as maintenance or maintenance plus reliever therapy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1580.
Dahl 2001 {published data only}
  • Dahl R, Greefhorst AP, Byrne AM. Onset of inhaled formoterol compared to ipratropium bromide in patients with COPD. European Respiratory Journal 2000;16(Suppl 31):5s.
  • Dahl R, Greefhorst APM, Nowak D, Nonikov V, Byrne A, Colacchio C, et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of inhaled formoterol and ipratropium bromide in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000;161(Suppl 3):A489.
  • Dahl R, Greefhorst APM, Thomson MH, Till D. Formoterol (Foradil®) improves lung function and quality of life (QOL) parameters in patients with reversible or poorly reversible COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(Suppl 5):A280.
  • Dahl R, Greefhorst LA, Nowak D, Nonikov V, Byrne AM, Thomson MH, et al. Inhaled formoterol dry powder versus ipratropium bromide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2001;164(5):778-84. [1073-449X]
  • Dahl R, Kristufek P, Greefhorst APM, Amgott TR, Della Cioppa G, Thompson MH. The cardiac safety profile of formoterol dry powder is similar to placebo in patients with COPD. European Respiratory Journal 2000;16(Suppl 31):51s.
  • Greefhorst APM, Dahl R, Nowak D, Nonikov V, Byrne A, Colacchio C, et al. Effect of inhaled formoterol and ipratropium bromide on quality of life, "bad days" and exacerbations in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000;161(Suppl 3):A490.
  • Greefhorst APM, Dahl R, Nowak D, Nonikov V, Colacchio C, Byme AM. Formoterol dry powder improves the quality of life of patients with COPD whereas the effect of ipratropium bromide is similar to placebo. European Respiratory Journal 2000;16(Suppl 31):51s.
  • Greefhorst APM, Thomson MH, Byrne A, Till D. The efficacy of formoterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not influenced by concomitant corticosteroid use. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18(Suppl 33):515s.
  • Hogan TJ, Geddes R, Gonzalez ER. An economic assessment of inhaled formoterol dry powder versus ipratropium bromide pressurized metered dose inhaler in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clinical Therapeutics 2003;25(1):285-97. [0149-2918]
Dahl 2010 {published data only}
  • Dahl R, Chung KF, Buhl R, Magnussen H, Nonikov V, Jack D, et al. Efficacy of a new once-daily long-acting inhaled beta2-agonist indacaterol versus twice-daily formoterol in COPD. Thorax 2010;65(6):473-9.
  • Dahl R, Kolman P, Jack D, Bleasdale P, Owen R, Higgins M, et al. Bronchodilator therapy with indacaterol once-daily in COPD: a 52-week comparison with formoterol [Abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2009 Sep 12-16; Vienna, E4350.
  • Jones PW, Mahler DA, Gale R, Owen R, Kramer B. Profiling the effects of indacaterol on dyspnoea and health status in patients with COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2011;105(6):892-9.
  • Magnussen H, Paggiaro P, Jack D, Owen R, Higgins M, Kramer B, et al. Bronchodilator treatment with indacaterol once-daily vs formoterol twice-daily in COPD: a 52-week study [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2009 May 15-20; San Diego, A6184 Poster 211.
  • Nonikov V, Verkindre C, Jack D, Bleasdale P, Owen R, Kramer B, et al. Indacaterol once-daily improves symptom control in COPD patients: a 52-week evaluation vs placebo (pbo) and formoterol (for) [Abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2009 Sep 12-16; Vienna, P2024.
Doherty 2012 {published data only}
  • Doherty D, Tashkin D, Kerwin E, Eduardo Matiz-Bueno C, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. Efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from two phase three 26-week trials [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):535A.
  • Doherty DE, Kerwin E, Tashkin DP, Matiz-Bueno CE, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. Combined mometasone furoate and formoterol in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): phase 3 efficacy and safety study [Abstract]. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2012;129(Suppl 2):AB75 [283]. [0091-6749]
  • Doherty DE, Tashkin DP, Kerwin E, Knorr BA, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. Effects of mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination formulation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): results from a 52-week phase III trial in subjects with moderate-to-very severe COPD. International Journal of COPD 2012;7:57-71.
  • Kerwin E, Tashkin D, Matiz-Bueno CE, Doherty D, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. Quality of life following 26 weeks of mometasone furoate/formoterol therapy: results from two phase three trials in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):558A.
  • Matiz-Bueno CE, Doherty D, Kerwin E, Tashkin D, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. The long-term safety characteristics of mometasone furoate/formoterol for the treatment of moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pooled findings from two 1-year multicenter clinical trials [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):548A.
  • Tashkin D, Doherty D, Kerwin E, Matiz-Bueno CE, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. The effect of mometasone furoate/formoterol combination therapy on chronic pbstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations: results from two phase three trials in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):549A.
  • Tashkin DP, Doherty DE, Kerwin E, Matiz-Bueno CE, Knorr B, Shekar T, et al. Efficacy and safety characteristics of mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: findings from pooled analysis of two randomized, 52-week placebo-controlled trials. International Journal of COPD 2012;7:73-86.
Hanania 2003 {published data only}
  • Ferguson G, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Troy S, Compton C, et al. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.
  • Ferguson GT, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Reisner C. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in COPD. Chest 2003;123(6):1817-24.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of the DISKUS formulations of salmeterol (SAL) 50mcg BID and fluticasone propionate (FP) 250mcg BID individually and in combination as salmeterol 50mcg/fluticasone propionate 250mcg BID (SFC 50/250) compared to placebo in COPD subjects. SFCA3007. http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/ (accessed 14 December 2012).
  • Hanania NA, Darken P, Horstman D, Reisner C, Lee B, Davis S, et al. The efficacy and safety of fluticasone propionate (250 microg)/salmeterol (50 microg) combined in the Diskus inhaler for the treatment of COPD. Chest 2003;124(3):834-43.
  • Hanania NA, Knobil K, Watkins M, Wire P, Yates J, Darken P. Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate therapy administered by a single diskus in patients with COPD. [Abstract]. Chest; 2002 Nov 2-7; San Diego, S129.
  • Hanania NA, Ramsdell J, Payne K, Davis S, Horstman D, Lee B, et al. Improvements in airflow & dyspnea in COPD patients following 24 weeks treatment with salmeterol 50µg & fluticasone propionate 250µg alone or in combination via the diskus®. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(Suppl 5):A279.
  • Horstman D, Darken P, Davis S, Lee B. Improvements in FEV1 and symptoms in poorly reversible COPD patients following treatment with salmeterol 50mcg/fluticasone propionate 250mcg combination [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract No. P434.
  • Knobil K, Yates J, Horstman D, Darken P, Wire P. Combination of fluticasone and salmeterol (Advair Diskus®) improves cough in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest; 2002 Nov 2-7; San Diego, P288.
  • Mahler DA, Darken P, Brown CP, Knobil K. Predicting lung function responses to combination therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [Abstract]. National COPD Conference; 2003 Nov 14-15; Virginia, Abstract 1081.
  • Mahler DA, Darken P, Brown CP, Knobil K. Predicting lung function responses to salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination therapy in COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract P429.
  • Spencer M, Wire P, Lee B, Chang C, Darken P, Hortsman D. Patients with COPD using salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination therapy experience improved quality of life [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract P438.
  • Spencer MD, Karia N, Anderson J. The clinical significance of treatment benefits with the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/500mcg combination in COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):290s.
Hanrahan 2008 {published data only}
  • Baumgartner RA, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Hanrahan JP. Nebulized arformoterol in patients with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clinical Therapeutics 2007;29(2):261-78.
  • Grogan DR, Hanrahan JP, Morganroth J, Cheng H, Baumgartner RA. Arrythmias in COPD: Holter monitoring results from 2 arformoterol pivotal trials [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, Poster 413.
  • Hanrahan JP, Grogan DR, Baumgartner RA, Wilson A, Cheng H, Zimetbaum PJ, et al. Arrhythmias in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): occurrence frequency and the effect of treatment with the inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists arformoterol and salmeterol. Medicine 2008;87(6):319-28.
  • Hanrahan JP, Hanania NA, Calhoun WJ, Sahn SA, Sciarappa K, Baumgartner RA. Effect of nebulized arformoterol on airway function in COPD: results from two randomized trials. Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2008;5(1):25-34.
  • Hanrahan JP, Kerwin E, Cheng H, Grogan DR, Baumgartner RA. Arformoterol in COPD safety results from two pooled phase 3 trials [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):428s [P2500].
  • Hanrahan JP, Sahn SA, Busse WW, Sciarappa K, Baumgartner RA. Efficacy of nebulized arformoterol: a long acting B2 adrenergic bronchodilator in patients with COPD [abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):215s [P1276].
  • Hanrahan JP, Sahn SA, Fogarty CM, Sciarappa K, Baumgartner RA. Efficacy and safety of arformoterol in COPD: a prospective phase 3 clinical trial [Abstract]. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society; 2006 May 19-24; San Diego, A847 Poster 509.
  • Hanrahan JP, Smith WB, Sciarappa K, McVicar WK, Baumgartner RA. Efficacy and safety of nebulized arformoterol in COPD: a prospective, phase III clinical trial [Abstract]. Chest 2006;130(4):181s.
  • Sciurba FC, Baumgartner RA, Sciarappa K, Benzo RP, Hanrahan JP. Degree of exercise limitation in COPD impact on 6 minute walk in response to long acting b agonist (LABA) treatment [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2007;30(Suppl 51):76s [P596].
  • Sepracor. A double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled, multicenter, parallel group study of (R,R)-formoterol in the treatment of subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NCT00064402 and NCT00064415. www.clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 20 November 2012).
Kornmann 2011 {published data only}
  • Kornmann O, Dahl R, Centanni S, Dogra A, Owen R, Lassen C, et al. Once-daily indacaterol versus twice-daily salmeterol for COPD: a placebo-controlled comparison. European Respiratory Journal 2011;37(2):273-9.
  • Kornmann O, Luthra A, Owen R, Lassen C, Kramer B. Once-daily indacaterol provides superior bronchodilation, health status and clinical outcomes compared with salmeterol in patients with chronic obstructive COPD: a 26-week placebo-controlled study. Chest 2009;136(4):152S.
Mahler 1999 {published data only}
  • Ferguson G, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Troy S, Compton C, et al. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.
  • Ferguson GT, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Reisner C. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in COPD. Chest 2003;123(6):1817-24.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, comparative clinical trial of 12-week courses of salmeterol xinafoate versus ipratropium bromide versus placebo (PRN Ventolin) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. SLGA4005. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 20 December 2012).
  • Mahler DA, Donohue JF, Barbee RA, Goldman MD, Gross NJ, Wisniewski ME, et al. Efficacy of salmeterol xinafoate in the treatment of COPD. Chest 1999;115(4):957-65.
Mahler 2002 {published data only}
  • Ferguson G, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Troy S, Compton C, et al. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.
  • Ferguson GT, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Reisner C. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in COPD. Chest 2003;123(6):1817-24.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of the DISKUS formulations of salmeterol (SAL) 50mcg BID and fluticasone propionate (FP) 500mcg BID individually and in combination as salmeterol 50mcg/fluticasone propionate 500mcg BID (SFC 50/500) compared to placebo in COPD subjects. SFCA3006. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 10 December 2012).
  • Littner M, Yates J, Fischer T, Horstman D, Wire P. Improvements in FEV1 and symptoms in poorly-reversible COPD patients following 24 weeks of treatment with the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination 50/500 BID via the Diskus™ inhaler. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18(Suppl 33):176s.
  • Mahler DA, Wire P, Horstman D, Chang CN, Yates J, Fischer T, et al. Effectiveness of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combination delivered via the Diskus device in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;166(8):1084-91. [1073-449X]
  • Mahler DA, Wong E, Giessel G, Clifford D, Chang C, Yates J, et al. Improvements in FEV1 and symptoms in COPD patients following 24 weeks of twice daily treatment with salmeterol 50/ fluticasone propionate 500 combination. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(Suppl 5):A279.
  • Spencer M, Wire P, Lee B, Chang C, Darken P, Hortsman D. Patients with COPD using salmeterol/fluticasone propionate combination therapy experience improved quality of life [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract P438.
  • Spencer MD, Anderson JA. Salmeterol/fluticasone combination produces clinically important benefits in dyspnea and fatigue [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2005 May 20-25; San Diego, B93 Poster 308.
  • Spencer MD, Karia N, Anderson J. The clinical significance of treatment benefits with the salmeterol/fluticasone propionate 50/500mcg combination in COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2004;24(Suppl 48):290s.
Nelson 2007 {published data only}
  • Gross NJ, Lapidus R, Dunn LJ, Lynn LD, Denis-Mize K, Rinehart M. Nebulized formoterol is an effective bronchodilator and improves the quality of life for COPD patients [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, Poster A10.
  • Gross NJ, Nelson HS, Lapidus RJ, Dunn L, Lynn L, Rinehart M, et al. Efficacy and safety of formoterol fumarate delivered by nebulization to COPD patients. Respiratory Medicine 2008;102(2):189-97.
  • Nelson HS, Gross NJ, Levine B, Kerwin EM, Rinehart M, Denis-Mize K, et al. Cardiac safety profile of nebulized formoterol in adults with COPD: a 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo- and active-controlled trial. Clinical Therapeutics 2007;29(10):2167-78.
  • Nelson HS, Gross NJ, Rinehart M, Denis-Mize K. Cardiovascular safety of nebulized formoterol in COPD patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Chest 2007;132(4):529b-530.
  • Nelson HS, ZuWallack R, Levine B, Kerwin EM, Denis-Mize K, Rinehart M. Safety profile of formoterol fumarate delivered by nebulization to COPD patients [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society International Conference; 2007 May 18-23; San Francisco, Poster A11.
Rennard 2001 {published data only}
  • Ferguson G, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Troy S, Compton C, et al. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.
  • Ferguson GT, Funck-Brentano C, Fischer T, Darken P, Reisner C. Cardiovascular safety of salmeterol in COPD. Chest 2003;123(6):1817-24.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, comparative clinical trial of 12-week courses of salmeterol xinafoate versus ipratropium bromide versus placebo (PRN Ventolin®) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. SLGA4004. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 7 December 2012).
  • Rennard SI, Anderson W, ZuWallack R, Broughton J, Bailey W, Friedman M, et al. Use of a long-acting inhaled beta2-adrenergic agonist, salmeterol xinafoate, in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(5):1087-92.
Rennard 2009 {published data only}
  • Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Bailey WC, Sims AM, Bujac SR, Goldman M, et al. ADRB2 polymorphisms and budesonide/formoterol responses in COPD. Chest 2012;142(2):320-8. [1931-3543: (Electronic)]
  • Celli BR, Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, McElhattan J, Martin UJ. Bronchodilator responsiveness and onset of effect with budesonide/formoterol pMDI in COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2011;105(8):1176-88.
  • Laties A, Rennard SI, Tashkin DP, Suchower LJ, Martin UJ. Effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (bud/fm pMDI) on ophthalmologic assessments in moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients: results from a 1-year, randomized, controlled clinical trial [Abstract]. Chest 2010;138(4):468A.
  • Nelson HS, Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, Martin P, Goldman M, Silkoff PE. Onset of bronchodilation with budesonide and formoterol administered in one pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest 2008;134(4):105002s.
  • Rennard SI, Tashkin DP, McElhattan J, Goldman M, Ramachandran S, Martin UJ, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of budesonide/formoterol in one hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a 1-year randomized controlled clinical trial. Drugs 2009;69(5):549-65. [0012-6667]
  • Rennard SI, Tashkin DP, McElhattan J, Goldman M, Silkoff PE. Long-term tolerability of budesonide and formoterol administered in one pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest 2008;134(4):103003s.
  • Rennard SI, Tashkin DP, Suchower LJ, Martin UJ. Effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (BUD/FM pMDI) on bone mineral density (BMD) in moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients: results from a 1-year, randomized, controlled clinical trial [Abstract]. Chest 2010;138(4):863A.
Rossi 2002 {published data only}
  • Amgott TR, Kristufek P, Levine B, Byrne A, Till D. Effect of inhaled formoterol and oral slow-release theophylline on peak expiratory flow and symptoms in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000;161(Suppl 3):A582.
  • Kristufek P, Amgott TR, Levine B, Byrne A, Colacchio C. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of inhaled formoterol dry powder and oral slow-release theophylline in patients with COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000;161(Suppl 3):A489.
  • Kristufek P, Levine B, Della Cioppa G, Byrne A, Till D. Bronchodilatory effects of formoterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not influenced by concomitant corticosteroid use. European Respiratory Journal 2001;18(Suppl 33):514s.
  • Kristufek P, Levine B, Till D, Byrne A. Inhaled formoterol (Foradil®) improves lung function in patients with both reversible and poorly reversible COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2001;163(Suppl 5):A280.
  • Rossi A, Kristufek P, Levine BE, Thomson MH, Till D, Kottakis J, et al. Comparison of the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of formoterol dry powder and oral, slow-release theophylline in the treatment of COPD. Chest 2002;121(4):1058-69. [0012-3692]
SLMF4010 2005 {published data only}
  • GlaxoSmithKline. Multicentre, randomised, parallel group, placebo-controlled, double-blind study, stratified on tobacco status at enrolment, evaluating during 6 months the efficacy of salmeterol powder for inhalation, 50µg two times per day for the reduction of thoracic distension in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SLMF4010. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 9 December 2012).
Szafranski 2003 {published data only}
  • Anderson P. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler (Symbicort®) provides early and sustained improvement in lung function in moderate to severe COPD. Thorax 2002;57(Suppl 3):iii43.
  • AstraZeneca SD. A placebo-controlled 12 month efficacy study of the fixed combination budesonide/formoterol compared with budesonide and formoterol as monotherapies in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SD-039-CR-0629. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/ (accessed 25 November 2012).
  • Borgstrom L, Asking L, Olsson H, Peterson S. Lack of interaction between disease severity and therapeutic response with budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference; 2004 May 21-26; Orlando, C22 Poster 505.
  • Calverley P, Pauwels Dagger R, Lofdahl CG, Svensson K, Higenbottam T, Carlsson LG, et al. Relationship between respiratory symptoms and medical treatment in exacerbations of COPD. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(3):406-13. [0903-1936]
  • Calverley PM, Szafranski W, Andersson. Budesonide/formoterol is a well-tolerated long term maintenance therapy for COPD [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2005;26(Suppl 49):Abstract 1917.
  • Calverley PMA. Effect of budesonide/formoterol on severe exacerbations and lung function in moderate to severe COPD. Thorax 2002;57(Suppl 3):iii44.
  • Calverley PMA, Thompson NC, Olsson H. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler sustains lung function improvements in COPD[Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2003;22(Suppl 45):Abstract P435.
  • Campbell LM, Szafranski W. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler (Symbicort®) provides sustained relief from symptoms in moderate to severe COPD. Thorax 2002;57(Suppl 3):iii43.
  • Dahl R, Cukier A, Olsson H. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler reduces severe and mild exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe COPD [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1575.
  • Egede F, Menga G. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler provides sustained relief from symptoms and night-time awakenings in moderate to severe COPD: results from a 1-year study [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1574.
  • Halpin D, Stahl E, Lundback B, Anderson F, Peterson S. Treatment costs and number needed to treat (NNT) with budesonide/formoterol to avoid one exacerbation of COPD [Abstract]. American Thoracic Society 100th International Conference; 2004 May 21-26; Orlando, D22 Poster 525.
  • Jones PW, Stahl E, Svensson K. Improvement in health status in patients with moderate to severe COPD after treatment with budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1613.
  • Korsgaard J, Sansores R. Budesonide/formoterol (single inhaler) provides sustained relief from shortness of breath and chest tightness in a 1-year study of patients with moderate to severe COPD [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1577.
  • Lange P, Saenz C. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler is well tolerated in patients with moderate to severe COPD: results of a 1-year study [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1573.
  • Lofdahl CG. Reducing the impact of COPD exacerbations: clinical efficacy of budesonide/formoterol. European Respiratory Review 2004;13(88):14-21.
  • Milanowski J, Nahabedian S. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler acts rapidly to improve lung function and relieve symptoms in patients with moderate to severe COPD [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1576.
  • Szafranski W, Cukier A, Ramirez A, Menga G, Sansores R, Nahabedian S, et al. Efficacy and safety of budesonide/formoterol in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. European Respiratory Journal 2003;21(1):74-81. [0903-1936]
  • Szafranski W, Ramirez A, Peterson S. Budesonide/formoterol in a single inhaler provides sustained improvements in lung function in patients with moderate to severe COPD [abstract]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P2453.
Tashkin 2008 [SHINE] {published data only}
  • AstraZeneca. A 6-month double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, parallel group, multicenter efficacy & safety study of SYMBICORT® pMDI 2 x 160/4.5mg & 80/4.5mg bid compared to formoterol TBH, budesonide pMDI (& the combination) & placebo in COPD patients. D5899C00002. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/ (accessed23 November 2012).
  • Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Bailey WC, Sims AM, Bujac SR, Goldman M, et al. Effect of β2-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism Gly16Arg on response to budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2011;183:A4086.
  • Celli BR, Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, McElhattan J, Martin UJ. Bronchodilator responsiveness and onset of effect with budesonide/formoterol pMDI in COPD. Respiratory Medicine 2011;105(8):1176-88.
  • Nelson HS, Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, Martin P, Goldman M, Silkoff PE. Onset of bronchodilation with budesonide and formoterol administered in one pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest 2008;134(4):105002s.
  • Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, Martin P, Goldman M, Silkoff PE. Efficacy of budesonide/formoterol administered via one pressurized metered-dose inhaler over 6 months in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest 2008;134(4):105001s.
  • Tashkin DP, Rennard SI, Martin P, Ramachandran S, Martin UJ, Silkoff PE, et al. Efficacy and safety of budesonide and formoterol in one pressurized metered-dose inhaler in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : results of a 6-month randomized clinical trial. Drugs 2008;68(14):1975-2000. [0012-6667: (Print)]
Tashkin 2012 {published data only}
  • Doherty D, Tashkin D, Kerwin E, Eduardo Matiz-Bueno C, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. Efficacy and safety of mometasone furoate/formoterol in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from two phase three 26-week trials [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):535A.
  • Kerwin E, Tashkin D, Matiz-Bueno CE, Doherty D, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. Quality of life following 26 weeks of mometasone furoate/formoterol therapy: results from two phase three trials in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):558A.
  • Matiz-Bueno CE, Doherty D, Kerwin E, Tashkin D, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. The long-term safety characteristics of mometasone furoate/formoterol for the treatment of moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: pooled findings from two 1-year multicenter clinical trials [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):548A.
  • Tashkin D, Doherty D, Kerwin E, Matiz-Bueno CE, Shekar T, Banerjee S, et al. The effect of mometasone furoate/formoterol combination therapy on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations: results from two phase three trials in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD [Abstract]. Chest 2011;140(4):549A.
  • Tashkin DP, Doherty DE, Kerwin E, Matiz-Bueno CE, Knorr B, Shekar T, et al. Efficacy and safety characteristics of mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate fixed-dose combination in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: findings from pooled analysis of two randomized, 52-week placebo-controlled trials. International Journal of COPD 2012;7:73-86.
  • Tashkin DP, Doherty DE, Kerwin E, Matiz-Bueno CE, Knorr B, Shekar T, et al. Efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: results from a 52-week phase III trial. International Journal of COPD 2012;7:43-55.
Vogelmeier 2008 {published data only}
  • Arievich H, Potena A, Fonay K, Vogelmeier CF, Overend T, Smith J, et al. Formoterol given either alone or together with tiotropium reduces the rate of exacerbations in stable COPD patients [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):440s [P2514].
  • Vogelmeier C, Kardos P, Harari S, Gans SJ, Stenglein S, Thirlwell J. Formoterol mono- and combination therapy with tiotropium in patients with COPD: a 6-month study. Respiratory Medicine 2008;102(11):1511-20.
  • Vogelmeier CF, Harari SA, Fonay K, Beier J, Overend T, Till D, et al. Formoterol and tiotropium both improve lung function in stable COPD patients with some additional benefit when given together [Abstract]. European Respiratory Journal 2006;28(Suppl 50):429s [P2506].
Wadbo 2002 {published data only}
  • Wadbo M, Lofdahl CG, Larsson K, Skoogh BE, Tornling G, Arwestrom E, et al. Effects of formoterol and ipratropium bromide in COPD: a 3-month placebo-controlled study. European Respiratory Journal 2002;20(5):1138-46. [0903-1936]
Watkins 2002 {published data only}
  • Watkins M, Wire P, Yates J, Fischer T, Chang C, Horstman D, et al. Sustained Fev increases in COPD patients induced by Salmeterol 50 mcg twice daily via the diskus inhaler. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.

References to studies excluded from this review

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Boyd 1995 {published data only}
  • Boyd G, Crawford C. Salmeterol (SALM) for treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). European Respiratory Journal 1995;8(Suppl 19):167S.
  • Boyd G, Morice AH, Pounsford JC, Siebert M, Peslis N, Crawford C. An evaluation of salmeterol in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [published erratum appears in European Respiratory Journal 1997 Jul;10(7):1696]. European Respiratory Journal 1997;10(4):815-21.
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A multicentre, randomised, double-blind, parallel group study to compare the efficacy and safety of inhaled salmeterol xinafoate 50 microg bd and inhaled salmeterol xinafoate 100 microg bd with placebo, all administered via the metered-dose inhaler, in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 11 December 2012).
  • Jones PW, Bosh TK. Quality of life changes in COPD patients treated with salmeterol. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1997;155(4):1283-9.
  • Jones PW, Wilson K, Sondhi S. Cost-effectiveness of salmeterol in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: An economic evaluation. Respiratory Medicine 2003;97(1):20-6. [0954-6111]
  • Jones PW, Wilson KK, Sondhi S. Economic evaluation of salmeterol xinafoate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) demonstrating improved outcomes and health. European Respiratory Journal 2000;16(Suppl 31):56s.
Celli 2003 {published data only}
  • Celli B, Halpin D, Hepburn R, Byrne N, Keating ET, Goldman M. Symptoms are an important outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease clinical trials: results of a 3-month comparative study using the Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS). Respiratory Medicine 2003;97(Suppl A):S35-43. [0954-6111]
Chapman 2002 {published data only}
  • Chapman K, Kuipers AF, Goldstein R, James MH. The addition of salmeterol 50mcg bid to anticholinergic treatment in COPD [Abstract]. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1999;159(3):A523.
  • Chapman KR, Arvidsson P, Chuchalin AG, Dhillon DP, Faurschou P, Goldstein RS, et al. The addition of salmeterol 50 microg bid to anticholinergic treatment in patients with COPD: a randomized, placebo controlled trial. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Canadian Respiratory Journal 2002;9(3):178-85. [1198-2241]
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A multi-centre, double-blind, parallel group study to evaluate the efficacy of SEREVENT 50 microg BID versus placebo BID all administered via the multi dose powder inhaler (DISKUS/ACCUHALERÆË) in terms of symptoms in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 15 December 2012).
Dal Negro 2003 {published data only}
  • Dal Negro R, Micheletto C, Trevisan F, Tognella S, Pomari C. Salmeterol & fluticasone 50 µg/250 µg bid vs salmeterol 50µg bid and vs placebo in the long-term treatment of COPD. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2002;165(Suppl 8):A228.
  • Dal Negro RW, Pomari C, Tognella S, Micheletto C. Salmeterol & fluticasone 50 mug/250 mug bid in combination provides a better long-term control than salmeterol 50 mug bid alone and placebo in COPD patients already treated with theophylline. Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 2003;16(4):241-6.
Rutten-van Molken 1999 {published data only}
  • GlaxoSmithKline. Long-term treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with salmeterol and the additive effect of ipratropium. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 8 December 2012).
  • Rutten-van Molken M, Roos B, Van Noord JA. An empirical comparison of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ) in a clinical trial setting. Thorax 1999;54(11):995-1003.
  • Stahl E, Wadbo M, Bengtsson T, Strom K, Lofdahl CG. Health-related quality of life, symptoms, exercise capacity and lung function during treatment for moderate to severe COPD. Journal of Outcomes Research 2001;5:11-24.
  • van Noord JA, de Munck D, Bantje TA, Hop WCJ, Bommer AM. Efficacy and safety of salmeterol (SLM) and ipratropium bromide (IPB) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1998;157(Suppl 3):A799.
  • van Noord JA, de Munck DR, Bantje TA, Hop WC, Akveld ML, Bommer AM. Long-term treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with salmeterol and the additive effect of ipratropium. European Respiratory Journal 2000;15(5):878-85.
Steffensen 1996 {published data only}
  • Steffensen I, Faurschou P, Riska H, Rostrup J, Wegener T. Inhaled formoterol dry powder in the treatment of patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. A 3-month, placebo-controlled comparison of the efficacy and safety of formoterol and salbutamol, followed by a 12-month trial with formoterol. Allergy 1995;50(8):657-63. [0105-4538: (Print)]
  • Steffensen IE, Faurschou P. Formoterol as inhalation powder in the treatment of patients with reversible obstructive lung diseases. A 3-month placebo-controlled comparison of the effects of formoterol and salbutamol, followed by a 12-month period with formoterol alone. Ugeskr-Laeger 1996;158(49):7092-6.
Stockley 2006 {published data only}
  • GlaxoSmithKline. A multi-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to investigate the effect of 12 months treatment with salmeterol (50mcg bd), delivered via the DISKUS* inhaler, on the incidence of moderate and severe exacerbations in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when added to their usual treatment regimen. www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com (accessed 8 December 2012).
  • Stockley R, Davis EA, Sondhi S, Rice L. [Salmeterol provides sustained health status improvement over 12 months in patients with COPD [abstract]]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1567.
  • Stockley R, Rice L, Chopra N. [Salmeterol added to usual therapy gives a rapid improvement in lung function that is sustained at 6 and 12 months in patients with COPD [abstract]]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, A035 Poster D71.
  • Stockley R, Rice L, Chopra N. [Salmeterol added to usual therapy significantly reduces the frequency of moderate/severe exacerbations in patients with COPD [abstract]]. American Thoracic Society 99th International Conference; 2003 May 16-21; Seattle, A108 Poster C51.
  • Stockley RA, Chopra N. [Salmeterol, added to usual therapy, is an effective bronchodilator over 12 months of treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) [abstract]]. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress; 2002 Sep 14-18; Stockholm, Abstract P1568.
  • Stockley RA, Chopra N, Rice L. Addition of salmeterol to existing treatment in patients with COPD: a 12 month study. Thorax 2006;61(2):122-8.

References to studies awaiting assessment

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Fattore 2005 {published data only}
  • Fattore G, Torbica A, Mangone M. Cost-analysis of four treatment strategies in the management of moderate-to-severe COPD: an application of non-parametric bootstrap. [Italian]. Pharmacoeconomics Italian Research Articles 2005; Vol. 7, issue 2:135-43. [1590-9158]

References to ongoing studies

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
NCT01437397 {unpublished data only}
  • NCT01437397. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate compared with formoterol fumarate in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (LAC). clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 30 July 2013).
NCT01572792 {unpublished data only}
  • NCT01572792. Efficacy, safety and tolerability of two fixed dose combinations of aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate, aclidinium bromide, formoterol fumarate and placebo for 28-weeks treatment in patients with moderate to severe, stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). clinicaltrials.gov (accessed 30 July 2013).

Additional references

  1. References to studies included in this review
  2. References to studies excluded from this review
  3. References to studies awaiting assessment
  4. References to ongoing studies
  5. Additional references
Appleton 2006
  • Appleton S, Poole P, Smith B, Veale A, Lasserson TJ, Chan MMK, et al. Long-acting beta2-agonists for poorly reversible chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001104.pub2]
AstraZeneca
  • AstraZeneca. AstraZeneca clinical trials. http://www.astrazenecaclinicaltrials.com/ (accessed 15 November 2012).
ATS/ERS 2011
  • Qaseem A, Wilt TJ, Weinberger SE, Hanania NA, Criner G, van der Molen T, et al. Diagnosis and management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a clinical practice guideline update from the American College of Physicians, American College of Chest Physicians, American Thoracic Society, and European Respiratory Society. Annals of Internal Medicine 2011;155(3):179-91.
Beeh 2010
  • Beeh KM, Beier J. The short, the long and the "ultra-long": why duration of bronchodilator action matters in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Advances in Therapy 2010;27(3):150-9.
Berger 2008
BNF 2009
  • British Medical Association and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. British National Formulary. British National Formulary. 8th Edition. UK: BMJ Publishing Group, 2009.
Calverley 2003
Cheyne 2012
  • Cheyne L, Irvin-Sellers MJ, White J. Tiotropium versus ipratropium bromide for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009552]
Chong 2011
Chong 2012
Effing 2007
Geake 2012
  • Geake JB, Dabscheck EJ, Wood-Baker R. Indacaterol, a once-daily beta2-agonist, versus twice-daily beta-agonists or placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 10. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010139]
GlaxoSmithKline
  • GlaxoSmithKline. GSK clinical study register. http://www.gsk-clinicalstudyregister.com/ (accessed 15 November 2012).
GOLD 2013
  • Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. From the Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) 2013. http://www.goldcopd.com (accessed 9/10/13).
Higgins 2009
  • Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011 ]. The Cochrane Collaboration, www.cochrane-handbook.org, 2009.
Hutchinson 2010
  • Hutchinson A, Brand C, Irving L, Roberts C, Thompson P, Campbell D. Acute care costs of patients admitted for management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations: contribution of disease severity, infection and chronic heart failure. Internal Medicine Journal 2010;40(5):364-71.
Karner 2011
Karner 2011a
  • Karner C, Cates CJ. Combination inhaled steroid and long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus tiotropium or combination alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 3. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008532.pub2]
Karner 2012
  • Karner C, Cates CJ. Long-acting beta2-agonist in addition to tiotropium versus either tiotropium or long-acting beta2-agonist alone for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 4. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008989.pub2]
Karner 2012a
Karner 2012b
  • Karner C, Seniukovich A. Inhaled steroids and risk of pneumonia for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 9. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010115]
Kliber 2010
  • Kliber A, Lynd LD, Sin DD. The effects of long-acting bronchodilators on total mortality in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory Research 2010;11(1):56-69.
Lacasse 2006
Nannini 2010
  • Nannini LJ, Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ, Poole P. Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus inhaled steroids for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006826]
Nannini 2010a
  • Nannini LJ, Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ, Poole P. Combined corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist in one inhaler versus placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2010, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003794.pub3]
Nannini 2012
NICE 2010
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Costing report, Implementing NICE guidance. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG101/CostingReport/pdf/English (accessed 17 December 2012).
NICE 2011
  • National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. CG101 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (update): NICE guideline. http://guidance.nice.org.uk/CG101/NICEGuidance/pdf/English (accessed 17 November 2012).
Puhan 2011
Rodrigo 2008
Song 2010
  • Song F, Parekh S, Hooper L, Loke Y, Ryder J, Sutton A, et al. Dissemination and publication of research findings: an updated review of related biases. Health Technology Assessment 2010;iii, ix-xi:1-193. [DOI: 10.3310/hta14080]
Spencer 2011
  • Spencer S, Karner C, Cates CJ, Evans DJ. Inhaled corticosteroids versus long-acting beta2-agonists for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 12. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007033.pub3]
Stockley 2006a
  • Stockley RA, Whitehead PJ, Williams MK. Improved outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with salmeterol compared with placebo/usual therapy: results of a meta-analysis. Respiratory Research 2006;7:147. [1465-993X: (Electronic)]
van der Meer 2001
  • van der Meer RM, Wagena E, Ostelo RWJG, Jacobs AJE, van Schayck OP. Smoking cessation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2001, Issue 1. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002999]
Wang 2012
Welsh 2011
  • Welsh EJ, Cates CJ, Poole P. Combination inhaled steroid and long-acting beta2-agonist versus tiotropium for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 7. [DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD007891.pub2]
WHO
  • World Health Organization. Chronic respiratory diseases. www.who.int (accessed 20 November 2012).
Yang 2012